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Henry R. Silverman Professor of Law and Professor of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania

Anita Allen is a leading expert on privacy law and contemporary ethics. She is also recognized for her scholarship in the areas of legal philosophy, law and literature, women's rights, and race relations. Allen is the author of Why Privacy Isn't Everything: Feminist Reflections on Personal Accountability (2003); Privacy Law: Cases and Materials (with Richard Turkington, 2002); Uneasy Access: Privacy for Women in a Free Society (1988); and The New Ethics: A Guided Tour of the 21st Century Moral Landscape (2004). With Milton Regan, she is an editor of Debating Democracy's Discontent (1998). Allen has published more than 80 articles and essays. Her monthly newspaper column, "The Moralist," appears in The Star-Ledger.

Allen has been a visiting professor at Harvard, Villanova, Yale, Princeton, and Arizona. She has been a distinguished visiting faculty at Hofstra. She has been a recipient of fellowships from Princeton's Program in Law and Public Affairs, the Ford Foundation, the American Association of University Women, and the American Council of Learned Societies. Allen serves as a consultant to law firms, businesses and government. She has lectured at major colleges and universities across the U.S. and is an ethics commentator for MSNBC and appears on the MSNBC program, The Ethical Edge.

Southmayd Professor of Law, Yale Law School

Akhil Reed Amar teaches constitutional law to both undergraduates and law students at Yale. A graduate of Yale College and Yale Law School, and a former clerk for Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, he has delivered endowed lectures at more than two dozen universities.

His many law review articles have been widely cited by scholars and judges, and he has also written widely on constitutional issues for lay audiences in such publications as The New York Times, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, The New Republic, The American Lawyer, and Slate. His many books include America's Constitution: A Biography (2005) and The Bill of Rights: Creation and Reconstruction (1998).

Author and Journalist

Joan Biskupic has covered the Supreme Court since 1989. Her biography of retired Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, Sandra Day O'Connor: How the First Woman on the Court Became Its Most Influential Justice, was published in 2005. Before joining USA Today in June 2000, she was the Supreme Court reporter for The Washington Post (1992-2000) and legal affairs writer for Congressional Quarterly (1989-1992). Prior to that, she covered government and politics for newspapers in Wisconsin and Oklahoma. Biskupic holds a law degree from Georgetown University, a master's in English from the University of Oklahoma and a bachelor's in journalism from Marquette University. She is the author of several reference books, including Congressional Quarterly's two-volume encyclopedia on the Supreme Court (with co-author Elder Witt, 1997).

U.S. District Court Judge

Robert Carter is U.S. District Judge for the Southern District of New York and a pillar of the civil rights movement. Born in Florida and raised in New Jersey, Carter earned his bachelor's degree from Lincoln University and his law degree from Howard University. He studied further at Columbia University as a Rosenwald Fellow. He served in the United States Army Air Corps as second lieutenant from 1941 to 1944. Carter began his 24-year career with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1944 as a legal assistant. He became assistant special counsel (NAACP) and assistant counsel (NAACP Legal Defense Fund) in 1945, and NAACP general counsel in 1956.

While counsel for the NAACP and assistant counsel for the Legal Defense Fund, Carter was part of the legal team that planned the strategies and argued the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education, which outlawed segregation in public education. Carter won an unprecedented 21 of 22 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. Other cases included McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, which led to the desegregation of higher education; Gomillion v. Lightfoot, which was the first successful gerrymandering case decided on racial grounds; NAACP v. Alabama and NAACP v. Button, which advanced freedom of association rulings; and South Carolina Electric & Gas v. Fleming, which outlawed segregation in intrastate transportation.

After leaving the NAACP in 1968, Carter became a fellow in urban studies at Columbia University. He then joined the New York law firm of Poletti, Freidin, Prashker, Feldman & Gartner in 1968. President Richard Nixon appointed Carter to the federal bench in 1972. Carter has also served as an adjunct member of the faculty at CUNY School of Law, University of Michigan Law School, and New York University Law School, as well as a visiting lecturer from 1975 to 1977 at Yale.

Carter has written extensively about discrimination in the United States, particularly in public education, and of his longtime friend and colleague, Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall. Carter has written and lectured on the systemic racial discrimination that exists throughout the state and federal criminal justice systems and the impact these practices have on the U.S. He is a co-founder of the National Conference of Black Lawyers and has served on numerous commissions and panels. He was a delegate to the United Nations Conference on Crime and Treatment of Offenders in Stockholm in 1965; a member of the American delegation to the Conference of African Jurists on African Legal Process; and a member of the New York State Special Commission on Attica, which investigated the 1971 prison riots. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including the 1995 Federal Bar Council's Emory Buckner Medal for Outstanding Public Service.

