TONIGHT ON METROFOCUS

As doctors race to stop the epidemic, a new question has surfaced: are they the ones to blame for the problem? Republican Duchess County Executive, Marc Molinaro throws his hat in the ring to become New York State’s next governor. Meet him. Bill Nye: The Science Guy is here with some disturbing news about climate change and the future of our planet. We take you behind the scenes of a New York institution devoted to preserving and performing the traditions of 17th, 18th and 19th century music. New Yorkers have voted! We’re about to announce the winner of the One Book, One New York competition.

Aired on May 3, 2018. 

TRANSCRIPT

> TONIGHT ON METROFOCUS, AS DOCTORS RACE TO STOP THE OPIOID EPIDEMIC, A NEW QUESTION, ARE SOME DOCTORS TO BLAME FOR THE PROBLEM.

AHEAD.

REPUBLICAN EXECUTIVE MARC MOLINARO THROWS HIS HAT IN THE RING.

> BILL NYE THE SCIENCE GUY IS HERE WITH DISTURBING NEWS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE.

> COME BEHIND THE SCENES OF THE AMERICAN CLASSICAL ORCHESTRA.

AND EVERYONE IN THE FIVE BUROUGHS THE QUESTION GET READY TO READ.

WE'RE ABOUT TO ANNOUNCE THE WINNER OF THE ONE NEW YORK ONE BOOK COMPETITION.

THOSE STORIES AND MORE AS METROFOCUS STARTS RIGHT NOW.

ANNOUNCER: THIS IS METROFOCUS, WITH RAFAEL PI RAMAN, JACK FORD AND JENNA FLANAGAN.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY --

> GOOD EVENING AND WELCOME TO METROFOCUS.

I'M JENNA FLANAGAN.

OUR DOCTORS TO BLAME FOR THE OPIOID CRISIS?

ASK THE MAJORITY OF NEW YORKERS AND THEY SAY YES ACCORDING TO FINDING BY SIENNA COLLEGE.

OTHERS SAY IT'S THE DRUG MANUFACTURERS AND DISTRIBUTORS.

WHILE MANY FINGERS CAN BE POINTED AT VARIOUS ENTITIES, WHAT IS CERTAIN AND SAD THAT ACCORDING TO THIS NEW SURVEY, OVER HALF OF ALL NEW YORKERS HAVE FELT THE IMPACT OF THE OPIOID EPIDEMIC IN SOME WAY.

ONE OF THE JOURNALISTS REPORTING FROM THE FRONT LINES OF THIS BATTLE IS TIMES UNION REPORTER BETHANY BUMP WHO JOINS US WITH THE DETAILS ON PRESCRIPTION FOR PROGRESS.

BETHANY, WELCOME TO THE PROGRAM.

THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.

SO WHEN IT COMES TO THE ORIGINAL OF WHOSE FAULT IS THIS OPIOID CRISIS, WHAT IS YOUR REPORTING LEADING YOU TO UNDERSTAND.

ACCORDING TO THIS SIENNA COLLEGE SURVEY CONDUCTED A LARGE NUMBER OF NEW YORKERS BELIEVE THAT DOCTORS REALLY ARE THE ONES TO BLAME HERE FOR OVERPRESCRIBING OPIOID PAIN PILLS, YOU KNOW, SOMEBODY GOES IN FOR A BROKEN FOOT OR GET A WISDOM TOOTH OUT AND LEAVE WITH A BOTTLE OF 60 HIDE ROE CODEINE.

THEY FEEL THE DOCTORS HAVE BEEN CAVALIER.

BUT IF YOU WERE TO TALK TO PHYSICIANS AND OTHER PEOPLE ON FRONT LINES OF THIS THEY SAY THERE ARE A LOT OF FACTORS AT PLAY HERE.

WHAT WE SAW IN LIKE THE LATE '80s AND '90s WAS THE PUSH FROM ACCREDITING AGENTS TO PUSH HOSPITALINGS TO ADDRESS PAIN AS THE FIFTH VITAL SIGN.

THE HOSPITALS WERE RATED ACCORDING TO PATIENT SATISFACTION.

WELL THE BEST WAY TO MAKE THE PATIENT SATISFIED WAS TO GIVE THEM THE MEDICATION TO DEAL WITH PAIN.

AND SO YOU REALLY HEARD FROM PHYSICIANS SAYING IT'S NOT ALL OF OUR FAULT.

AND WE ALSO SAW WHEN GOVERNMENT STARTED TO REALIZE THAT THERE WAS A LARGE NUMBER OF PEOPLE BECOMING ADDICTED TO THE PAIN PILLS THEY STARTED TO CRACK DOWN ON THE PRESCRIPTION OF THEM.

AND ONCE THEY DID THAT IT STARTED TO FUEL THIS BLACK MARKET.

A LOT OF PEOPLE HAD ADDICTIONS TO THE PILLS AND COULDN'T GET THEM AT THE DOCTOR OFFICE.

AND THEY TURNED TO THE STREETS.

AND DRUG DEALERS WERE MORE THAN HAPPY TO MEET THE DEMAND.

