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The Birth of Jim Crow
Democrats win control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the Antebellum period.

Whites regain majority control of the South Carolina legislature.

An outgoing Republican Congress passes a Civil Rights Act granting African Americans equal access to public accommodations, including transportation.

Whites in Mississippi vote in a "Redeemer" government.

In Mississippi, over 20 African Americans are killed in the "Clinton Massacre."

By the so-called "Compromise of 1877," Republican Rutherford B. Hayes becomes president and the last federal troops withdraw from the South, marking the end of Reconstruction.

Whites in Florida and Louisiana vote in "Redeemer" governments.

The relocation of former slaves to Kansas, called the "Exoduster Movement," begins. Within the year, 30,000 blacks migrate to Kansas.

Tennessee passes the first of its "Jim Crow" laws, segregating the state railroad. Other states follow the lead and legalize segregation.

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