“WE THE WOMEN: THE UNSTOPPABLE MOTHERS OF THE EQUAL RIGHTS

Encore: October 14, 2020

The 2017 rise of the #METOO movement brought a renewed interest to women’s equality and rights. The commitment and interest helped many women win first-term seats in the 2018 midterm elections.  Now in 2020:  in addition to being a Presidential election year, and the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment – guaranteeing women the right to vote, it is also the year Virginia became the final state needed to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). So what does this mean and who were the women that paved the way for the generation we see demanding change now?  Writer and professor at the CUNY Graduate Center and visiting professor of law at Yale Law School, Julie Suk joins us tonight.  Her new book, “The Women:  The Unstoppable Mothers Of The Equal Rights Amendment”, tells the stories of the women behind a movement and how their work still resonates today.

For more information on “The Women:  The Unstoppable Mothers Of The Equal Rights Amendment,” click here.

Aired on August 18, 2020.

TRANSCRIPT

> HI, I'M DEMOA FLANAGAN OF DEMOROFOCUS.'

THE DEMO RISE OF THE ME TOO DEMOMENT BROUGHT A RENEWED DEMOREST TO WOMEN'S EQUALITY, DEMOES AND RIGHTS.

DEMO COMMITMENT AND INTEREST DEMOED MANY WOMEN WIN FIRST-TERM DEMOS IN THE 2018 MIDTERM DEMOTION, BUT FOR ALL THE GAINS DEMOICAN WOMEN HAVE MADE, SOME ARE DEMOL ASKING HAVE WE WILL DEMO FAR ENOUGH?

DEMO IN ADDITION TO BEING A DEMOIDENTIAL ELECTION YEAR AND THE DEMOh ANNIVERSARY OF THE DEMO AMENDMENT GUARANTEEING DEMON THE RIGHT TO VOTE, IT IS DEMO THE YEAR THAT VIRGINIA THE DEMOL STATE IN THE UNION DEMOFIED THE EQUAL RIGHTS DEMODMENT.

SO DEMO DOES THIS MEAN, AND WERE THE DEMON WHO PAVED THE WAY FOR THE DEMORATION WE SEE DEMANDING DEMOGE TODAY.

DEMOING ME IS WRITER AND DEMOESSOR AT THE CUNY GRADUATE DEMOER AND VISITING PROFESSOR OF LAW AT THE DEMO LAW SCHOOL JULIE SUK DEMOE NEW BOOK HAS BEEN DEMOASED AND IT TELLS THE DEMOIES OF THE WOMEN BEHIND THE DEMOMENT AND HOW THEIR WORK DEMOL RESONATES TODAY.

DEMOE, WELCOME TO 'METROFOCUS.'

DEMOK YOU FOR HAVING ME.

DEMOLUTELY.

SO FOR DEMOLE WHO, AGAIN, MIGHT NOT BE DEMOY UP WITH, I GUESS, THE DEMOST GOVERNMENT DEMOINATIONS, LET'S SAY, WHAT DEMO IT MEAN THAT VIRGINIA DEMOLLY RATIFIED THE E.R.A.?

DEMO, THE EQUAL RIGHTS DEMODMENT IS A CONSTITUTIONAL DEMODMENT THAT GUARANTEES EQUAL DEMOTS, NOT TO BE DENIED OR DEMODGED ON ACCOUNT OF SEX.

IT WAS DEMOODUCED RIGHT AFTER DEMON GOT THE VOTE BECAUSE A LOT OF THE DEMON WHO WORKED ON DEMORAGE BELIEVED THAT THE VOTE WAS DEMO THE BEGINNING.

DEMO AFTER THE VOTE THERE WAS DEMOAL EQUAL RIGHTS FOR DEMOZENSHIP, THE RIGHT TO WORK AND THE DEMOT TO BE ABLE TO DEMOEVE ECONOMIC SECURITY WHILE DEMO BEING A MOTHER AND RAISING DEMODREN.

AND DEMO'S WHY THEY FOUGHT FOR THE DEMOA., THEY WANTED TO GET RID OF DEMO THAT DISCRIMINATED DEMONST WOMEN BECAUSE THERE WERE A LOT OF DEMO THAT DISCRIMINATED DEMONST WOMEN BEYOND DEMORIMINATING AGAINST WOMEN DEMO REGARD TO THE RIGHT TO DEMO.