Attorney, Cooper & Kirk, PLLC

Charles Cooper is a founding member and chairman of Cooper & Kirk, PLLC. Named by The National Law Journal as one of the 10 best civil litigators in Washington, he has more than 25 years of legal experience in government and private practice, with several appearances before the U.S. Supreme Court and scores of other successful cases on both the trial and appellate levels.

Shortly after serving as law clerk to Judge Paul Roney of the Fifth (now Eleventh) Circuit Court of Appeals, and to then-Associate Justice William H. Rehnquist, Cooper joined the civil rights division of the U.S. Department of Justice in 1981. In 1985, President Ronald Reagan appointed Cooper assistant attorney general for the Office of Legal Counsel. Cooper re-entered private practice in 1988, as a partner in the Washington, D.C. office of McGuire Woods. From 1990 until the founding of Cooper & Kirk in 1996, he was a partner at Shaw, Pittman, Potts & Trowbridge, where he headed the firm's constitutional and government litigation group.

In 1998, Cooper was appointed by Rehnquist to serve as a member of the Standing Committee on Rules of Practice and Procedure of the Judicial Conference of the United States. Cooper is a member of the American Law Institute and the American Academy of Appellate Lawyers, and he has spoken and published extensively on a wide variety of constitutional and legal policy topics.

Partner, O'Melveny & Myers; Professor of Law, Duke University; Former Solicitor General of the U.S.

Walter Dellinger is head of the appellate practice at the law firm of O'Melveny & Myers in Washington, D.C. and is also the Douglas B. Maggs Professor of Law at Duke University.

After serving in early 1993 in the White House as an advisor to the president on constitutional issues, Dellinger was nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate to be assistant attorney general and head of the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC). During his three years as assistant attorney general he served as the department's principal legal advisor to the attorney general and the president. He served as acting solicitor general of the United States for the 1996-97 term of the U.S. Supreme Court. Dellinger argued nine cases before the court that term, the most by any solicitor general in more than 20 years.

Dellinger has published articles on constitutional issues for scholarly journals, including the Harvard Law Review, Yale Law Journal and the Duke Law Journal and has written articles for The New York Times, The Washington Post, Newsweek, New Republic, and The Times of London. He spent 1988-89 as a fellow at the National Humanities Center.

Lloyd M. Bentsen Chair in Law, Professor of History, University of Texas at Austin

William Forbath came to Texas in 1997 after more than a decade on the faculties of law and history at UCLA. Among the nation's leading legal and constitutional historians, he is the author of Law and the Shaping of the American Labor Movement (Harvard, 1991), the forthcoming Reclaiming the Constitution (Harvard, 2007), and more than 75 articles, book chapters and essays on legal and constitutional history and theory.

His scholarly work appears in Yale Law Journal, Harvard Law Review, Stanford Law Review, Law & Social Inquiry, and the Journal of American History. His articles appear in The American Prospect and The Nation. His current research concerns the history of U.S. immigration law and policies and the role of law in the creation of the modern American state. Forbath visited at Columbia Law School in 2001-02 and will be teaching at Harvard Law School in 2008-09. He is on the editorial boards of Law & History, Law & Social Inquiry and other journals, and on the board of directors of Texas Low-Income Housing Services, and other public interest organizations.

Professor of Political Science, History and Law, University of Southern California

Howard Gillman is a professor of political science, history and law, and associate vice provost for research advancement. He specializes in constitutionalism, the U.S. Supreme Court and judicial politics. His most recent book is The Votes that Counted: How the Court Decided the 2000 Presidential Election (University of Chicago Press, 2001). His first book, The Constitution Besieged: The Rise and Demise of Lochner Era Police Powers Jurisprudence (Duke University Press, 1993), received the C. Herman Pritchett Award for "best book in public law" from the law and courts section of the American Political Science Association. He is also co-editor and contributor to two other books on the Supreme Court: Supreme Court Decision-Making: New Institutionalist Approaches (University of Chicago Press, 1999) and The Supreme Court in American Politics: New Institutionalist Interpretations (University Press of Kansas, 1999).

Gillman has published numerous articles in journals such as The American Political Science Review, Political Research Quarterly, Law and Society Review, Law & Social Inquiry, and Studies in American Political Development. He has served on the editorial boards of Political Research Quarterly and Law & Social Inquiry.

