METROFOCUS: APRIL 29, 2019

After the murder of an innocent attending Sabbath prayers Anti-Semitism in the United States continues to rise, the Jewish community asks, has “Never Again!” turned into “Never Is NOW!” Plus, presidential historian and Alexander Hamilton biographer Ron Chernow met the press at Saturday’s White House Correspondents’ Dinner. And, for three days PBS’ Nature goes live across America with an unprecedented look at the change from winter to spring in real time. We have your preview.

Aired on April 29, 2019.

TRANSCRIPT

> TONIGHT ON 'METROFOCUS,' AS THE PASSOVER HOLIDAY CAME TO A CLOSE THIS WEEKEND, A SYNAGOGUE IN CALIFORNIA BECAME A MURDER SCENE.

ACROSS THE COUNTRY, HOUSES OF WORSHIP WENT ON HIGH ALERT.

AND 'THE NEW YORK TIMES' APOLOGIZED FOR PRINTING AN IMAGE CRITICS SAY WAS REMINISCENT OF THE PROPAGANDA OF NAZI GERMANY.

THESE EVENTS HAVE THE JEWISH COMMUNITY ON EDGE AND ASKING HAS NEVER AGAIN TURNED INTO NEVER IS NOW?

> AND THEN RON CHERNOW.

HIS BEST LINES AND PRACTICES RACKED WITH SCANDAL AND CORRUPTION JUST AHEAD.

THOSE STORIES AND MORE AS 'METROFOCUS' STARTS RIGHT NOW.

THIS IS 'METROFOCUS' WITH RAFAEL PI ROMAN, JACK FORD, AND JENNA FLANAGAN.

'METROFOCUS' IS MADE POSSIBLE BY JAMES AND MERRYL TISCH, SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III, THE SYLVIA A. AND SIMON B. POYTA PROGRAMING ENDOWMENT TO FIGHT ANTI-SEMITISM.

BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ, ROSALIND P. WALTER, BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG, AND BY --

CORPORATE FUNDING FOR 'METROFOCUS' WAS PROVIDED BY MUTUAL OF AMERICA, YOUR RETIREMENT COMPANY.

AND BY PG&E, SERVING CUSTOMERS, STRENGTHENING THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY AND INVESTING IN THE FUTURE.

WE'RE ALL PARTNERS IN CREATION, NO MATTER WHAT FAITH OR RELIGION YOU'RE FROM, WE ALL HAVE TO MAKE THIS WORLD A BETTER PLACE TO PREVENT THIS FROM EVER HAPPENING AGAIN.

GOOD EVENING, AND WELCOME TO 'METROFOCUS.'

I'M JENNA FLANAGAN.

SATURDAY'S ATTACK AT A CHABAD OF POWAY SYNAGOGUE NEAR SAN DIEGO HAPPENED EXACTLY SIX MONTHS TO THE DAY THAT 11 WORSHIPERS WERE KILLED AT THE TREE OF LIFE SYNAGOGUE IN PITTSBURGH.

THE SHOOTING ALSO OCCURRED AS 'THE NEW YORK TIMES' WAS ADMONISHED AND LATER APOLOGIZED FOR PUBLISHING THIS ILLUSTRATION, ONE THAT MANY SAY IS SIMILAR TO ANTI-JEWISH PROPAGANDA SEEN IN NAZI GERMANY.

THE STATISTICS SUPPORT IT.

ANTI-SEMITISM IN AMERICA IS GROWING.

THE QUESTION IS WHY NOW, AND HOW DO WE GET A HANDLE ON THE HATE.

JOINING ME NOW WITH INSIGHT IS RABBI MARK WILDS, FOUNDER AND DIRECTOR OF THE MANHATTAN JEWISH EXPERIENCE, AND EVAN BERNSTEIN, REGIONAL DIRECTOR OF THE ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE.

GENTLEMEN, WELCOME TO YOU BOTH TO THE PROGRAM.

THANK YOU.

THANK YOU.

FIRST, AGAIN, I ALWAYS START BY ASKING WHAT WAS YOUR REACTION TO HEARING ABOUT THIS LATEST SHOOTING AT A SYNAGOGUE.

WELL, FIRST OF ALL, I JUST WANT TO EXPRESS OUR CONDOLENCES TO THE FAMILY OF LORI, WHO IS AN EXTRAORDINARY WOMAN IN RABBI GOLDSTEIN'S COMMUNITY, THE SYNAGOGUE THAT WAS ATTACKED.

THE FIRST REACTION OBVIOUSLY IS SHOCK AND HORROR, AGAIN.

THIS KEEPS HAPPENING.

AND AS SOMEONE WHO CONDUCTS SERVICES EVERY SHABBAT, AS I WALK TO SYNAGOGUE, I'M ALWAYS THINKING ABOUT THIS NOW.

IT'S ON MY MIND.

BUT MY REACTION IS THE SAME ONE AS THE VERY HEROIC RABBI, WHO CALLED FOR MORE PEOPLE TO COME TO SERVICES THIS COMING SABBATH, THIS COMING SHABBAT.

