MetroFocus: September 28, 2022

WHY ARE WE SEEING THE RE-EMERGENCE OF SOME INFECTIOUS DISEASES?

After what has felt like a never-ending battle against COVID, and with new reports each day on monkeypox, polio, and the West Nile Virus, many are feeling unable to keep up with the latest diseases spreading throughout the state.  Tonight, infectious disease expert Dr. Bob Arnot returns to break down why we are seeing so many potentially devastating illnesses, what you need to know about each one, and how you can best protect yourself.

TRANSCRIPT

TONIGHT, THE MAJOR DISEASES MAKING HEADLINES AS THEY SPREAD THROUGHOUT NEW YORK ARE OLD DISEASES WE ONCE KNEW.

INCLUDING POLIO.

SO HOW ARE THEY BACK?

WHAT SYMPTOMS SHOULD WE LOOK OUT FOR AND CAN THEY BE TREATED AND PREVENTED?

METRO FOCUS STARTS RIGHT NOW.

THIS IS METRO FOCUS WITH RAFAEL REIMANN, JACK FORD AND JENNA FLANAGAN.

METRO FOCUS IS MADE POSSIBLE BY SUE AND EDGAR WALKING TIME, THE PETER PETERSON AND JOAN FUND, BERNARD AND DENISE SCHWARTZ, BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG, THE AMBROSE FOUNDATION AND BY --

> WELCOME TO METRO FOCUS.

I'M JACK FORD.

COVID, MONKEYPOX, POLIO, AND NOW THE WEST NILE VIRUS.

THE LIST OF DISEASES NEW YORK HAS HAD TO WORRY ABOUT SEEMS TO BE EXPANDING BY THE DAY.

PARTICULARLY AS WE SEE OLD DISEASES REEMERGE OR TAKE ON MORE DANGEROUS FORMS.

AFTER WHAT HAS FELT LIKE A NEVER ENDING BATTLE AGAINST COVID, MANY ARE FEELING UNABLE TO KEEP UP WITH THE LATEST DISEASES SPREADING THROUGHOUT THE STATE AND TRI-STATE AREA.

THE CONTINUOUS PRESENCE OF TROUBLESOME ILLNESSES HAS LEFT US WONDERING IF THIS IS WHAT PEOPLE ARE CALLING OUR NEW NORMAL AND IF WE WILL BE LIVING IN A CONSTANT STATE OF PANDEMIC FOR THE REST OF OUR LIVES.

JOINING US NOW TO DISCUSS WHY WE ARE SEEING SO MANY POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING ILLNESSES, WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT EACH ONE AND HOW YOU CAN BEST PROTECT YOURSELF IS OUR GOOD FRIEND, AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE EXPERT AND FORMER NBC NEWS CHIEF MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT.

ALWAYS GOOD TO HAVE YOU HERE.

LET ME START, I WANT TO GET TO EACH OF THESE SPECIFICALLY.

BUT LET ME JUST START WITH A GENERAL QUESTION.

PEOPLE ARE SAYING, IT SEEMS AS IF WE ARE EXPOSED TO MANY MORE SERIOUS DISEASES THAN WE EVER HAVE BEEN IN THE PAST.

IS IT JUST WE ARE MORE AWARE OF THINGS NOW?

IS A LOT BETTER REPORTING ON IT.

THERE ARE BOOKS THAT MAKE US MORE AWARE OF IT.

THERE'S NO QUESTION THERE ARE MANY MORE NEW ILLNESSES THAN WE EVER EXPECTED TO THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION HAD A TERRIFIC REPORT, EASILY IDENTIFIABLE REASONS.

I LIKE TO THINK IT IS MOTHER EARTH STRIKING BACK.

GLOBAL WARMING AND D4 STATION.

WHAT THEY HAVE FOR REASONS IS POPULATION GROWTH, WAR, BEHAVIOR, INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL, ALL OF THOSE.

REMEMBER OMICRON? IT WAS IN SOUTH AFRICA, THE NEXT DAY IT WAS IN THE NETHERLANDS, IT WAS AT SCHIPHOL AIRPORT.

IT'S BEEN A MAJOR VECTOR OF DISEASE.

PEOPLE DID NOT DRIVE TO EUROPE FROM SOUTH AFRICA.