A LOT OF PEOPLE HAVE BEEN CRITICAL OF THE FACT THAT THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY HAS A STRONG LOBBYING FRONT AND IT'S MADE IT DIFFICULT FOR ANYTHING TO HAPPEN AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL.

WHAT IS YOUR RECORDING SHOWING REGARDING THE ROLE OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY?

BECAUSE THEY DON'T COME FROM NO WHERE.

LET A LOT OF DOCTORS HAD AN IDEA THAT THE DRUGS COULD BE ADDICTIVE.

BUT THEY DIDN'T KNOW THE QUANTITY.

A LOT OF PEOPLE SAID THIS IS ON THE DRUG MANUFACTURERS.

THEY KNEW THAT THESE DRUGS THIS HAD ADDICTIVE QUALITIES AND THEY WERE ASKING TO MAKE A BUCKET.

THEY ININCENTIVIZING DOCTORS TO OVERPRESCRIBE.

AT THE END OF FEBRUARY OF THIS YEAR NEARLY 500 COUNTIES AND 300 CITIES AND TOWNS HAVE FILED A LAWSUIT AGAINST THE DRUG COMPANIES OR TALKED ABOUT FILING A LAWSUIT AGAINST THEM.

WE HAVE SEEN THAT HERE IN NEW YORK.

THE STATE ITSELF HAS JOINED ONTO THE LAWSUITS, AS HAVE NEW YORK CITY AND A BUNCH OF COUNTIES HERE IN THE CAPITAL REGION.

WHEN YOU MENTIONED THE BLACK MARKET, AND A LOT OF THE DRUGS POPPED UP THERE WHEN PEOPLE COULDN'T GET THEM PRESCRIBED BY THE DOCTORS, WHAT'S THE SOURCE OF THE DRUGS ON THE BLACK MARKET?

INITIALLY WHAT WE SAW AS THE PRESCRIPTION DRUGSY O WERE CUT OFF WAS A FLOODING OF HEROIN ON THE MARKET.

HEROIN WAS KIND OF A DRUG FROM DECADES PAST BUT SORT OF SURGED AGAIN AFTER THE PRESCRIPTION DRUGS WERE INCREASINGLY BEING MONITORED AND COULD YOU TELL O CUT DOWN.

WHAT IS CONCERNING PEOPLE IN THE FIELD RIGHT NOW IS THAT WE ARE SEEING NOT JUST HEROIN BUT ALL KINDS OF STREET DRUGS.

WE ARE SEEING HOME MADE XANAX, COCAINE BEING INCREASINGLY LACED WITH FENTANYL WHICH IS A VERY POWERFUL OPIATE.

PRESCRIBED TYPICALLY TO CANCER PATIENTS AT THE END OF LIFE.

IT'S ABOUT 50 FOOIMS TIMES STRONGER THAN HEROIN.

AND THE FENTANYL IS FREQUENTLY COMING FROM CHINA.

AND IT'S IN THE DRUG SUPPLY AND A LOT OF DEALERS DON'T KNOW IT'S IN THE SUPPLY.

IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE YOU CAN TELL US ABOUT WHAT'S BEING DONE TO ADDRESS THIS.

IN THE CAPITOL REGION WE HAVE A FEW EXAMPLES.

WE HAVE A LOCAL HOSPITAL THAT SORT OF RECOGNIZED WHEN SOMEONE GOES TO THE EMERGENCY ROOM AND THEY'RE IN WITHDRAWAL FROM OPIOID MEDICATION THEY FREQUENTLY GET TURNED AWAY.

AND THE REASON FOR THIS IS BECAUSE THEY'RE NOT AT RISK OF DYING.

LIKE SOMEONE WITH AN ALCOHOL ADDICTION OR SOMEONE ADDICTED TO BENZODIAZEPINE.

THEY WON'T DIE FROM THE WITHDRAWAL.

THEY'LL FEEL LIKE THEY'RE GOING TO DIE BUT WON'T.

A LOT OF EMERGENCY ROOMS ARE PRIORITIZED FOR PEOPLE THAT WILL DIE.

WHAT HAPPENS IN THAT MOMENT IS THE PERSON TERRIFIED OF THEIR WITHDRAWAL PAINS AND NOT GETTING HELP AT THE HOSPITAL AT THE EMERGENCY ROOM IS GOING BACK OUT ONTO THE STREET AND USING THEIR DRUGS, BECAUSE THEY'RE TERRIFIED OF THEIR PAIN.

WE HAD A LOCAL HOSPITAL, ST. PETER HERE IN ALBANY RECENTLY OPENED SEVERAL WALK-IN CLINICS AT VARIOUS LOCATIONS AROUND THE REGION.

AND WHAT HAPPENS IS SOMEONE IS TURNED AWAY FROM THE EMERGENCY ROOM.

THEY'LL BE REFERRED TO THE CLINICS.

RIGHT AWAY THEY WILL GET DOSED WITH GOES BY THE NAME OF SOBOXIN TREATING THE CRAVINGS THEY HAVE FOR THE DRUG.