HE DIDN'T JUST CALL FOR JEWS BUT MEMBERS OF ALL FAITH TO ATTEND THEIR HOUSES OF WORSHIP, BECAUSE WE CANNOT BE DISMAYED OR DETERRED.

TERRORISM AT THE END OF THE DAY HAS TO BE CONFRONTED AND WE CAN'T BE LIVING IN FEAR.

WE NEED TO DO WHAT THE RABBI CALLED US TO DO WHICH IS COME BACK.

AND THE RABBI HAS SOME INCREDIBLY COMPELLING WORDS AND STORIES ABOUT THAT DAY.

EVAN, WHAT WERE YOU THINKING WHEN YOU FIRST HEARD ABOUT THIS?

GOING INTO SHABBAT WAS PASSOVER.

AFTER WHAT HAPPENED IN PITTSBURGH JUST SIX MONTHS EARLIER, GOING IN, KNOWING IT WAS SIX MONTHS ANNIVERSARY, YOU'RE THINKING ABOUT THOSE THINGS.

AND THE LAST THING YOU'RE THINKING ABOUT IS COMING OUT OF SHABBAT AND HEARING ABOUT ANOTHER SHOOTING, AND ESPECIALLY JUST WE'VE SEEN SO MANY OF THESE KINDS OF ACTS OF HATE IN HOUSES OF WORSHIP AROUND THE GLOBE, IN THE UNITED STATES, FROM THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY TO THE MUSLIM FAITH.

AGAIN, LIKE RABBI SAID, THE CONDOLENCES GO OUT TO THE ENTIRE COMMUNITY, TO THE RABBI, TO LORI'S FAMILY.

IT'S JUST DEVASTATION AGAIN FOR THE JEWISH COMMUNITY, NOT ONLY IN SAN DIEGO, BUT ACROSS THE GLOBE.

I THINK THERE IS JUST A GENERAL FEAR NOW.

SO MANY PEOPLE I'VE SPOKEN TO ARE REALLY THINKING TWICE ABOUT GOING TO SYNAGOGUE ON SHABBAT.

AND THAT'S THE LAST THING THAT RABBI GOLDSTEIN WANTS AND THE LAST THING THE COMMUNITY WANTS.

I THINK WE NEED AS A STRONG COMMUNITY COME TOGETHER AND STAND UP TO THIS KIND OF HATE AND SHOW THAT WE'RE NOT GOING TO BE DETERRED FROM BEING JEWISH AND BEING FAITHFUL TO OUR RELIGION.

BUT THERE IS SOMETHING TO BE SAID ABOUT THE RISE IN WHITE NATIONALISM AND ANTI-SEMITISM AT THE SAME TIME IN THIS COUNTRY.

AS I MENTIONED IN THE LEAD, THERE WAS A VERY UNFORTUNATE, I DON'T EVEN KNOW, DISGUSTING IMAGE THAT WAS PUBLISHED IN 'THE NEW YORK TIMES,' AND THAT SEEMS TO BE FEEDING INTO THE SAME SORT OF NARRATIVE AS IT'S BECOMING, I DON'T WANT TO SAY NORMALIZED, BUT WE'RE SEEING IT MORE AND MORE.

SO I'M WONDERING FOR BOTH OF YOU, WHERE ARE YOU SEEING THE AMERICAN ZEITGEIST FOR LACK OF BETTER DESCRIPTION AROUND THE SUBJECT OF HATE?

FOR 'THE NEW YORK TIMES' TO PUBLISH BOTH IN PRINT AND ONLINE A CARTOON LIKE THAT, THE DEMOCRATICALLY ELECTED PRIME MINISTER OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL, WHETHER YOU LIKE HIM OR NOT, HE IS A LEADER, AND HE WAS ELECTED BY A MAJORITY VOTE AND HIS PEOPLE.

AND FOR 'THE NEW YORK TIMES,' THAT KIND OF PUBLICATION TO PRINT SUCH A REALLY DISGUSTING AND DISGRACEFUL CARTOON, IT JUST BEGINS TO LEGITMATE AND TO MAKE IT OKAY TO DEPICT CERTAIN LEADERS IN A CERTAIN KIND OF WAY.

I'M ALL FOR FREE SPEECH.

FREE SPEECH IS AN INCREDIBLE PILLAR OF THIS GREAT COUNTRY, AS IT IS IN ISRAEL AND OTHER DEMOCRATIC COUNTRIES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

WE CANNOT GIVE UP ON FREE SPEECH, BUT WE HAVE TO BE RESPECTFUL BECAUSE THERE ARE CRAZIES THROUGHOUT WHO SOMEHOW CAN PERHAPS BE INSPIRED BY WHAT BECOMES A NORMALIZATION OF HATE.

AND EVAN, YOUR THOUGHTS.

SO MANY PEOPLE THAT ARE PERPETRATING THESE ACTS OF HATE ARE LONE WOLVES.

THEY'RE NOT PART OF ONE PARTICULAR GROUP, AND THEY ARE BEING RADICALIZED, ONI KNOW, WITH WHAT THEY'RE READING, WHAT THEY'RE SEEING.