THEY DIDN'T TAKE A BOAT, THEY TOOK THE AIRPLANE.

SO THE MASSIVE WORLDWIDE SPREAD WAS BY AIRPLANE.

WITH EBOLA, IT'S ONLY A PLANE RIGHT AWAY.

PEOPLE DIE TOO QUICKLY FOR HER TO GET ON AN AIRPLANE BECAUSE THEY WERE SO SICK.

BUT DISEASES LIKE OMICRON IT'S A HUGE FACTOR.

IT'S NOT WHAT THEY SAY IT IS, THEY HAVE FAST VENTILATION BUT IT IS NOT FAST ENOUGH TO KEEP UP.

THE BEST OVERALL MEASURE.

STILL IMPORTANT TO DO.

LET'S FOCUS ON SOME OF THE SPECIFICS NOW.

LET'S START WITH POLIO.

THE IMPORTANT THING FOR PEOPLE TO GRASP SO THEY CAN FULLY UNDERSTAND IT IS WHAT CAUSES POLIO?

THE POLIOVIRUS, I REMEMBER WE WERE TERRIFIED OF IT.

WE ARE OF THE SAME AGE GROUP, IT WAS A TERRIFYING THING.

WHEN THIS VACCINE CAME ALONG, IT WAS JUST LIKE SALVATION.

THEY ARE ALL FAIRLY NONSPECIFIC BUT IT'S AFTER YOU GET OVER THE ORIGINAL ILLNESS THAT THE PARALYSIS SETS IN.

AND YOU HAVE TO HAVE THOUSANDS OF CASES BEFORE YOU START TO SEE PARALLEL CASES.

BUT --

THE PARALYSIS DOES NOT ALWAYS ACCOMPANY --

NOT BY A LONGSHOT.

FOR EVERY 2000 INFECTIONS, ONE IN PEOPLE -- 10 PEOPLE WILL HAVE THE EXPERIENCE.

YEAH YOU HAVE A YOUNG MAN THERE WHO HAS POLIO IN ROCKLAND COUNTY, SOME OF THE MORE DIRE SYMPTOMS.

WHAT HAPPENED?

60% OF THE POPULATION HAVE BEEN VACCINATED AGAINST POLIO.

WE DROPPED OUR GUARD, NOT JUST IN TERMS OF OBVIOUSLY THE WHOLE DILEMMA WITH VACCINES AND COVID BUT A LOT FEWER PEOPLE ARE GETTING VACCINATED. THEN THERE'S THIS VACCINE HESITANCY AROUND THE WORLD.

HE WAS A DISEASE THAT WE HAD PREVENTED, 30 MILLION CASES OF PARALYSIS.

IF USED IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD BECAUSE IT DOES SPREAD A LITTLE BIT, IT MEANS THAT YOU HAVE MORE OF A TRUE HERD IMMUNITY.

VACCINE HESITANCY IS GOING TO KILL US ALL IN THE LONG RUN.

WHY DO YOU THINK -- THE BETTER QUESTION IS, WHAT DO WE DO ABOUT IT.

YOU GO BACK TO WHEN WE WERE KIDS.

AND PARENTS RUSHED TO GET THEIR CHILDREN THE VACCINE FOR POLIO.

I REMEMBER THERE WERE LINES AROUND THE BLOCK, WE GOT IN SCHOOL. WHY DO YOU THINK WE HAVE MOVED AWAY FROM THAT?

THE POTENTIAL IMPACT COULD BE DEVASTATING. IS IT THE MISINFORMATION AND FATIGUE?

WHAT DO WE DO ABOUT IT?

IT IS CLEARLY THE MISINFORMATION AND ANTI-VACCINE . IN SOUTH AFRICA, THEY HAVE A REACTIONARY MOVEMENT THERE.

SO IT IS WORLDWIDE, IT'S A POLITICAL PLATFORM.

IF YOU WANTED TO GO OUT AND GET A LOT OF ATTENTION POLITICALLY, IT'S AT THE TOP OF THE PILE.

I MEAN LOOK AT ABBY KENNEDY.

-- BOBBY KENNEDY.

IT RAISES A TON OF MONEY AND IT'S RIGHT UP AT THE TOP OF THE PILE IN TERMS OF YOUR ABILITY TO GET CROWDS, GET MEDIA AND LIKES ON SOCIAL MEDIA.