He has twice received the Pi Sigma Alpha Award for "best paper" presented at the annual meeting of the Western Political Science Association. In 2001, he received the American Judicature Society Award for the best paper on law and courts presented the previous year at a national or regional political science conference. He has received a number of university and departmental awards for teaching excellence and dedication to students, including the university's highest recognition, the USC Associates Award for Excellence in Teaching (2001). Gillman received his Ph.D. from UCLA in 1988 and has been on the faculty at USC since 1990. In 2005, he became an elected trustee of the Law and Society Association. In 2006, he was elected to chair the law and courts section of the American Political Science Association.

Professor of Law, New York Law School; Professor of History, Rutgers University; Thomas Jefferson Biographer

Annette Gordon-Reed, a professor of law at New York Law School since 1992, is a leading presidential scholar. She wrote the acclaimed book, Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (University Press of Virginia, 1997). She co-authored Vernon Can Read! A Memoir (Public Affairs, 2001), with Vernon Jordan Jr. In her most recent book, Race on Trial: Law and Justice in American History, she edits 12 original essays that illustrate how race often determined the outcome of trials, and how trials that confront issues of racism provide a unique lens on American cultural history. Her latest book, The Hemings Family of Monticello: An American Story of Slavery (W.W. Norton Press) comes out in 2007.

Gordon-Reed studied Jefferson's life at Dartmouth College, where she majored in history, graduating in 1981. She attended Harvard Law School, where she was a member of the Harvard Law Review. She spent her early career as an associate at Cahill Gordon & Reindel, and as counsel to the New York City Board of Corrections. She speaks or moderates at numerous conferences across the country on history and law-related topics.

Harry Pratter Professor of Law, Indiana University School of Law-Bloomington

Joseph Hoffmann is an award-winning scholar and law teacher. He is a recipient of the Law School Gavel Award, the Ira Batman and John Hastings Faculty Fellowships and the university-wide Outstanding Young Faculty Award.

His courses include criminal law, criminal procedure, the law and society of Japan, a seminar on death penalty law, and a seminar on the law and psychology of criminal law. A nationally-recognized authority on the death penalty, Hoffmann has also written extensively about habeas corpus and criminal procedure law.

Hoffmann was a Fulbright professor in 1996 at the University of Tokyo, and in 1997-98 was a visiting professor at its International Center for Comparative Law and Politics. He was also a Fulbright professor at the universities of Erlangen and Jena in Germany in 2003-04. He received his B.A. from Harvard College in 1978 and his J.D. from the University of Washington in 1984. He clerked for the Hon. Phyllis A. Kravitch, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, from 1984-85; and for then-Associate Justice William H. Rehnquist, U.S. Supreme Court, from 1985-86.

White Burkett Miller Professor of Law and Public Affairs, University of Virginia

Born and raised in Richmond, Virginia, A. E. Dick Howard is a graduate of the University of Richmond and received his law degree from the University of Virginia. He was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University, where he read philosophy, politics and economics. After graduating from law school, he was a law clerk to Justice Hugo L. Black of the U.S. Supreme Court. Active in public affairs, Howard was executive director of the commission that wrote Virginia's new Constitution and directed the successful referendum campaign for ratification of that constitution. He has been counsel to the General Assembly of Virginia and a consultant to state and federal bodies, including the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee. From 1982 to 1986, he served as counselor to the Governor of Virginia, and he chaired Virginia's Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution.

Howard has been twice a fellow of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, in Washington, D.C. His recognitions include election as president of the Virginia Academy of Laureates and receiving the University of Virginia's Distinguished Professor Award for excellence in teaching. James Madison University, the University of Richmond, Campbell University, the College of William and Mary, and Wake Forest University have conferred upon him the honorary degree of doctor of laws. In the fall of 2001, he was the first distinguished visiting scholar in residence at Rhodes House, Oxford. An authority in constitutional law, Howard is the author of a number of books, articles, and monographs, including The Road from Runnymede: Magna Carta and Constitutionalism in America and Commentaries on the Constitution of Virginia, which won a Phi Beta Kappa prize. More recent works include Democracy's Dawn and Constitution-making in Eastern Europe.

Howard has briefed and argued cases before state and federal courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court. He is a regular guest on television news programs. During the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings on the nomination of Robert Bork to the Supreme Court, Howard did gavel-to-gavel coverage for the McNeil/Lehrer NewsHour. He also did the interviews with the justices for the film being shown to visitors to the Supreme Court building in Washington, D.C. Often consulted by constitutional draftsmen in other states and abroad, Howard has compared notes with revisers at work on new constitutions in numerous countries. In 1996, the Union of Czech Lawyers, citing Howard's promotion of the idea of a civil society in Central Europe, awarded him their Randa Medal, the first time this honor has been conferred upon anyone but a Czech citizen. In 2004, the Greater Richmond Chapter of the World Affairs Council conferred on him their George C. Marshall Award in International Law and Diplomacy. In January 1994, Washingtonian magazine named Howard one of the most respected educators in the nation.