'THE NEW YORK TIMES' PUBLISHED SUCH A HORRIFIC ANTI-SEMITIC CARTOON, THE KIND OF CARTOONS WE SEE RIGHT NOW IN MIDDLE EASTERN NEWSPAPERS, WHAT WE SAW DURING THE AGE OF THE HOLOCAUST IN EUROPE, IT WAS APPALLING, AND WE'RE SHOCKED BY IT.

BUT I THINK IT PLAYS TO WHAT'S GOING ON ALSO ON THE INTERNET.

WE'RE SEEING MANY MORE OF THESE KINDS OF MEMES AND IMAGES PUT OUT THERE.

WE HAVE TO HOLD PLATFORMS ACCOUNTABLE FOR WHAT'S GOING ON.

WE NEED TO HOLD 'THE NEW YORK TIMES' ACCOUNTABLE.

THERE NEEDS TO BE SOME SERIOUS LOOKING INTO, WHAT TOOK PLACE AND HOW THAT HAPPENED AND HOW THE EDITORIAL BOARD LET THAT HAPPEN.

THIS IS NOT THE FIRST TIME.

IT'S MAYBE ONE OF THE MOST PROM MEANT TIME.

PEOPLE ARE SEEING THIS.

THEY'RE SEEING THESE KINDS OF ADS AND IT'S BECOMING NORMALIZED AND IT'S NORMAL FOR THEM TO ACT OUT ON IT.

PEOPLE ARE ACT OUT WITH WORDS ON BLOGS AND ON FACEBOOK AND ON TWITTER, BUT NOW CERTAIN PEOPLE ARE ACTING OUT WITH HATE AND WITH GUNS.

AND WE CANNOT ALLOW FOR THAT TO CONTINUE TO METASTASIZE ANY FURTHER THAN IT HAS.

I COULD GO SO MUCH DEEPER INTO THE PROBLEM OF THE RADICALIZATION ONLINE.

HOWEVER, I DO WANT TO TURN TO THE EXAMPLE THAT WE SAW ONE OF THE STORIES THAT CAME OUT OF THIS SHOOTING WAS THE EXAMPLE OF MS. KAYE, LORI KAYE WHO LOST HER LIFE.

I'M WONDERING IF THERE IS SOMETHING POSITIVE THAT WE CAN TAKE AWAY FROM THIS STORY, AS HORRIFIC AS IT WAS, THE WAY THIS WOMAN LIVED HER LIFE, THE WAY SHE WAS ACTUALLY THE ONE WHO STEPPED IN FRONT OF THE BULLETS TO SAVE HER RABBI.

WHAT EVAN JUST MENTIONED BEFORE ABOUT COMING ON PASSOVER, WHICH IS THE CELEBRATION OF OUR FREEDOM.

AND NOT ONLY THAT, BUT LORI CAME TO SYNAGOGUE TO RECITE A SPECIAL PRAYER THAT'S SAID ON THE LAST DAY OF THE HOLIDAY, TO REMEMBER HER FAMILY THAT IS NOT WITH HER.

AND I THINK AS THE RABBI SAID, RABBI GOLDSTEIN OF THE SYNAGOGUE, WE WANT TO DO SOMETHING POSITIVE WITH SOMETHING NEGATIVE.

WE WANT TO REACT.

IN JUDAISM, THEOLOGICALLY, WE DON'T PRETEND TO HAVE ALL THE ANSWERS FOR EVERYTHING.

ONE OF MY TEACHERS USED TO SAY WHEN SOMETHING BAD HAPPENS, THE JEW DOESN'T ASK WHY, BECAUSE SOMETIMES THAT'S AN EXERCISE IN FUTILITY.

WE DON'T ALWAYS REALLY KNOW WHY, BUT WE ALWAYS ASK WHAT.

WHAT CAN WE DO WITH THE SWAYS.

AND WHAT CAN WE DO THE W THE LEGACY AND MEMORY OF THIS GREAT WOMAN, WHO BY THE WAY WAS THE ONE WHO SECURED THE LOAN FOR THIS SYNAGOGUE THAT WAS ATTACKED, 35 YEARS AGO.

THIS WOMAN WAS DEVOTED TO HER COMMUNITY FOR GIVING AND TO STANDING UP AND PROTECTING HER RABBI AND HER TEACHER.

IF WE'RE NOT GOING TO DO SOMETHING POSITIVE WITH THAT, THAT WOULD JUST BE A TERRIBLE SHAME.

SHE DID NOT DIE IN VAIN.

AND ONE OF THE WAYS TO MAKE SURE SHE DIDN'T IS TO COME OUT MORE TO OUR HOUSES OF WORSHIP AND TO DO RANDOM ACTS OF KINDNESS AND TO LIVE THE KIND OF LIFE THAT LORI LIVED.

EVAN, VERY QUICKLY, BECAUSE WE'RE RUNNING OUT OF TIME.

I KNOW YOU HAVE DONE SO MUCH WORK ABOUT REACHING OUT TO OTHER FAITH-BASED GROUPS TO TRY TO CREATE THOSE CONNECTIONS AND CREATE THOSE CONVERSATIONS.

IS THAT THE DIRECTION THAT WE NEED TO BE HEADED?