IT'S VERY SAD THAT POLITICS IS WON OUT HERE.

WHAT'S INCREDIBLE IS HOW GOOD THESE VACCINES ARE.

MY NEPHEW DID A PHD AT MIT, WORKED WITH ONE OF THESE TEAMS.

TECHNOLOGY IS UNBELIEVABLE, THIS IS SO MUCH BETTER THAN ANY VACCINE WE HAD IN THE PAST.

I DON'T THINK YOU OVERCOME THE HESITANCY. I THINK THEY'RE HERE TO STAY AND IT WILL HAVE A DEVASTATING EFFECT WITH HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS DEAD AS A RESULT.

LET ME GO BACK TO SOME OF THE SPECIFIC DISEASES.. WE TALKED ABOUT POLIO, LET'S LOOK TO MONKEYPOX.

LET'S START OFF WITH A CONVERSATION ABOUT CAUSES, THEN WE CAN TALK ABOUT SYMPTOMS AND WHAT YOU CAN DO TO PROTECT YOURSELF.

RIGHT NOW, THE BEST WAY TO PUT IT IS IT'S VERY CLOSE TO SUSTAINED CONTACT.

BEDDING, A LOT LIKE A CHEVY THEY TAKE THE POLITICAL BRUNT UPFRONT, -- HIV, THEY TAKE THE POLITICAL BRUNT UPFRONT.

SIMPLY BRING CLOSE TO SOMEONE LONG ENOUGH.

THE VACCINE TAKES A FEW WEEKS TO WORK.

THE SYMPTOMS ARE PROLONGED.

IT'S A LONG TIME BEFORE YOU GET THEM, AND SO THAT LONG TIMELINE, EVERYBODY IS ABSTAINING FROM SEX AND CLOSE PHYSICAL CONTACT IN THOSE AREAS, YOU WILL SPREAD.

WE ARE BEHIND THE BALL ON THAT.

IT'S BEEN SAID THAT WE DIDN'T DEAL WITH IT, IF WE HAD BEEN MUCH MORE AGGRESSIVE AND MORE SUCCESSFUL IN AFRICA, THEN WE WOULD'VE HAD A REAL CHANCE.

BUT WE WERE BEHIND THE BALL AND WE ARE BEHIND THE BALL HERE.

WHAT YOU WILL NOTICE WITH MONKEYPOX, IT CAN BE A DISFIGURING DISEASE.

SOMEWHAT RELATED TO SMALLPOX.

THE BRITISH INFECTED BLANKETS, IF I REMEMBER CORRECTLY, SO CLOTHING CAN SPREAD IT.

I WOULD JUST SAY FOR FAMILIES, I DON'T WANT TO BE PREACHING THAT YOU WANT TO BE CAREFUL THAT IT IS SUSTAINED CONTACT.

IF YOU ARE WITH SOMEONE YOU HAVEN'T BEEN WITH BEFORE, JUST BE QUITE CAREFUL ABOUT SUSTAINED CONTACT.

AS OF NOW, WHO IS BEING SUGGESTED TO BE THOSE WHO SHOULD BE RECEIVING THE VACCINE?

RIGHT NOW IT'S THOSE WHO ARE ALREADY IN HIGH RISK AREAS.

AND IT WOULD BE MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN AT THE TOP OF THE LIST, AND OF COURSE THOSE WHO ARE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED.

AND AGAIN, IT'S TOUGH TO PREDICT BECAUSE YOU HAVE THAT LONG TIMELINE.

WE ARE LOOKING AT SIX WEEKS OR MORE. IT'S HIGH RISK AREAS AND BEHAVIORS.

WE ARE SEEING SOME REPORTING OF A SMALL AMOUNT OF BREAKTHROUGH CASES, PEOPLE WHO HAVE RECEIVED THE VACCINATION AND THEN GOT IT.

WHAT DO YOU SAY TO FOLKS OUT THERE WHO ARE SAYING, WELL, WHY SHOULD I GET THE VACCINE?

WHAT IS THE ANSWER TO THAT?

IT'S A VERY GOOD POINT.

THE ANSWER IS WE DON'T HAVE THE MONKEYPOX VACCINE, WE HAVE SMALLPOX AND OTHER VACCINES.