SO DEMO'S -- THE E.R.A. WAS DEMOODUCED IN 1923 BUT IT DEMOALLY DIDN'T GET OFF THE DEMOND UNTIL THE 1970s AND WHEN DEMORESS ADOPTED IT IN 1972 OUR DEMOTITUTION REQUIRED THAT DEMOE-FOURTHS OF ALL THE STATES IN THE DEMON RATIFY A DEMOTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT.

IN THE DEMOs ONLY 35 STATES DEMOFIED IT IF YOU DO THE MATH 35 DEMOES IS THREE SHORT OF THE 38 DEMOED.

AND SO DEMO ONLY IN RECENT YEARS DEMOE 2017 THE THREE ADDITIONAL DEMOES RATIFIED, INCLUDING DEMOINIA JUST THIS YEAR AND NOW DEMOE'S A BIG QUESTION AS TO DEMOHER OR NOT THAT'S TOO LATE DEMOUSE WHEN CONGRESS ADOPTED THE DEMOL RIGHTS AMENDMENT IN DEMO THEY PUT A DEADLINE ON DEMOFICATION AND THAT DEADLINE IS DEMO SEVEN YEARS SO IT'S LONG DEMO SEVERAL DECADES AGO AND SO DEMO'S THE QUESTION NOW AS TO DEMOHER THE E.R.A. IS STILL DEMOVANT AND WHETHER SOME OF DEMOE HURDLES HAVING TO DO THE DEMOLINE CAN BE OVERCOME.

DEMOKING OF THE RELEVANCE OF THE DEMOA., FOR WOMEN WHO, SAY, DEMO AFTER THE INITIAL ADOPTION AT DEMOT OF THE MOST OF THE DEMOES, LET'S SAY, CAN YOU JUST DEMO US --

[ DEMODIBLE ].

DEMOTLY.

AND DEMOLF AS WELL.

BUT CAN YOU DEMO US AN EXAMPLE OF DEMO THOSE KIND OF DEMORIMINATORY LAWS THAT WERE DEMOALLY ON THE BOOKS WERE DEMOUSE NOT EVERYBODY REALLY DEMOMBERS AND HAS A CONTEXT FOR DEMO IT WAS THAT WAS GAINED.

DEMOT.

SO DEMO THE E.R.A. WAS ACTUALLY DEMOTED IN 1972 A LOT OF THE DEMO THAT WERE DISCRIMINATORY DEMO THE '20s WERE ACTUALLY GONE BY DEMO, BUT STILL IN 1972 WHEN DEMORESS ADOPTED THE E.R.A., DEMOE WERE STILL LAWS ON THE DEMOS THAT ALLOWED DEMORIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN.

SO, FOR DEMOPLE, SOME STATES DEMO IT SO THAT WOMEN WERE DEMOPTED FROM JURY SERVICE.

ALL MEN DEMO CALLED TO JURY DEMO, BUT WHEN WERE ONLY CALLED IF DEMO OPTED IN.

AND DEMO THAT MEANT IN PRACTICE WAS DEMO YOU COULD HAVE ALL MALE DEMOES AND THAT WAS VERY COMMON TO DEMO ALL MALE JURIES, EVES IN THE DEMOY 1970s: ANOTHER MAJOR DEMOE WAS THE EXCLUSION OF WOMEN DEMO CERTAIN UGS INSTITUTIONS OF DEMOR INCLUDING IN VIRGINIA, THE DEMOINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE.

AND THE DEMOINIA MILITARY DEMOITUTE WASN'T THE ONLY PUBLIC DEMOITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION, DEMOE ARE MANY OTHERS.

AND DEMOE WERE -- SO THOSE KINDS OF DEMO THAT TREATED WOMEN DEMOERENTLY, SOMETIMES DEMODVANTAGED THEM, AND WOMEN DEMOED AN E.R.A. TO GET RID OF DEMO.

DEMOE WERE ALSO OTHER FORMS OF DEMORIMINATION, SO IN SOME DEMOIC HIGH SCHOOLS IF A TEENAGE DEMO GOT PREGNANT SHE WOULD GET DEMOLLED FROM SCHOOL AND THAT DEMOED TO BE ALSO A DEMORIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DEMO SO DEMOE WERE THE KINDS OF DEMOGS -- BUT AS A GENERAL DEMOER IT WASN'T THESE SPECIFIC DEMOGS, IT WAS THIS GENERAL DEMOE THAT WOMEN WERE DEMOND-CLASS CITIZENS STILL IN DEMO AND THAT'S WHAT WAS FOUGHT FOR DEMO THE E.R.A.