WE NEED TO FIND EVERY DIRECTION POSSIBLE.

WHERE DOES HATE COME FROM?

ANTI-SEMITISM DOESN'T PARTICULARLY COME FROM INSIDE THE JEWISH COMMUNITY.

IT COMES FROM OUTSIDE THE JEWISH COMMUNITY.

A LOT OF TIMES WE TRY TO FIGHT ANTI-SEMITISM IN AN ECHO CHAMBER.

WHAT WE NEED TO THE IS GET OUT TO THE OTHER WHETHER IT'S THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY, THE MUSLIM COMMUNITY, OTHER COMMUNITIES, SEEK COMMUNITIES AND HAVE THOSE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT WHAT WE HAVE IN COMMON.

HATE IS A LEARNED BEHAVIOR.

UNLESS WE HAVE CONVERSATIONS WER WITH OTHER PEOPLE, WE'RE NEVER GOING TO BE ABLE TO PUSH BACK IN A MEANINGFUL WAY.

WE NEED TO START IN SCHOOLS AND OTHER HOUSES OF WORSHIP OTHER THAN OUR OWN SO THESE KIND OF THINGS DON'T HAPPEN AND WE CONTINUE TO STAND TOGETHER.

I THINK ONE THING THAT CAN HAPPEN FROM THIS IS THERE HAS BEEN SO MANY OF THESE KINDS OF SHOOTINGS THAT THERE IS A FATIGUE AS YOU MENTIONED EARLIER ABOUT THESE KIND OF THINGS HAPPENING.

THE ONLY WAY THAT WE KNOW WE HAVE THAT FATIGUE IS WHEN WE ALL STAND TOGETHER.

UNIFIED, ONE STRONG VOICE, AND I THINK BASED ON THIS HORRIFIC ACT THAT TOOK PLACE IN SAN DIEGO, WE'VE SEEN THAT KIND OF OUTPOURING OF SUPPORT, ESPECIALLY IN THE SAN DIEGO COMMUNITY.

BUT WE NEED TO CONTINUE THAT ACROSS THIS COUNTRY.

I THINK THAT'S AN EXCELLENT NOTE TO LEAVE IT ON.

GENTLEMEN, I WANT TO THANK YOU BOTH FOR JOINING US ON 'METROFOCUS' TO DISCUSS ANOTHER HARD, HARD WEEKEND WE'VE BEEN THROUGH.

THANK YOU.

THANK YOU.

> I CONFESS THAT I WAS SURPRISED WHEN I RECEIVED THE INVITATION TO SPEAK HERE TONIGHT.

I MEAN, I KNEW THEY WEREN'T APPROACHING ME AS AN INTERNATIONAL SEX SYMBOL, RIGHT?

THEN OLIVIER TOLD ME THAT THEY WANTED TO TRY BORING AT THIS YEAR'S DINNER, AND I SAID -- I SAID OH, I CAN DELIVER ON THAT BIG-TIME.

A HISTORIAN, NOT A COMEDIAN HEADLINED THIS WEEKEND'S WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENTS DINNER.

RON CHERNOW HAS WRITTEN CRITICALLY ACLIMBED BIOGRAPHIES OF GEORGE WASHINGTON AND HAMILTON WITH THE LATTER SERVING AS THE INSPIRATION FOR 'HAMILTON.'

IT TOOK SOME JABS AT PRESIDENT TRUMP IN THE PROCESS.

AS YOU ALL KNOW, ON TUESDAY, THE PRESIDENT LET IT BE KNOWN THAT HE WANTED MEMBERS OF HIS ADMINISTRATION TO STAY AWAY FROM THIS DINNER.

AND AT FIRST I WAS PUZZLED BY THIS NEWS, BUT THEN I LEARNED THAT A RUMOR WAS CIRCULATING IN WASHINGTON THAT I WAS GOING TO BE READING ALLOW FROM THE REDACTED PORTIONS OF THE MUELLER REPORT, AND EVERYTHING WAS EXPLAINED.

NOW, AS BEST I CAN TELL, WASHINGTON COMMITTED ONLY ONE MAJOR BLUNDER AS PRESIDENT.

HE FAILED TO PUT HIS NAME ON MT.

VERNON, AND THEREFORE BUNGLED AN EARLY OPPORTUNITY AT BRANDING.

CLEARLY DEFICIENT IN THE ART OF THE DEAL, THE POOR MAN HAD TO SETTLE FOR THE LOWLY TITLE OF FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY.

A VERY SAD STORY.

ALEXANDER HAMILTON, AN IMMIGRANT WHO ARRIVED, THANK GOD, BEFORE THE COUNTRY WAS FULL.

I FRANKLY -- I DON'T KNOW WHY THEY LET THE GUY IN.

CLEARLY SOMEBODY HAD SLIPPED UP AT THE SOUTHERN BORDER.

AS WE HEAD INTO ANOTHER ELECTION SEASON, I WILL LEAVE YOU WITH ONE FINAL GEM FROM TWAIN.

POLITICIANS IN DIAPERS MUST BE CHANGED OFTEN AND FOR THE SAME REASON.