Senior Managing Director, Lazard Frères & Co., LLC; Of Counsel, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP

At Lazard Frères & Co. LLC in New York, Vernon Jordan works with a diverse group of clients across a broad range of industries. Prior to joining Lazard, Jordan was a senior executive partner with the law firm of Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld, LLP, where he remains senior counsel. While there, Jordan practiced general, corporate, legislative, and international law in Washington, D.C.

Before Akin Gump, Jordan held the following positions: president and CEO of the National Urban League, Inc.; executive director of the United Negro College Fund, Inc.; director of the Voter Education Project of the Southern Regional Council; attorney-consultant, U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity; assistant to the executive director of the Southern Regional Council; Georgia field director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; and an attorney in private practice in Arkansas and Georgia.

Jordan's presidential appointments include the President's Advisory Committee for the Points of Light Initiative Foundation; the Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on South Africa; the Advisory Council on Social Security; the Presidential Clemency Board; the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission; the National Advisory Committee on Selective Service; and the Council of the White House Conference "To Fulfill These Rights." In 1992, Jordan served as the chairman of the Bill Clinton presidential transition team.

Jordan's corporate and other directorships include American Express Company; Asbury Automotive Group, Inc.; Howard University (trustee); J.C. Penney Company, Inc.; Lazard Ltd.; Xerox Corporation; and the International Advisory Board of Barrick Gold.

Jordan is a graduate of DePaul University and the Howard University Law School. He holds honorary degrees from more than 60 colleges and universities in America. He is a member of the bars of Arkansas, the District of Columbia, Georgia, and the U.S. Supreme Court. He is a member of the American Bar Association, the National Bar Association, the Council on Foreign Relations, and The Bilderberg Meetings, and he is president of The Economic Club of Washington, D.C. Jordan is the author of Vernon Can Read! A Memoir, with Annette Gordon-Reed (Public Affairs, 2001).

James Monroe Distinguished Professor of Law and Professor of History, University of Virginia

Michael Klarman joined the Virginia faculty in 1987. He teaches criminal law, constitutional law, constitutional theory, and constitutional history. He held the Class of 1966 Research Professorship from 1993-96 and received the first Roger and Madeleine Traynor Faculty Achievement Award for Excellence in Legal Scholarship in 1996. In 1997, he received a University of Virginia Harrison Achievement Award, a State Council of Higher Education Faculty Award, and the All-University Teaching Award, one of the university's highest honors for excellence in teaching, research and service.

At Stanford Law School, Klarman won numerous awards and served as senior articles and symposium editor of the Stanford Law Review. He is also a member of the Order of the Coif and Phi Beta Kappa. After graduation, Klarman clerked for Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. He then completed his doctoral thesis in legal history as a Marshall Scholar at Magdalen College, Oxford. In 2005, Klarman won the Bancroft Prize for From Jim Crow to Civil Rights (Oxford University Press, 2004).

Assistant Professor of History, Yale University

Jennifer Klein is author of the book, For All These Rights: Business, Labor, and the Shaping of America's Public-Private Welfare State (Princeton, 2003), which was awarded the Ellis W. Hawley Prize in Political History/Political Economy from the Organization of American Historians and The Hagley Prize in Business History from the Business History Conference. Klein has held fellowships from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National Endowment for the Humanities, Brookings Institution, and American Association of University of Women. She is a member of the editorial board of the journal, International Labor and Working-Class History.

Klein's research spans the fields of labor history, business and economic history, and political economy. Writing about the intersection between labor politics and the welfare state, she has written articles on the history of health care policy, Social Security, pensions, collective bargaining and New Deal liberalism. Her articles and reviews have appeared in journals such as Politics and Society; Journal of Policy History; LABOR; Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law; and International Labor and Working-Class History.

She teaches courses in labor history, 20th-century political economy, urban history, and contemporary America, 1940-present. She is currently working on a new book, Caring for America, a history of home health care workers that investigates the links between long-term care, disability rights, welfare, health care, and employment law.