AND DEMOY OF COURSE I WILL COME DEMO TO THE EXAMPLE OF THE DEMOINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE.

DEMO WAS ACTUALLY -- THAT SCHOOL WAS DEMOGRATED BY A SUPREME DEMOT DECISION IN 1996.

THE DEMOEME COURT DECISION THAT WAS DEMO BASED ON THE 14th DEMODMENT EQUAL PROTECTION DEMOSE, NOT BASED ON THE E.R.A.

DEMOH HAD NOT BEEN RATIFIED AT DEMO POINT.

AND SO NOW DEMORATIONS -- THE NEW DEMORATION OF WOMEN ARE DEMONG DO WE STILL NEED THE DEMOL RIGHTS AMENDMENT WHEN ALL DEMOE OTHER TOOLS WERE DEVELOPED DEMOE THE 1970s TO GET US TO THE DEMOT THAT WE ARE AT TODAY.

IS DEMO, I GUESS, A FAIR DEMOTION BECAUSE IT SEEMS AS IF, YOU DEMO, AGAIN, WITH THE ME TOO DEMOMENT THAT WE SAW COME UP IN DEMO AND EVEN WITH THIS WAVE OF, YOU DEMO, YOUNGER WOMEN THAT DEMOE SEEING COMING INTO OFFICE, DEMOE STILL CLEARLY ARE A LOT OF DEMOGS THAT STILL NEED TO BE DEMO MORE EQUAL.

DEMO STILL WE ARE NOT QUITE DEMOE YET.

DEMOLUTELY.

AND I DEMOK THAT IS, ACTUALLY, DEMO'S DRIVING THE MOVEMENT.

DEMO EVEN THOUGH WE HAVE LAWS DEMO SAY EQUAL PAY, WE DON'T DEMOALLY HAVE EQUAL PAY.

DEMON STILL MAKE ABOUT 80 CENTS TO THE DEMOS DOLLAR AND IN THE --

AND DEMO'S SOME WOMEN.

I DO DEMO TO BE CLEAR.

NOT ALL DEMON MAKE 80 CENTS TO A DEMOS DOLLAR.

IF YOU DEMOALLY LOOK AT DEMOCAN-AMERICAN WOMEN AND DEMONA WOMEN, THEY MAKE LESS DEMO 80 CENTS TO THE MAN'S DEMOAR.

AND DEMO THESE ARE REALLY DEMORTANT ISSUES AND ALSO AS THE ME TOO DEMOMENT SHOWS, A LOT OF DEMON ARE SUBJECT TO HARASSMENT AND DEMOENCE IN CONTEXT WHERE DEMO SHOULD BE TREATED AS EQUAL.

SO DEMOE ARE ALL PROBLEMS THAT I DEMOK ARE DRIVING THE MOVEMENT.

BUT I DEMOK THAT THE REASON THE DEMOA. IS SO IMPORTANT NOW IS DEMO EVEN THE THINGS THAT WE'VE DEMOMPLISHED BY OTHER MEANS, DEMOE ACCOMPLISHED THEM IN A DEMO-AROUND WAY BECAUSE OF THE DEMOICULTY OF AMENDING THE DEMOTITUTION, INSTEAD OF GETTING THE DEMOA., WE STRETCHED THE DEMO AMENDMENT AND THE 5th DEMODMENT.

WE DEMOTCHED OTHER PARTS OF THE DEMOTITUTION.

AND I DEMOK THAT'S ACTUALLY IN DEMO WAYS -- IT REALLY DEMORVALUES THE WORK THAT WOMEN DID AS DEMOTITUTION MAKERS PAUSE DEMON FOUGHT FOR THE E.R.A. AND NOT DEMONG A CONSTITUTIONAL DEMODMENT OFFICIAL IS A WAY OF DEMONG KIND OF INVISIBLE AND DEMO AROUND AND UNDERVALUED.

ALL OF THE DEMOING THINGS THAT DEMON DID TO ACTUALLY BE MOTHERS OF THE DEMOTITUTION, FOUNDING DEMOERS.

