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Slavery and the Making of AmericaDramatic re-enactment of slaves being transported on a boat
Time and Place Slave Memories Resources The Slave Experience

Time and Place return to introduction
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1820 1829 1831 1837 1842 1848 1850 1857 1860 1862 1863 1865 1866 1867 1869 1871 1874
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A Nation Divided
Abraham Lincoln is elected to the presidency.

The slave population is now nearly four million, making the ratio of free to enslaved Americans approximately 7:1.

Arizona passes an Expulsion Act, banishing all free blacks from the state.

Texas prohibits manumission.

South Carolina secedes from the Union, followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Later in the year, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina also secede.

The Union of Confederate States is formed. Jefferson Davis is elected its president.

Harriet Jacobs' INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL is the first published autobiography of an African-American woman.

The Civil War begins in Charleston, South Carolina.

75,000 blacks volunteering for the U.S. army are rejected.

Slaves seeking refuge with Northern forces are considered "contraband of war." The First Confiscation Act is passed, declaring all property used in support of rebellion, including slaves, subject to capture.

Congressional resolutions offer monetary incentives to states for emancipating slaves.

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