IT'S NOT AN EXACT FIT, AN EXACT SOLUTION.

THERE ARE GOING TO BE BREAKTHROUGH CASES.

IT MAKES SENSE TO GET IT, AND TO TAKE A VERY CLOSE LOOK AT YOUR OWN BEHAVIORS.

THOSE BEHAVIORS THAT MAY LEAD TO MONKEYPOX.

AND JUST IN THIS INTERIM TIME, BE CAREFUL.

THE COVID VACCINE WAS THE BEST TECHNOLOGICAL VACCINE, BUT THERE WERE BREAKTHROUGH CASES.

WE LIVE IN THE NARRATIVE AGE.

NOT EVERYBODY WAS PROTECTED, THERE WERE BREAKTHROUGH CASES.

MORE THAN ANYTHING, WE HAVE TO GET BACK TO -- THE BEST HOSPITALS IN THE WORLD, BUT HERE IN VERMONT I GO BACK TO THE FAMILY PRACTICE.

THEY ARE THE SUPER EXPERTS IN TERMS OF WHAT'S HAPPENING LOCALLY.

THE GOVERNMENT IS COMING OUT WITH ALL OF THIS STUFF, IT LOOKED AS IF THERE WAS THIS WHOLE SORT OF MANDATE, AND PEOPLE REJECTED IT.

IT SHOULD'VE GONE THROUGH OUR DOCTORS.

OUR DOCTORS SHOULD HAVE HAD IT AVAILABLE.

HEY, DO YOU WANT TO GET THIS NEW VACCINE?

LET ME TELL YOU ABOUT IT.

IT JUST BECAME WAY TOO POLITICIZED.

IT NEEDS TO GO BACK TO YOUR INDIVIDUAL DOCTOR.

THERE WERE PHENOMENAL DOCTORS WORKING WITH THE GAY COMMUNITY BACK THEN, AND NOW, I THINK THAT'S WHERE YOU WANT TO TAKE REFUGE AND TAKE YOUR ADVICE FROM.

WE TALKED ABOUT THAT BEFORE, COMMUNITY LEADERS, HEARING FROM THEM.

THE IMPACT THAT THAT CAN HAVE.

LET'S GO TO ANOTHER ONE, WEST NILE VIRUS.

A COUPLE OF REPORTED CASES IN NEW YORK CITY.

ALSO INDICATIONS ABOUT MANY MORE MOSQUITOES CARRYING THE VIRUS HERE.

BEFORE I GET TO THE MOSQUITOES, LET'S GO BACK TO THE WEST NILE VIRUS AND REMIND PEOPLE.

WHAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT WITH THAT?

THERE'S BEEN 250 CASES SO FAR, THEY ARE EXPECTING 1000.

WEST NILE VIRUS WAS A TROPICAL VIRUS IN FAIRLY HIGH TEMPERATURES.

THESE ARE ALL FAIRLY GENERAL SYMPTOMS.

YOU WOULDN'T NECESSARILY KNOW IT WAS WEST NILE VIRUS.

IN FLORIDA, THEY LOOKED AT MOSQUITOES AND HAVE FOUND A FAIR NUMBER THAT KERRY MALARIA FOR EXAMPLE, WHICH HAS NEVER HAPPENED BEFORE.

IT WAS COOL ENOUGH WE DIDN'T HAVE MALARIA.

TWO FACTORS WITH WEST NILE VIRUS, IT'S WARMER, SO IT'S MAKING ITS WAY FURTHER NORTH TO US IN NEW YORK AND DOING GOOD.

YOU NOW HAVE MOSQUITOES, WHICH YOU DIDN'T HAVE BEFORE WHICH ARE CAPABLE OF CARRYING THIS DISEASE, WHICH HAVE NOW BEEN DOCUMENTED HERE.

YOU TALKED BEFORE ABOUT THE CARE YOU SHOULD BE TAKING WITH REGARDS TO MONKEYPOX, WHAT ABOUT WEST NILE VIRUS?

I THINK IT'S TOUGH TO JUMP TO PREVENTION. THE REAL PREVENTION HERE IS PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION.

MOSQUITO NETTING, SPRAYS, SCREENED IN PORCHES.