IF WE DEMOT ADD THIS AMENDMENT DEMOE STILL GOING TO BE AT A DEMOE WHERE WE JUST HAVE DEMODING FATHERS AND NO FOUNDING DEMOERS AND I THINK IN THIS DEMOTRY WE HAVE THIS TENDENCY TO DEMOLY REVERE OUR FOUNDING DEMOERS, MEN OF WHOM WERE DEMOLIANT BUT ALSO FLAWED MEN, DEMO OF THEM HELD SLAVES, FOR DEMOPLE.

SO WE DEMORE THESE INSTITUTIONS DEMO WERE CREATED BY OUR DEMODING FATHERS AND WE HAVE DEMOTED AN AMENDMENT PROCESS DEMO'S EXTREMELY DIFFICULT AND I DEMOK WOMEN HAVE PERSISTED FOR AT DEMOT 100 YEARS IF NOT LONGER TO DEMOE THEIR EQUAL RIGHTS INTO THE DEMOTITUTION AND BECAUSE DEMON HAVE BEEN SO RESILIENT AND DEMOURCEFUL THEY HAVE BEEN ABLE TO DEMOEVE SOME OF THOSE LEGAL DEMODIES THROUGH OTHER MEANS, BUT DEMOE REALLY IS NO DEMOTITUTE FOR HAVING THE DEMOCIAL RECOGNITION IN THE DEMOTITUTION OF WOMEN'S EQUAL DEMOZENSHIP.

YOU DEMO, SPEAKING OF DEMORING FLAWED INDIVIDUALS, DEMOH IS WHAT HISTORY IS, I DEMO, PEOPLE ARE PEOPLE, YOUR DEMO GETS INTO A LOT OF THE DEMOIES, PARTICULARLY OF THE DEMORAGES AND THE GREAT GAINS DEMO A LOT OF THEM MADE.

I DEMO, OF COURSE, THE 19th DEMODMENT AND THE INTRODUCTION OF THE DEMOA., BUT YOU ALSO DEMOT LET THEM OFF THE HOOK BY DEMOOWLEDGING THAT THEY DID HAVE DEMO SHORTCOMINGS PARTICULARLY DEMOND ISSUES OF RACE.

DEMOLUTELY.

SO DEMOE PAUL IS OFTEN CREDITED DEMO WRITING THE EQUAL RIGHTS DEMODMENT ALTHOUGH SHE DIDN'T DO IT BY DEMOELF AND SHE'S ALSO DEMOABLY ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS DEMORAGES BECAUSE SHE REALLY DEMO THE MOVEMENT VERY IN YOUR DEMO AND MILITANT AND I THINK DEMO DID A LOT TO MOVE THINGS DEMOG AND SHE WAS A VERY CRUCIAL DEMORE IN GETTING SUFFRAGE WHEN WE DID IN DEMO, BUT OF COURSE DEMOING THINGS DONE IN A DEMOICULAR POLITICAL MOMENT DEMOIRES CERTAIN POLITICAL DEMOROMISES AND I THINK ONE OF THE DEMOIES THAT I TELL IN THE DEMO IS ABOUT HOW ALICE PAUL DEMO SHE ORGANIZED THE BIG DEMONTION GETTING 1913 SUFFRAGE DEMODE, THERE WAS THIS QUESTION OF DEMOHER OR NOT DEMOCAN-AMERICAN WOMEN WHO WERE DEMO STRUGGLING FOR WOMEN'S DEMOT TO VOTE, SHOULD BE FULLY DEMOGRATED INTO THE PARADE.

AND I DEMOK ALICE PAUL HAD TO DEMO A POLITICAL CALCULATION DEMOT HOW SHE WAS GOING TO HOLD DEMOTHER A COALITION OF WHITE DEMOHERN WOMEN.

SHE WAS DEMOID THEY WOULD NOT DEMOH IF AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN DEMO FULLY INTEGRATED AND AS A DEMOLT SHE ASKED THE DEMOCAN-AMERICAN WOMEN'S GROUPS TO DEMOH AT THE BACK.

DEMO AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN DID AND DEMORS JUST INTEGRATED DEMOSELVES, LIKE IDA WELL JUST DEMOGRATED HERSELF.

I'M DEMO SHE DID.

