MetroFocus

ALTERED STATES

Transcript

>> ASTRONAUT SCOTT KELLY SPENT
A YEAR ABOARD THE INTERNATIONAL
SPACE STATION, A BOLD MISSION
THAT ENDED IN 2016.
THE MISSION'S PURPOSE WAS TO
DISCOVER THE EFFECTS ON KELLEY'S
BODY.
THE RESULTS WE WERE TOLD THAT 7%
OF SCOTT KELLY'S GENE
EXPRESSIONS CHANGED SINCE
RETURNING TO EARTH.
BUT FOR THOSE OF US WHO ARE NOT
ROCKET SCIENTISTS, THAT TOOK ON
A NEW, SOMEWHAT EXAGGERATED AND
CONFUSING MEANING, QUESTIONS
ABOUT WHAT SCOTT KELLY'S DNA
REALLY WAS CHANGE.
COULD THIS MEAN AS WAS SUGGESTED
THAT THEY ARE NO LONGER QUITE
IDENTICAL TWINS?
WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED UP THERE
IN SPACE?
HERE TO SORT IT OUT, FORMER NASA
ASTRONAUT MICHAEL MASSIMINO,
MICHAEL, THANKS FOR BEING WITH
US.
>> PLEASURE TO BE HERE.
>> IT'S FAIR TO SAY THAT THERE
WAS SOME CONFUSING REPORTING
ABOUT THIS.
>> YES.
>> I THINK THERE WAS SOME
CONFUSION ON THE PART OF NASA'S
STATEMENTS IN TERMS OF NOT
MAKING IT CLEAR TO THOSE OF US
AS WE SAID WHO ARE NOT ROCKET
SCIENTISTS.
WHAT WAS THE CAUSE OF THE
CONFUSION?
>> I THINK IT WAS THE WAY THE
STATEMENT WAS RELEASED OR THE
INFORMATION THAT WAS RELEASED,
IT SOUNDED LIKE THIS IS A BIG,
BIG CHANGE AND THEY MAY NO
LONGER BE TWINS.
BUT KNOWING THOSE TWO GUYS, I
DON'T CARE WHAT HAPPENS TO THEIR
DNA, THEY'LL BE FOREVER BROTHERS
AND BEST FRIENDS.
I DON'T CARE WHAT HAPPENED TO
THEM.
BUT A SCIENTIFIC STANDPOINT, I
THINK THAT WAS A
MISINTERPRETATION OF THAT
STATEMENT.
I DON'T THINK NASA TRIED TO LEAD
PEOPLE IN THE WRONG WAY OR
ANYONE DID, BUT IT SOUNDED LIKE
AN INTERESTING PIECE AND IT WAS
A BIT MISINTERPRETED AND
EXAGGERATED.
>> FROM WHAT I SAW, SCIENTISTS
FOUND A 7% DIFFERENCE IN GENE
EXPRESSION.
ARE YOU SAYING THAT THE GENES
WERE CHANGED 7%?
T
THAT'S NOT WHAT IT MEANS, RIGHT?
>> I THINK OVERALL, THE TWIN
STUDY, THE VALUE OF IT IS THAT
THEY PUT NASA IN A POSITION THAT
THEY WANTED TO STUDY THE CHANGES
IN THE HUMAN BODY FROM A
MOLECULAR LEVEL, AND TODAY YOU
CAN STUDY THE GENOME AND WE'RE
VERY LUCKY THAT WE HAVE THAT
TECHNOLOGY.
NASA HAD LOOKED AT CHANGES IN
ASTRONAUTS BY LOOKING AT OTHER
THINGS IN THE PAST.
SO THIS WAS A NEW THING FOR
THEM.
WE ALWAYS TRY TO MEASURE THINGS
LIKE BONE LOSS, CHANGES IN
VISION OR HEARING, ANYTHING YOU
WOULD CHECK WHEN YOU GET A
PHYSICAL.
>> THOSE ARE THINGS THAT ARE
EASILY MEASURED.
>> THEY WOULD DO THINGS LIKE
CHECK OUR BALANCE, PUT YOU ON
YOUR BACK AND SEE HOW WELL YOU
COULD STAND UP, YOUR BALANCE,
HOW THAT WAS AFFECTED.
IF YOU GO THROUGH CHANGES IN 0
GRAVITY, PRIMARILY THINGS IN
YOUR INNER EAR, IT WORKS ON
GRAVITY, AND THAT'S NOT THE CASE
IN SPACE.