GOOD NIGHT AND GOD BLESS AMERICA.

CHERNOW'S MOST RECENT BOOK EXAMINES THE LIFE OF OUR 18th PRESIDENT, ULYSSES S. GRANT.

AS A YOUNG MAN, GRANT HAD BEEN A MEDIOCRE CADET AT WEST POINT.

DURING THE MEXICAN WAR, HE FOUGHT BRAVELY BUT WAS LATER ASKED TO RESIGN FROM THE ARMY BECAUSE OF HIS SEVERE DRINKING PROBLEM.

IN CIVILIAN LIFE HE FAILED IN MOST OF HIS ENDEAVORS.

YET DESPITE THIS LESS THAN REMARKABLE PAST, HE BECAME BY FAR THE GREATEST GENERAL FIGHTING FOR THE UNION DURING THE CIVIL WAR.

HE WENT ON TO SERVE TWO TERMS AS PRESIDENT, BUT HIS PRESIDENCY WAS MARRED BY SCANDAL AND CORRUPTION.

I HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO SPEAK WITH RON CHERNOW SHORTLY AFTER THE BIOGRAPHY'S PUBLICATION AND BEGIN THE CONVERSATION BY ASKING HIM TO SEPARATE GRANT FACT FROM GRANT FICTION.

I REALLY TRIED TO RETIRE THREE CHIEF MYTHS, ONE THAT HE WAS A CRUDE AND BRUTAL GENERAL, TWO, THAT HE SOMEHOW STUMBLED THROUGH THE CIVIL WAR IN AN ALCOHOLIC HAZE, AND THREE, THAT HE EVER SAW A FAILED PRESIDENT THAT WAS MARRED BY CORRUPTION AND CRONYISM.

I DISCOVERED ALL THREE OF THOSE STEREOTYPES WERE COMPLETELY WRONG.

MANY OF HIS CLOSEST ASSOCIATES WHO HAD BEEN WITH HIM FOR YEARS, THEY THEMSELVES DIDN'T UNDERSTAND THIS GUY, THIS SEEMINGLY SO TYPICAL NORMAL GUY COULD BE SO UNBELIEVABLY SUCCESSFUL AT WAR.

YOU DISCOVERED THE SECRET?

WELL, YOU KNOW, IT'S INTERESTING, BECAUSE QUITE UNLIKE THE OTHER PEOPLE THAT I'VE WRITTEN ABOUT, WHOM I FELT WERE BUILT FOR SUCCESS, GRANT UP UNTIL THE TIME OF THE CIVIL WAR HAS SUFFERED ONE BUSINESS FAILURE AFTER ANOTHER.

IN THE 1850s HE'S REDUCED TO SELLING FIREWOOD ON STREET CORNERS IN ST. LOUIS.

IT WAS PATHETIC.

I HAD NO IDEA HE HAD SUNK SO LOW.

YEAH, HE ACTUALLY HAS TO PAWN HIS WATCH ONE CHRISTMAS TO BUY GIFTS FOR HIS FAMILY.

FINALLY, HE IS REDUCED AND IN HIS LATE 30s.

HE IS REDUCED TO GOING TO HIS FATHER WHO OWNED A LEATHER GOODS STORE IN ILLINOIS AND BEGGING FOR A JOB AS A CLERK.

HE TAKES A JOB AS A CLERK.

JUNIOR TO HIS TWO YOUNGER BROTHERS.

YOU CAN IMAGINE WHAT A HUMILIATION THAT IS.

AND THEN THIS MAN WHO FAILED AT ONE THING AFTER ANOTHER, THE CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT.

TWO MONTHS LATER, HE IS A COLONEL.

FOUR MONTHS LATER HE IS A BRIGADIER GENERAL.

TEN MONTHS LATER HE IS A MAJOR GENERAL.

AND THEN THIS FAILED LEATHER GOODS STORE CLERK, BY THE END OF THE WAR IS GENERAL IN CHIEF AND HAS A MILLION SOLDIERS UNDER HIS COMMAND.

IT'S UNBELIEVABLE.

DO YOU KNOW ANY OTHER FIGURE IN AMERICAN HISTORY OR HISTORY ANYWHERE.

NO.

THAT HAS SUCH A CONTRASTING LIFE?

NO, NOT SUCH LOWS.

THERE IS A QUALITY TO THIS BOOK THAT'S UNLIKE ANYTHING I'VE WRITTEN BEFORE.

AND IT'S PATHOS.

IT'S THE STORY OF A FUNDAMENTALLY DECENT HARD-WORKING MAN WHO IS REPEATEDLY DEFEATED BY CIRCUMSTANCES.

AND IT TURNED OUT THAT HE ACQUIRE KIND OF A NARROW SET OF CONDITIONS FOR ALL OF THESE WONDERFUL HIDDEN TRAITS.

WHAT WERE SOME OF THOSE TRAITS?

YOU KNOW, AN AMAZING PERSEVERANCE AND DARING.

I THINK BECAUSE HE HAD HAD SO MUCH FAILURE BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR, WHEN THE WAR BREAKS OUT, HE HAS NOTHING TO DO AND EVERYTHING TO GAIN, AND HE TAKES THESE COLOSSAL RISKS THAT ALL OF THESE WELL BORN GENERALS WOULD NOT.