Altshuler Distinguished Teaching Professor, Associate Professor of Political Science, Southern Methodist University

Joe Kobylka earned his B.A., magna cum laude and with departmental honors, in government and history at Beloit College (1978), where he was Phi Beta Kappa, and his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Minnesota (1984). Since joining the SMU faculty in 1983, he has published three books: The Politics of Obscenity (Greenwood Press, 1991); Public Interest Law: An Annotated Bibliography (Garland, 1992); and The Supreme Court and Legal Change: Abortion and the Death Penalty (University of North Carolina Press, 1992).

He has also published several journal articles and book chapters, including "Tales from the Blackmun Papers: A Fuller Appreciation of Harry Blackmun's Judicial Legacy," University of Missouri Law Review, 2005; and "Smoking in the Courtroom: Law, Tobacco, and the Litigation of Health Risks," in Creating Constitutional Change: People, Power and the Law, 2004. His teaching interests touch on American constitutional law and politics, judicial decision making and American political thought. He is currently finishing a biography of former Supreme Court Justice Harry A. Blackmun, under contract with the University of Virginia Press, and will then turn to a study of recent church-state litigation. In December 2006, his lecture series The Cycles of American Political Thought will be published by The Teaching Company.

A recipient of four SMU research grants and fellowships, Kobylka has also won numerous teaching and service awards at SMU. These include the Deschner Award (1984); Rotunda Outstanding Professor (1986, 1993, 1995, 2002); the Golden Mustang (1990); the Willis M. Tate Award (1991); Godbey Author's Award (1992); the SMU "M" Award (1996); Distinguished University Citizen Award (2004); and the SMU Student Senate Faculty Member of the Year Award (2004). He was also named an inaugural recipient of the Altschuler Distinguished Teaching Award (2001), and is a member of SMU's Academy of Distinguished Teachers. In fall 2003, he received the Bridge Building Award from the SMU Division of Student Affairs. He serves as faculty advisor to the honor council, the political science symposium and Pi Sigma Alpha.

Richard E. Lang Professor of Law and Dean, Stanford Law School

Prior to joining the Stanford faculty, Larry Kramer was the associate dean for research and academics and Russell D. Niles Professor of Law at New York University School of Law. He was also professor of law at the University of Chicago and the University of Michigan law schools, in addition to serving as a consultant to the New York law firm of Mayer, Brown, Rowe & Maw LLP. Considered to be one of the leading legal scholars in the country, Kramer's areas of special interest include federalism, separation of powers, constitutional law, federal courts, conflict of laws, civil procedure, and American legal history.

His early writing focused on the conflict of laws, and many of his ideas are embodied in a leading casebook in the field. In the 1990s, he turned his scholarship from state-state conflicts to state-federal conflicts, and his work on the question of federalism and the history of early federalism is cited widely. His most recent work has addressed the broader question of judicial review and the role of courts in a constitutional democracy. His recently released book, The People Themselves: Popular Constitutionalism and Judicial Review, concerns the relationship of the U.S. Supreme Court to politics. He received his A.B. from Brown University and a J.D. from the University of Chicago Law School. He clerked for Judge Henry J. Friendly on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and Justice William J. Brennan Jr. of the U.S. Supreme Court.

Assistant Professor of Political Science, DePaul University

Anna Law received her Ph.D. in government from the University of Texas in Austin. Her dissertation was about how the Supreme Court and U.S. Courts of Appeals decide immigration cases. She received her M.A. in American civilization from Brown University and her B.A. in politics from Brandeis University. Prior to joining DePaul, she was a pre-doctoral fellow at the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies at the University of California in San Diego. Her area of specialization is law and courts.

Chairman of the Center of Legal and Judicial Studies, The Heritage Foundation; Former U.S. Attorney General

Former U.S. Attorney General Edwin Meese was among President Ronald Reagan's most important advisors. As chairman of the Domestic Policy Council and the National Drug Policy Board, and as a member of the National Security Council, he played a key role in the development and execution of domestic and foreign policy.

During the 1970s, Meese was director of the Center for Criminal Justice Policy and Management and professor of law at the University of San Diego. He earlier served as chief of staff for then-Governor Ronald Reagan and was a local prosecutor in California. Meese is a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. He earned his B.A. from Yale University and his J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.

Professor, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism

Roger Newman received a B.A. from Hunter College, an M.A. from the University of Virginia, and an M.A. from New York University. He was research scholar at N.Y.U. Law School from 1985 to 2002. He is the author of Hugo Black: A Biography (1994; 2nd ed., 1997); and co-author of Banned Films: Movies, Censors and the First Amendment (1982). He was editor-in-chief of The Constitution and Its Amendments (four-volume encyclopedia, 1999) and is now editing the Yale Biographical Dictionary of American Law.