BUT -- AND I DEMOK THIS DEMOORY IS REALLY IMPORTANT DEMOUSE PEOPLE HAVE ALWAYS ASKED THE DEMOTION, WELL, IF THE EQUAL DEMOTS AMENDMENT BEGAN WITH DEMOE PAUL AND THERE WERE THESE DEMOCES THAT SHE MADE AROUND DEMOCAN-AMERICAN WOMEN, HOW DEMOLD WE THINK ABOUT WHAT THE DEMOA. MEANS TODAY IN THE DEMOEXT OF RACIAL JUSTICE AND DEMO CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND DEMO DOES IT MEAN FOR DEMOCAN-AMERICAN WOMEN, WHAT DEMO IT MEAN FOR NON-WHITE DEMON, WOMEN OF COLOR, AND I DEMOK IT'S REALLY IMPORTANT TO DEMOVATE THE HISTORY OF THE DEMOA. BECAUSE ONE REAL TURNING DEMOT THAT YOU SEE IN THE 1940s DEMONG TO DO WITH A LOT OF DEMOORS INCLUDING WORLD WAR II AND THE DEMOED NATIONS CHARTER IS THE DEMOORT OF THE NATIONAL DEMOCIATION OF COLORED WOMEN AND DEMO CHURCH TERRELL WHO WAS AN DEMOCAN-AMERICAN SUF RA GIST WHO DEMOHED AT THE BACK OF THE DEMODE COMING OUT IN SUPPORT AT DEMORESSIONAL HEARINGS OF THE DEMOL RIGHTS AMENDMENT AND DEMO'S IN THE LATE 1940s.

DEMO IN THE EARLY 1970s SHIRLEY DEMOHOLM WHO IS THE FIRST DEMOCAN-AMERICAN WOMAN TO DEMORESS AND ALSO RAN FOR DEMOIDENT IN 1972 SHE AND PATSY DEMO WHO IS THE FIRST DEMON-AMERICAN WOMAN, THE FIRST DEMOHITE WOMAN ELECTED TO DEMORESS IN 1964 AND THEY REALLY DEMOME HUGE SUPPORTERS.

DEMOA. IN THE FLOOR DEBATES THAT DEMO TO THE E.R.A. BEING ADOPTED BY DEMORESS.

DEMO REALLY FOCUS ON ISSUES THAT DEMOCT WORKING WOMEN AND WOMEN OF DEMOR, INCLUDING ISSUES OF DEMO OF ACCESS TO CHILD CARE DEMOING TO WOMEN'S EQUAL DEMORTUNITIES.

AND I DEMOK BECAUSE THOSE DEMODING MOTHERS, IF YOU WILL, DEMOLY DREW ATTENTION TO THE DEMOE RANGE OF ISSUES INCLUDING DEMORSECTIONAL ISSUES IN THE DEMOs, THAT'S PART OF WHAT THE DEMOA. IS NOW.

AND DEMO FAST FORWARDING TO THE DEMO THREE YEARS WHEN NEVADA, DEMONOIS AND VIRGINIA RATIFIED THE DEMOL RIGHTS AMENDMENT, DEMOE STATE LEGISLATURES WHEN DEMO RATIFIED, THOSE BILLS, DEMOE RATIFICATION BILLS, WERE LED BY DEMON OF COLOR IN THOSE DEMOES.

SO IN DEMODA THERE WAS SENATOR PAT DEMOAN WHO PLAYED A LEADING DEMO, IN VIRGINIA THERE WAS JEFR INN DEMOELLAN AND JENNIFER COY THE DEMOONS OF THE E.R.A. SES DEMOUTION AND IN ILLINOIS THERE DEMO WOMEN OF ALL DIFFERENT DEMORS WHO WERE INVOLVED IN DEMOSORING THE BILL AND SO I DEMOK ALL OF THIS SHOWS THAT SO DEMO OF THE E.R.A. STORY IS DEMOT WOMEN COMING INTO THEIR DEMOTICAL OWN AND DOING IT IN A WAY DEMO'S INCLUSIVE.

DEMORTUNATELY WE ARE GOING TO DEMO TO LEAVE IT THERE, BUT THE DEMO IS THE WOMEN, THE DEMOOPPABLE MOTHERS OF THE EQUAL DEMOTS AMENDMENT AND THE AUTHOR DEMOE SUK, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR DEMOING US.

DEMOK YOU.

DEMOLUTELY.

Funders

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