Photo of a protestor carrying a sign reading DEFEND Affirmative Action!!!

Grutter v. Bollinger;
Gratz v. Bollinger

The use of affirmative action in school admission is constitutional if it treats race as one factor among many, its purpose is to achieve a "diverse" class, and it does not substitute for individualized review of applicant, but is unconstitutional if it automatically increases an applicant's chances over others simply because of his or her race...

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