Newman was the 1995 winner of the book award from Scribes, the American Society of Writers on Legal Subjects; a finalist for the 1995 Pulitzer Prize; and a recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship and Lyndon B. Johnson Foundation and NEH grants. He has lectured at more than 100 colleges and universities and he contributes extensively to legal publications and newspapers.

Professor of Law and History, University of Connecticut School of Law; John Marshall Biographer

Kent Newmyer regularly offers two seminars in American constitutional and legal history. One focuses on select themes in constitutional history (and varies from semester). The second, Main Currents in American Legal History, treats major historical changes in American law, starting with the early national period and ending with critical legal studies. Before coming to the law school, Newmyer taught American history at the University of Connecticut.

He was designated university alumni professor in 1988 and became emeritus in 1997. Newmyer's publications have appeared in a wide range of historical and legal periodicals. His books include The Supreme Court Under Marshall and Taney, John Marshall and the Heroic Age of the Supreme Court and Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story: Statesman of the Old Republic. The latter received the Littleton-Griswold Award from the American Historical Association in 1985 for the best book on law and society and a certificate of merit from the American Bar Association.

Retired Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court

Sandra Day O'Connor was born in El Paso, Texas on March 26, 1930. She received her B.A. and LL.B. from Stanford University. She served as deputy county attorney of San Mateo County, California from 1952-1953 and as a civilian attorney for Quartermaster Market Center, Frankfurt, Germany from 1954-1957.

From 1958-1960, she practiced law in Maryvale, Arizona, and served as assistant attorney general of Arizona from 1965-1969. She was appointed to the Arizona State Senate in 1969 and was subsequently re-elected to two, two-year terms. In 1975, she was elected judge of the Maricopa County Superior Court and served until 1979, when she was appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals. President Ronald Reagan nominated her as an associate justice of the Supreme Court, and she took her seat September 25, 1981. O'Connor retired from the Supreme Court on January 31, 2006.

I. Herman Stern Professor of Law, Temple University Beasley School of Law

David Post teaches intellectual property law and the law of cyberspace. Post is also an adjunct scholar at the Cato Institute, the co-founder and co-director of the Cyberspace Law Institute and ICANN Watch, and an occasional contributor to the Volokh Conspiracy blog.

Trained originally as a physical anthropologist, Post spent two years studying the feeding ecology of yellow baboons in Kenya's Amboseli National Park and he taught at the Columbia University Department of Anthropology from 1976 through 1981. He then attended Georgetown Law Center, from which he graduated summa cum laude in 1986. After clerking with then-Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg on the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, he spent six years at the Washington D.C. law firm of Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, practicing in the areas of intellectual property law and high technology commercial transactions. He then clerked again for Justice Ginsburg during her first term at the U.S. Supreme Court before joining the faculty of the Georgetown University Law Center (1994-1997) and the Temple University Law School (1997-present).

Post is the author of Cyberlaw: Problems of Policy and Jurisprudence in the Information Age, co-authored with Paul Schiff Berman and Patricia Bellia (West, 2003), as well as numerous articles on intellectual property, the law of cyberspace and the application of complexity theory to Internet legal questions that have appeared in the Stanford Law Review, the Journal of Legal Studies, the Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Esther Dyson's Release 1.0, the Journal of Online Law, the University of Chicago Legal Forum, the Vanderbilt Law Review, the Georgetown Law Journal, and numerous other publications. From 1994-1998, he wrote a monthly column on law and technology ("Plugging In") for the American Lawyer, and from 1998-2004 he wrote the "On the Horizon" column for InformationWeek with Bradford Brown. He has appeared as a commentator on the law of cyberspace on such programs as The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, Morning Edition, PBS' Life on the Internet series, NPR's All Things Considered and Marketplace, and Court TV's Supreme Court Preview.

During 1996-1997, he conducted, along with professors Larry Lessig and Eugene Volokh, the first Internet-wide e-mail course, cyberspace law for non-lawyers, which attracted more than 20,000 subscribers.

Anne Green Regents Chair in Law and Professor of Government, University of Texas at Austin

The country's foremost expert on the First Amendment and the broadcast media, Lucas Powe also teaches and writes about the Supreme Court's place in American society. He clerked for U.S. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas before joining the University of Texas faculty in 1971.