LET'S TALK ABOUT THE COMPARISON OF GRANT AND LEE.

WELL, THIS IS VERY, VERY INTERESTING, BECAUSE ULYSSES S.

GRANT CAPTURE AT LEAST CONFEDERATE ARMIES DUR, FORT DONALDSON, VICKSBURG AND ROBERT E. LEE'S ARMY AT APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE.

ROBERT E. LEE NEVER CAPTURED A SINGLE UNION ARMY.

SO WHY SHOULD LEE BE CONSIDERED THE GREATER GENERAL?

ALL THESE PEOPLE WHO SAY WELL, IT WAS SIMPLY THE POPULATION OF THE NORTH WAS LARGER, IT WAS THE MANUFACTURING POWER OF THE NORTH.

BEFORE GRANT FACES OFF AGAINST LEE IN LEE IN 1864, THERE HAVE BEEN SIX GENERALS WHO TRIED TO DEFEAT LEE, ALL OF WHOM FAILED WITH THE SAME ADVANTAGES OF MANPOWER AND THE MATERIEL THAT GRANT HAD.

GRANT WAS A DAZZLING STRATEGIST.

AND TALKING ABOUT THAT, GRANT BELIEVED WITH LINCOLN THAT THE PROPER PATH TO END THE WAR OR AFTER THE WAR WAS TO BE MAGNANIMOUS WITH THE CONFEDERACY.

RIGHT.

INCLUDING THE TOP LEAD MILITARY LEADERS, WHICH IS WHY HE WAS SO GENEROUS TO LEE AT APPOMATTOX.

BUT AS HISTORY PROVED, THAT WAS INCOMPATIBLE WITH CREATING A SOUTH, WITH FUNDAMENTALLY TRANSFORMING THE SOUTH INTO A PLACE THAT WAS TRULY FREE, TRULY EQUAL, AND TRULY SAFE FOR BLACK --

WHAT'S THE CENTRAL PARADOX OF GRANT'S LIFE.

HIS TERMS ARE SO MAGNANIMOUS AND GENEROUS AT APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE THAT GRANT AT THAT POINT BECOMES THE SYMBOL OF NORTH/SOUTH RECONCILIATION.

HE REFUSES TO ENTER RICHMOND WHICH WAS THE CAPITAL OF THE CONFEDERACY AFTER IT FELL.

HIS WIFE JULIA WANTED HIM TO GO.

HE SAID JULIA, DON'T YOU UNDERSTAND HOW BITTER DEFEAT IS FOR THESE PEOPLE.

TALK ABOUT HIS PRESIDENCY, THE FAILURES AND THE TRUIUMPHS.

THERE WERE FAILURES.

THERE WERE A LOT OF SCANDALS.

HE DID NOT CONDONE THEM.

HE PROSECUTED THEM VIGOROUSLY.

TALKING ABOUT HOW NAIVE GRANT COULD BE.

HE WAS VERY BLIND TO THE MACHINATIONS OF PEOPLE IN HIS IMMEDIATE VICINITY.

BUT WHAT I TRIED TO SHOW IN THE BOOK IS THE SCANDALS, THE REAL AND WE'RE TALKING ABOUT WERE THE MINOR STORY OF HIS ADMINISTRATION.

HIS EFFORT TO CRUSH THE KU KLUX KLAN, GRANT'S JUSTICE DEPARTMENT BRINGS 3,000 DOYMTS AGAINST THE KLAN.

HIS EFFORTS TO PROTECT THE AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY, THE FACT THAT HE BECAME THE MOST IMPORTANT PRESIDENT FOR THE AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY BETWEEN ABRAHAM LINCOLN AND LYNDON JOHNSON.

THIS SEEMS TO BE AS A COUNTRY A MUCH BIGGER AND MORE IMPORTANT STORY.

ALL RIGHT, RON.

IT'S A REALLY WONDERFUL BOOK.

THERE IS SO MUCH IN HERE.

WE JUST BEGAN TO TOUCH THE SERVICE.

'GRANT' BY RON CHERNOW.

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

MY PLEASURE.

THANK YOU.

> SPRING IS ONE OF NATURE'S GREATEST PERFORMANCES.

AND FOR THREE CONSECUTIVE NIGHTS THIS WEEK, THE PBS AWARD WINNING SERIES 'NATURE' WILL SPOTLIGHT THE MAGIC OF SPRING BY BROADCASTING LIVE FROM ICONIC LOCATIONS ACROSS AMERICA.

FROM THE SIERRA NEVADA TO THE EVERGLADES, FROM INNER CITY PARKS TO REMOTE WILDERNESS RESERVES, AMERICAN SPRING LIFE WILL HIGHLIGHT SOME OF THE MOST PIVOTAL MOMENTS IN NATURE'S CALENDAR.

HERE IS A PREVIEW.

THIS SPRING --

THEY'RE GOING TO COME BYMENT WE'RE GOING TO GET SOME SHOTS.

NATURE GOES LIVE.

IF YOU CAN FIND THE BIRD, YOU CAN FIND THE NEST.