TENS OF MILLIONS -- THE CONCERN IS THE WARMTH OF GLOBAL WARMING IS A HUGE FACTOR FOR DISEASE.

AND MOSQUITOES.

I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT TO RECOGNIZE SOME PERSPECTIVE HERE.

THE CASES ARE SIGNIFICANT IF YOU HAVE THEM BUT THE NUMBERS ARE NOT SOMETHING WE SHOULD BE LYING AWAKE AT NIGHT WORRYING ABOUT.

WE MENTIONED COVID, ARE YOU SEEING -- I GUESS THE BETTER QUESTION IS WHAT IS YOUR WHAT ARE YOU SEEING IN TERMS OF PEOPLE'S APPROACH TO COVID?

AND THE WORRY YOU HAVE AS A PHYSICIAN THAT PEOPLE ARE JUST GOING TO SAY OKAY, IT'S ALWAYS GOING TO BE HERE, SO I DON'T REALLY HAVE TO DO ANYTHING.

.

I THINK PEOPLE HAVE JUST GIVEN UP.

ALL OF A SUDDEN, ALL OF OUR PROBLEMS HERE KIND OF VANISHED IN COMPARISON, LOOKING AT THE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR WAR.

I AM PART OF THIS GROUP, WE HAVE DONE 60,000 VISITS TO THE UKRAINE BECAUSE WE TALK ABOUT IT BEING HARD TO GET TO THE DOCTOR'S OFFICE, YOU HAVE AN ARTILLERY SHELL ON THE PLAYGROUND AND ROCKETS ALL OVER BUILDINGS, YOU GET PHOSPHOROUS BOMBS AROUND.

THE INABILITY TO DEAL WITH THESE DISEASES, A THEORY THAT BECAUSE THESE PATIENTS WOULD HAVE DIED IF THEY HAD A MUCH MORE SERIOUS CASE.

WE HAVE THIS VERY MILD VIRUS.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AT 78 ALSO SURVIVED.

WE ARE LUCKY. I THINK WITH OMICRON, PEOPLE JUST AREN'T CONCERNED.

WE WERE HOLED UP FOR A COUPLE YEARS AND I GOT IT, I JUST FELT LIKE I HAD A COLD.

I THINK PEOPLE HAVE KIND OF GIVEN UP.

THE QUESTION IS, WILL WE HAVE ANOTHER VERY SERIOUS STRAIN OR WILL WE BE PROTECTED BY OMICRON?

THE ANSWER LIES IN SOUTH AFRICA.

JUST A MONTH OR SO LATER, OMICRON CAME FROM SOUTH AFRICA.

YOU DEFINITELY CAN HAVE NEW VARIANT, AND WE NEED TO BE AWARE HE MAY WANT TO GO BACK TO THESE PROSPECTIVE STRATEGIES.

THE NUMBER ONE THING IN THIS ADMINISTRATION AND PREVIOUS ADMINISTRATION MISSED IS THE QUALITY OF INDOOR AIR.

YOU MENTIONED THAT, THE NEW YORK TIMES SURVEY YOU DID THAT HAD THE GRAPHICS.

ALL THESE DISEASE EXPERTS, THEY WEREN'T EXPERTS IN A SORT OF BOUTIQUE AREA CALLED FLUID DYNAMICS.

AND IT WAS QUITE CLEAR, THE VIRUS STARTS TO GO UP AND AROUND.

PRETTY SURE, IT'S EVERYPLACE.

WE OPEN THE WINDOWS, WE DIDN'T CLOSE AT ALL.

FOR TWO YEARS WE DIDN'T CLOSE.

OUR MOTTO WAS SAFER IN SCHOOL THAN HOME, AND IT PROVED OUT TO BE TRUE.

I THINK THAT HAVING BETTER BUILDINGS, REALLY FOCUSED ON THE VENTILATION.

THE WHITE HOUSE FINALLY CAUGHT UP.

I JUST TELL PEOPLE LOOK AT, WE WERE SO CAREFUL FOR TWO YEARS.

WE ALL GO TO THIS BARBECUE, EVERYBODY GOT SICK.

IN ONE FELL SWOOP.

SO THAT'S THE RISK.

YOU DON'T NEED TO WORRY, IT'S JUST DECORATIVE FACIAL WEAR.

ALL THAT CLOTH STUFF THEY RECOMMENDED DIDN'T HAVE ANY AFFECT.