His numerous publications include four books: The Warren Court and American Politics (Harvard, 2000); Regulating Broadcast Programming (co-author, MIT, 1994); The Fourth Estate and the Constitution (California, 1991); and American Broadcasting and the First Amendment (California, 1987). His next book, The Supreme Court in American History, will be published in 2008. He has also written numerous articles, including "Converging First Amendment Principles for Converging Communications Media" (co-author, Yale Law Journal, 1995) and "The Not-So-Brave New Constitutional Order" (Harvard Law Review, 2003).

Powe has been a visiting professor of law at both Georgetown University and the University of California at Berkeley, and is a member of the American Law Institute. He received his J.D. in 1968 from the University of Washington-Seattle and his B.A. in 1965 from Yale.

Associate Professor of History, University of Notre Dame

Linda Przybyszewski is interested in the intellectual and cultural aspects of legal history in the United States. She is currently working on two projects examining the relationship between religious belief and legal thought in the late 19th century. One focuses on discussions among legal, medical and religious professionals, and the other is a study of the Cincinnati Bible War of 1869. She is the editor of Some Memories of a Long Life, 1854-1911 by Malvina Shanklin Harlan (Modern Library, 2002) and The Republic According to John Marshall Harlan (University of North Carolina Press, 1999).

She has held fellowships from the American Council of Learned Societies, the Program in Law and Public Affairs at Princeton University, the Virginia Center for the Humanities, the Heyman Center at Columbia University, and the Institute for Legal Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She received her B.A. from Northwestern University and her M.A. and Ph.D. from Stanford University.

Chief Justice of the United States

John G. Roberts Jr. was born in Buffalo, New York on January 27, 1955. He received an A.B. from Harvard College in 1976 and a J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1979.

He served as a law clerk for Henry J. Friendly of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit from 1979-1980 and as a law clerk for then-Associate Justice William H. Rehnquist of the U.S. Supreme Court during the 1980 term. He was special assistant to the attorney general, U.S. Department of Justice, from 1981-1982; associate counsel to President Ronald Reagan, White House Counsel's Office, from 1982-1986; and principal deputy solicitor general, U.S. Department of Justice, from 1989-1993. From 1986-1989 and 1993-2003, he practiced law in Washington, D.C. He was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in 2003. President George W. Bush nominated Roberts as chief justice of the United States, and he took his seat on September 29, 2005.

Professor of Law, George Washington University Law School; Author, The Supreme Court: The Personalities and Rivalries that Defined America

Jeffrey Rosen is a professor of law and the legal affairs editor of The New Republic. His new book is The Supreme Court: The Personalities and Rivalries that Defined America, the companion book to THE SUPREME COURT series. He is also the author of The Most Democratic Branch, The Naked Crowd and The Unwanted Gaze. Rosen is a graduate of Harvard College, summa cum laude; Oxford University, where he was a Marshall Scholar; and Yale Law School.

His essays and commentaries have appeared in The New York Times Magazine, The Atlantic Monthly, on National Public Radio, and in The New Yorker, where he has been a staff writer. The Chicago Tribune named him one of the 10 best magazine journalists in America and the Los Angeles Times called him "the nation's most widely read and influential legal commentator."

Martin Professor of Law and Dean Emeritus, New York Law School

A nationally recognized scholar of constitutional law and award-winning author of seven books on American history, law and politics, James Simon uses issues that surface in his classroom as a jumping-off point for his academic research. His latest history book, which follows What Kind of Nation: Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, and the Epic Struggle to Create a United States (Simon & Schuster, 2002), is Lincoln and Chief Justice Taney: Slavery, Secession and the President's War Powers (Simon and Schuster, 2006).

Simon earned both a bachelor's and a law degree from Yale University. His academic credentials include a Ford Foundation Africa-Asia Fellowship to work and study in India, a year as a Harvard Fellow in Law and the Humanities and an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from New York Law School in 1992.

While a correspondent and contributing editor of TIME magazine, specializing in legal affairs, Simon analyzed U.S. Supreme Court cases, wrote profiles of outstanding legal educators, lawyers and judges, and covered major trials. He began teaching as a visiting lecturer in American Studies at Yale University and has since lectured widely both in the United States and abroad.

As dean of New York Law School from 1983 to 1992, he fulfilled several longstanding goals: sweeping renovation of the facilities, strengthening the faculty and heightening public perception of the law school's accomplishments. Simon has served on the board of trustees at New York Law School and Hobart and William Smith colleges. He has received numerous awards and honors, including The New York Times's "Notable Book," a certificate of merit and the 1974 Silver Gavel Award from the American Bar Association, and the 1981 Scribes Book Award from the American Society of Writers on Legal Subjects.