AMERICAN SPRING LIVE.

IT'S A THREE-NIGHT ADVENTURE WHERE SCIENTISTS WILL MAKE REAL-TIME DISCOVERIES.

I THINK THIS HAS HATCHED TODAY.

ABOUT THE SEASON THAT SETS THE NATURAL WORLD IN MOTION.

THIS YEAR, SPRING IS COMING TO YOU LIVE ON 'NATURE.'

AND JOINING US NOW TO TELL US MORE ABOUT 'AMERICAN SPRING LIVE' IS THE EXECUTIVE PRODUCER OF 'NATURE' FRED KAUFMAN.

FRED, WELCOME BACK TO THE PROGRAM.

SO, FRED, SPRING IS A BEAUTIFUL SEASON, AND THE WEATHER IS USUALLY NICE.

NOT ALWAYS.

BUT ASIDE FROM THAT, WHY SPRING?

WELL, SPRING IS REALLY -- IT'S NATURE'S GREATEST OUTDOOR PARTY.

EVERYTHING HAPPENS IN SPRING.

EVERYBODY COMES OUT.

THERE IS REAL EXCITEMENT.

THE LONGER DAYS, THE WARMING TEMPERATURES, THE MELTING SNOW TRIGGERS A LOT OF ACTIVITY, A LOT OF FOOD.

ANIMALS KNOW THAT.

SO YOU HAVE BIRD MIGRATIONS.

THE MOST EXCITING THING IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM, BIRTHS.

ALL THE BIRTHS ARE TRIGGERED.

IN SPRING, BECAUSE THE COLD WEATHER IS OVER AND THERE IS PLENTY OF FOOD FOR ANIMALS TO ACCESS EASILY, SO THERE ARE A LOT OF BIRTHS.

THERE IS POLLINATION.

THERE IS A LOT GOING ON IN THE NATURAL -- LISTEN, WE LOVE SPRING.

HOW MUCH DO WE LOOK FORWARD TO SPRING?

SO YOU CAN IMAGINE IN NATURE HOW MUCH THE ANIMALS REALLY DO LOOK FORWARD TO IT.

AND WHY 'LIVE'?

WHY LIVE?

AN INTERESTING QUESTION.

IT TAKES US TWO YEARS TO MAKE A FILM.

BECAUSE NOTHING HAPPENS WHEN YOU THINK IT WILL.

AND SO THIS IS A VERY DIFFERENT MUSCLE FOR ALL OF US.

BUT THERE IS AN EXCITEMENT WITH 'LIVE.'

HOPEFULLY WE'LL HAVE A BIGGER PAYOFF.

BUT THERE IS A SPONTANEITY.

IT'S UNPREDICTABLE.

AND WE'VE CREATED THESE SEQUENCES WHERE GOING TO THESE PLACES WHERE IT'S SOMEWHAT PREDICTABLE, OR AT THE VERY LEAST THERE IS A PROCESS TO FINDING OUT THINGS THAT I THINK WILL BE EXCITING.

FOR EXAMPLE, WE'RE GOING TO BE LIVE AT BRACKEN CAVE IN TEXAS WHERE THERE ARE MILLIONS OF BATS.

SO WE KNOW GOING INTO THIS CAVE, WHICH BY THE WAY WE'RE GETTING EXCLUSIVE ACCESS TO BECAUSE WE'RE 'NATURE' AND PBS AND WELL TRUSTED.

SO WHEN WE GO IN WITH OUR CAMERA PEOPLE, WE'RE GOING TO SEE MILLIONS OF ROOSTING BATS ON THE WALLS.

NOW WE DON'T KNOW IF WE'LL GET THEM IN A LITTLE 8:00 WINDOW, BUT THE VERY NATURE OF GOING INTO A CAVE WITH MILLIONS OF BATS LIVE IS PRETTY EXCITING.

WHERE ELSE ARE YOU GOING TO GO?

WE'RE GOING TO BE AT A FARM IN MAINE WHERE HE WE HOPE TO GET BIRTHING LAMBS.

AGAIN, WE DON'T KNOW IF IT WILL HAPPEN.

SO WE'VE ALREADY PUT OUR CAMERA PEOPLE IN POSITION.

AND WE HAVE THREE LAMB BIRTHS ALREADY IN THE CAN.

SO CROSSING OUR FINGERS THAT WE'LL GET ONE LIVE, BUT IF NOT WE'LL CERTAINLY HAVE A LAMB BIRTH WITHIN 48 HOURS.

WE'RE GOING TO BE IN THE EVERGLADES LOOKING AT ALLIGATORS AND NESTING BIRDS.

WE'RE GOING TO BE LIVE ON THE EASTERN SHORE OF VIRGINIA WITH, AGAIN, A MIGRATING BIRDS AS WELL.

.

YOU'RE GOING SEE SOME CUBS BIRTHED?

WE'RE NOT GOING TO SEE CUB BIRTHS, BUT CUBS COME OUT OF HIBERNATION.

WE'VE ALREADY FILMED SCIENTISTS MEASURING THE CUBS, EXAMINING THEM WHILE THE MOTHER WAS SEDATED.