HOW LONG CAN YOU NOT DRIVE A
CAR, FLY AN AIRPLANE, THOSE
MEASURES, MUSCLE, BONE,
EYESIGHT, HEARING, BALANCE, ALL
THESE THINGS ARE VERY IMPORTANT.
NOW I THINK WHAT'S INTERESTING
WITH THE TWIN STUDY IS IT PUT
THEM IN A POSITION WHERE THEY
REALLY COULD SEE WHAT THE
CHANGES WERE MOLECULARLY.
>> HAVING A ONE ON THE GROUND TO
GIVE YOU A BASELINE SO TO SPEAK.
YOU DON'T USUALLY HAVE THAT.
>> IT'S VERY RARE, IT'S THE
FIRST PAIR OF TWINS.
THEY WEREN'T SELECTED BECAUSE
THEY WERE TWINS, THEY WERE BOTH
NAVY TEST PILOTS.
I INTERVIEWED WITH MARK, I KNOW
THESE GUYS A LONG TIME.
BUT TO GET BACK TO THE CHANGES
THAT HAPPENED WITH SCOTT --
>> TELL US ABOUT THOSE GENE
EXPRESSIONS.
SO PEOPLE UNDERSTAND.
ESSENTIALLY I THINK IT'S NOW
BEEN BETTER EXPLAINED.
BUT CORRECT ME IF I'M WRONG,
THEY'RE NOT TALKING ABOUT A
CHANGE IN YOUR MOLECULAR AGGENEC
STRUCT
STRUCTURE.
IT'S HOW THE BODY RESPONDS IN
DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS.
>> WHEN YOU GO INTO SPACE YOUR
BODY IS GOING TO REACT
DIFFERENTLY.
IT'S SIMILAR TO CHANGE WITH
PEOPLE THEY HAVE SEEN UNDER SEA,
HIGH ALTITUDE, MOUNTAIN
CLIMBERS, PEOPLE WHO ARE POLAR
EXPLORERS, BEING IN A DIFFERENT
ENVIRONMENT, BECAUSE IT WAS A
DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT, COULD
CHANGE THE WAY THE GENE CHANGES
AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL.
AND WITH SCOTT, WHILE THESE
CHANGES ARE DIFFERENT FOR THAT
YEAR IN SPACE, CHANGES IN OXYGEN
LEVELS, CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS,
SPACE RADIATION AND SO ON.
PLUS STRESS LEVEL, BEING AWAY
FROM HOME AND SO ON.
WHAT'S EXCITING ABOUT THIS IS
THAT NASA NOW HAS THE TECHNIQUES
AND HAS STARTED THIS NEW ERA OF
NOT JUST LOOKING AT VITAL SIGNS
BUT ALSO AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL
AND IF WE WANT TO SEND PEOPLE ON
LONGER JOURNEYS TO OTHER PLANTS.
>> WE HEARD ABOUT THE PLANS TO
GO TO MARS, THREE YEARS IN SPACE
OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT?
>> MARS IS REALLY TOUGH.
IT'S REALLY TOUGH TO GET PEOPLE
THERE, THAT'S WHY WE HAVEN'T
DONE THAT YET.
I THINK WHAT'S MORE LIKELY AS
OUR NEXT STEP FOR EXPLORATION,
AFTER WE'RE FINISHED WITH THE
SPACE STATION IS TO GO TO THE
MOON.
BUT NOT JUST GO BACK FOR A QUICK
VISIT AND TAKE SAMPLES, LIKE WE
DID IN THE 60s AND EARLY 70s,
BUT GO BACK AND ESTABLISH SOME
SORT OF BASE.
AND BY DOING THAT, ESTABLISHING
A PRESENCE ON THE MOON, WE'LL BE
ABLE TO GET TO MARS QUICKLY.
>> WE ALWAYS UNDERSTAND THINGS
BETTER WHEN WE GET TO CHAT WITH
YOU.
MIKE, YOU BE WELL.
>> THANKS FOR HAVING ME.
>> TAKE CARE.


URL: https://www.thirteen.org/metrofocus/2018/04/altered-states/