Professor of Law, the University of Texas at Austin, School of Law

Louise Weinberg is holder of the Bates Chair at the University of Texas, where she teaches constitutional law and federal courts. Weinberg is author of Federal Courts: Judicial Federalism and Judicial Power (1994), and co-author of Conflict of Laws (1990; 2d ed., 2002). Her numerous scholarly articles for law reviews, symposia and anthologies include several classics of the legal canon. Her work deals with Supreme Court history, constitutional theory, jurisprudence, and the law of courts. Her pieces for the general public have appeared in The American Scholar, The Public Interest and Daedalus. Weinberg has been commissioned to write the article on federal courts for the forthcoming Oxford Encyclopedia of Legal History.

Weinberg has twice chaired the Association of American Law Schools' section on federal courts, and has also chaired the AALS sections on the conflict of laws and on admiralty. She is a member of the American Law Institute and of Phi Beta Kappa. A frequently invited public speaker, Weinberg was educated at Cornell and Harvard. She has taught at Harvard, Brandeis, Suffolk and Stanford, as well as Texas, and as a faculty fellow of the World Economic Forum, Davos, Switzerland.

David and Mary Harrison Distinguished Professor of Law and University Professor

G. Edward White joined the University of Virginia law school faculty in 1972 after a clerkship with Chief Justice Earl Warren of the U.S. Supreme Court and a year as visiting scholar at the American Bar Foundation. He was appointed John B. Minor Professor of Law and History in 1987 and held that chair until 2003. In 1992, he was appointed to a university professorship. From 1990-92, and from 2001-03, he was the Sullivan and Cromwell Research Professor; from 1994-97 the E. James Kelly Research Professor; and from 1999-2001 the Class of 1963 Research Professor. He has also been a Guggenheim Fellow, and twice a Senior Fellow of the National Endowment for the Humanities. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, a fellow of the Society of American Historians and a member of the American Law Institute.

White's 13 published books have won numerous honors and awards, including final listing for the Pulitzer Prize in history, the Silver Gavel Award from the American Bar Association, the James Willard Hurst Prize from the Law & Society Association, the Littleton-Griswold Prize from the American Historical Association, the Scribes Award, and the Triennial Book Award from the Association of American Law Schools. White's books have garnered 13 such honors and awards since 1976.

White was editor of the Studies in Legal History series for North Carolina Press from 1980-85, and advisor on law manuscripts for Oxford University Press from 1986-1996. He has been on the editorial board of the Virginia Quarterly Review from 1980-2002. He has served on the Commission for Undergraduate Education in Law and the Humanities, and has taught summer humanities seminars for lawyers and judges under the auspices of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Over the past several years, White has given several endowed lectures, including the inaugural John Marshall Lecture, sponsored by the Boston Bar Association; the inaugural Jerome Hall Lecture at Hastings College of Law; the Swinford Lecture, sponsored by the University of Kentucky School of Law and the Kentucky Bar Association; the Keck Lecture at Amherst College; the Rosenthal lectures at Northwestern University School of Law; the Neesima lectures at Doshisha University, Japan; the Fulton Lecture at the University of Chicago School of Law; and the Knowlton Distinguished Lecture at the University of South Carolina School of Law. His most recent endowed lecture was the 2005 Monsanto Lecture at Valparaiso Law School.

Charles Alan Wright Chair in Federal Courts and Professor of Law, University of Texas at Austin School of Law

Ernest Young teaches constitutional law, federal courts and foreign affairs and the Constitution, and also serves as a faculty clerkship advisor and advisor to the Texas Law Review. In 2005, he won the Federalist Society's Paul M. Bator Award for excellence in teaching, scholarship and public service. He has also received the Texas Exes Teaching Excellence Award (2004), as well as the Robert Murff Excellence Award in 2002 (with Tony Reese) from the Texas Campus Career Council for service as student clerkship advisor.

A native of Abilene, Texas, Young joined the UT faculty in 1999 after a year as visiting assistant professor at Villanova University School of Law. He graduated from Dartmouth College and Harvard Law School, where he received the 1992 Sears Prize for academic excellence and served on the Harvard Law Review. He clerked for the Hon. Michael Boudin of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit and then for U.S. Supreme Court Justice David Souter. He also practiced law with Cohan, Simpson, Cowlishaw & Wulff in Dallas and Covington & Burling in Washington, D.C. Young has been a visiting professor at Harvard Law School (2004-05), Dartmouth College (summer 2005), and the Villanova School of Law (1998-99), and he has taught as an adjunct at Georgetown University Law Center (1997).

Photograph of the Supreme Court building.