WE'VE PUT THEM BACK.

WE'RE GOING TO GO LIVE TO THE SAME LOCATION AND HOPEFULLY FIND THEM.

WE'VE TAGGED THEM.

AND SO WE'RE TRACKING THEM.

AND HOPEFULLY WE'LL FIND THEM LIVE.

YOU SAID WITH THIS THREE-PART SERIES, YOU HOPE TO TURN VIEWERS INTO DOERS.

WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?

HOW ARE YOU GOING TO DO THAT?

WELL, A BIG PART OF WHAT WE'RE DOING IS ENCOURAGING CITIZEN SCIENCE, WHICH I'M SURE IS A BRAND-NEW TERM TO A LOT OF PEOPLE OUT THERE.

BUT WE GOT A LOT OF FUNDING.

THIS IS NOT AN INEXPENSIVE ENDEAVOR.

LIVE TELEVISION COSTS A LOT OF MONEY.

AND WHAT WE'RE DOING IS WE WANT TO PROMOTE THE IDEA TO VIEWERS THAT THEY DON'T HAVE TO BE A SCIENTIST TO CONTRIBUTE TO SCIENCE.

AND WE HAVE A NUMBER OF PROJECTS THAT WE'RE GOING TO PROMOTE ON THIS SHOW AND A WEBSITE WHERE YOU CAN GO OUTSIDE ONCE A WEEK, A COUPLE OF TIMES A WEEK FOR NO MORE THAN 10 OR 15 MINUTES AND MAKE OBSERVATIONS AND ENTER DATA ON YOUR iPHONE OR LAPTOP REGARDING HOW MANY BEES YOU SEE ON A FLOWER, REGARDING HOW MANY BIRDS YOU SEE COME IN.

I MEAN, ALL THESE VERY EASY OBSERVATIONS YOU MAKE WHICH ARE HELPING SCIENTISTS GET A BIGGER AND MORE COMPLETE PICTURE OF WHAT'S GOING ON.

ALREADY FROM CITIZEN SCIENTISTS OVER THE YEARS WE'VE DISCOVERED DECLINING BIRD POPULATIONS.

AND THIS ACTUALLY INFLUENCES LEGISLATURE.

SO ARMED WITH SOME REALLY COMPLETE DATA, WE COULD MAKE ADJUSTMENTS TO THE ENVIRONMENT.

THAT'S ONE THING YOU HOPE TO CAPTURE SOME OF THE CHANGES, THE CLIMATE CHANGE IS BRINGING ON NATURE?

YEAH, YOU KNOW, AGAIN, SPRING TRIGGERS A MULTITUDE OF EVENTS.

AND ALL THESE EVENTS FOR THE ANIMALS ARE TIMED.

SO WHEN BIRDS MIGRATE BACK UP TO THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES, THERE ARE FOOD SOURCES FOR THEM.

NOW BECAUSE OF CLIMATE CHANGE, IF THE ATMOSPHERE IS WARMER, EARLIER, THE FOOD THAT THEY WOULD EAT CAN COME OUT EARLIER, AND BY THE TIME THE MIGRATING BIRDS SHOW UP, THE FOOD IS NO LONGER THERE.

SO THAT'S HOW CLIMATE CHANGE CAN IMPACT THIS WEB OF LIFE AND THE TIMING OF WHEN ANIMALS SHOW UP TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF A FOOD SOURCE.

ABOUT 15 SECONDS WE HAVE LEFT.

WHAT DO YOU FIND MOST INTERESTING ABOUT THIS?

WELL, IT'S THE HEART-STOPPING KIND OF OH MY GOD, ONE MINUTE IT'S LIKE THIS IS GREAT, WE'RE ALL SET.

AND AT SOME POINT THERE IS AN EMAIL THAT SAYS WE CAN'T DO THIS, THAT'S NOT GOING TO HAPPEN, SO AND SO CAN'T MAKE IT, AND YOU GO INTO SHEER PANIC.

I DON'T KNOW IF THAT'S GOOD OR BAD, BUT WE CERTAINLY FEEL ALIVE ABOUT IT.

ALL RIGHT.

I CAN'T WAIT TO WATCH THOSE PROGRAMS.

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US AGAIN, FRED.

'NATURE'S' THREE-NIGHT PRESENT NATION WILL AIR APRIL 29th TO MAY 1.

'METROFOCUS' IS MADE POSSIBLE BY JAMES AND MERRYL TISCH, SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III, THE SYLVIA A. AND SIMON B. POYTA PROGRAMING ENDOWMENT TO FIGHT ANTI-SEMITISM.

BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ, ROSALIND P. WALTER, BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG, AND BY -- ♪

Funders

MetroFocus is made possible by James and Merryl Tisch, Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III, the Sylvia A. and Simon B. Poyta Programming Endowment to Fight Anti-Semitism, Bernard and Irene Schwartz, Rosalind P. Walter, Barbara Hope Zuckerberg, Jody and John Arnhold, the Cheryl and Philip Milstein Family, Janet Prindle Seidler, Judy and Josh Weston and the Dr. Robert C. and Tina Sohn Foundation.

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