BUT VERY HIGH-QUALITY MASKS AND THE RIGHT KIND OF INDOOR VENTILATION IS REALLY THE SECRET.

AND AS WINTER COMES, MAKE SURE YOU ARE IN A WELL VENTILATED ROOM.

AND DRINK A LITTLE GATORADE.

WHAT WOULD YOU SAY TO THE PEOPLE OUT THERE WHO ARE SAYING TO THEMSELVES, ALL OF THE SYMPTOMS, MANY OF THE SYMPTOMS OF THESE DISEASES THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT SOUND THE SAME, OR AT LEAST SIMILAR, YOU MENTIONED BEFORE THE SYMPTOMS ARE FAIRLY SIMILAR.

WHAT YOU SEE TWO PEOPLE OUT THERE ABOUT HOW THEY DEAL WITH THAT?

I WOULD KIND OF REVIEW THE SYMPTOMS, FEVER, FATIGUE, MONKEYPOX IS VERY DIFFERENT.

BUT IT'S LOCAL KNOWLEDGE, THAT'S THE WHOLE KEY.

IS IT IN YOUR AREA?

SHOULD YOU BE CONCERNED AND SHOULD YOU TAKE THE STEPS HERE?

IF YOU'RE OUT IN WYOMING AT SOME KIND OF A DUDE RANCH ON VACATION, CHANCES ARE YOU WON'T GET WEST NILE VIRUS.

IT'S PRETTY DRY.

THAT'S AGAIN WHERE I REALLY THINK THAT OUR LOCAL FAMILY PRACTITIONERS, PAS ARE THE REAL DEAL.

AS A PHYSICIAN, I CALL THEM UP AND SAY WHAT YOU THINK THIS IS?

DO YOU THINK THIS COULD BE WEST NILE?

HERE'S WHAT TO DO.

THE CDC I THINK RIGHTLY HAVE BEEN CRITICIZED, THEY JUST DIDN'T UNDERSTAND THE DYNAMICS OF THE VIRUS.

THEY ARE STILL A VERY GOOD SOURCE. THEY HAD BEEN THE PREMIER AGENCY IN TERMS OF TRACKING DISEASE.

AND IT'S GOING TO BE IN YOUR LOCAL PAPERS.

GOES BACK TO WHAT YOU SAID BEFORE AND THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE.

WHAT CAN WE DO TO HAVE AN IMPACT?

WHAT'S THE ANSWER?

I THINK ABOUT THIS MYSELF.

I TAKE FAR FEWER AIRPLANE TRIPS, THE ELECTRIC CAR, THEY SHOWED YOU COULD CORRELATE THIS TO DISEASE.

IT'S A BREEDER OF DISEASE.

THOSE ARE BIG FACTORS FOR DISEASE.

THE GLOBAL WARMING THING, IT'S MOTHER NATURE STRIKING BACK.

WE REALLY OFFENDED MOTHER NATURE BY RIPPING OUT ALL OUR FORESTS AND CARBON FUEL.

DO YOUR PART.

I TRAVEL LESS, I DO MY -- USE MY CAR LESS, I TRIED TO KEEP THE TEMPERATURE DOWN.

REGARDLESS OF WHERE YOU ARE ON THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM, MOTHER EARTH CAN ONLY TAKE SO MUCH AND I THINK WE HAVE OVER ABUSED HER.

THERE ARE THINGS THAT WE CAN DO AND WE SHOULD RECOGNIZE.

WE ARE NOT JUST TALKING ABOUT THE SEA LEVEL, WE ARE TALKING ABOUT INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

ALWAYS A PLEASURE TO SPEND SOME TIME WITH YOU.

WE ALWAYS LEARN SO MUCH.

YOU STAY WELL AND WE WILL TALK AGAIN SOON.

WONDERFUL AND INSIGHTFUL QUESTIONS AS ALWAYS.

METRO FOCUS IS MADE POSSIBLE BY SUE AND EDGAR THE THIRD.

BERNARD AND DENISE SCHWARTZ.

THE AMBROSE FOUNDATION.

AND BY. ♪

©2023 WNET. All Rights Reserved. 825 Eighth Avenue, New York, NY 10019

WNET is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Tax ID: 26-2810489