ELIMINATE THE WITHDRAWAL PAIN.

AND THEY CAN STAY ON THAT DRUG UNTIL THEY MOVE UP ON A WAITING LIST FOR AN ACTUAL DETOX OR REHAB BED.

WELL BETHANY I WANT TO THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR YOUR REPORTING, PRESCRIPTION FOR PROGRESS IS THE NAME OF THE SERIES, I BELIEVE.

. AND WE WILL FOLLOW YOUR WORK AS THIS CONTINUES TO UNFOLD IN NEW YORK BUT ALSO ACROSS THE COUNTRY.

THANK YOU SO MUCH.

> AND NOW THERE ARE TWO.

AFTER MONTHS OF WILL HE OR WON'T HE SPECULATION AND WEEKS OF BEHIND THE SCENES CAMPAIGNING, DUCHESS COUNTY EXECUTIVE MARC MOLINARO LAURM HIS BID FOR GOVERNOR.

WITH THE BLESSING FROM THE PARTY.

MOLINARO MAY BECOME THE FIRST REPUBLICAN ELECTED TO THE POSITION SINCE THE GEORGE PENNSYLVANIA TACKY IN 2002.

HE JOINS ACTRESS CYNTHIA NIXON AS THE SECOND CANDIDATE TO WANT TO UNSEAT CUOMO.

AND HE MAY HAVE AN UNLIKELY ADVANTAGE AND THE SMALL TOWN ROOTS MAY HAVE SOMETHING TO DO WITH IT.

I'D LIKE TO WELL MARC TO PROGRAM.

THANK YOU GLAD TO BE HERE.

WELL, YOU DEFINITELY HAVE A HOMETOWN ADVANTAGE, AS MUCH AS ONE CAN COMING FROM UPSTATE.

SURE.

WELL, FIRST TELL ME ABOUT HOW YOU CAME TO GET INTO POLITICS.

IT'S AN INTERESTING STORY.

I VOLUNTEERED AND INTERNED FOR MY STATE ASSEMBLY WOMAN.

WE DIDN'T SHARE POLITICAL PARTIES BUT SHE TAUT US ABOUT PUBLIC SERVICE.

I WAS INVOLVED IN MY HOMETOWN, A PLACE CALLED TIVOLI ON THE HUDSON RIVER AND STARTED TO VOLUNTEER.

PEOPLE SAID YOU SHOULD RUN FOR THE VILLAGE BOARD OF TRUSTEES.

AND AS AN 1-YEAR-OLD I DECIDED TO THROW MY HAT IN THE RING AND RUN TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN MY COMMUNE.

I WAS ELECTED TO THE VILLAGE BOARD IN 1994 AS AN 18-YEAR-OLD.

ONE YEAR LATER THE MAYOR DECIDED HE WAS GOING TO RETIRE.

SOY RAN HOME AND ASKED MY MOM IF IT WOULD BE OKAY IF I RUN FOR MAYOR OF THE VILLAGE OF TIVOLI.

IN 1995 I WAS ELECTED MAYOR OF MY HOMETOWN.

JUST TO GET INTO THE STORY, WE'RE IN A POINT RIGHT NOW WHERE WE SEE SO MANY YOUNG PEOPLE EXPRESSING INTEREST IN POLITICS AND WANTING TO GET IN POLITICS.

YET AUBERRILY THE TROPE IS THAT YOUNG PEOPLE DON'T CARE.

WHAT MADE IT DIFFERENT FOR YOU.

YOU KNOW, I HAD EXPERIENCED IN MY SEEING MY KPUN CARB SHALL IT LOOKS LIKE THE UPSTATE COMMUNITIES.

BUSINESSES HADN'T REREOPENED.

IN KLINEC.

LET PEOPLE FELT THE BEST OF THE COMMUNITY WAS YESTERDAY.

AND I REALLY THINK THEY SAW IN ME AND I HAD SOME DESIRE TO TRY TO INVEST AND MAKE A DIFFERENCE, ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO BE MORE INVOLVED.

THAT EXCITED VOTERS.

THE FUNNY THING WAS I HAD JUST AS MANY SENIOR CITIZENS SUPPORTING ME AS TEENAGERS.

THAT'S IMPORTANT.

I REALLY THINK LIKE BOBBY KENNEDY SAID PUBLIC SERVICE IS A DIGNIFIED DUTY AND WE OUGHT TO UPHOLD IT AS PEOPLE WANT TO DO.

I'VE SPENT EVERY DAY OF MY ADULT LIFE NOT ONLY MAKING GOVERNMENT WORK FOR THE PEOPLE BUT REALLY EMPOWERING PEOPLE TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN THEIR OWN LIVES.

IT'S BEEN SO FULFILLING.

ONE OF THE DRIVING FORCES BEHIND MY DESIRE TO RUN FOR GOVERNOR.

ACTUALLY I WANT TO PICK UP ON ONE OF THE POINTS YOU MADE WHICH WAS THE QUOTE FROM BOBBY KENNEDY, GOVERNMENT IS A DIGNIFIED DUTY.

WHEN MOST PEOPLE UNFORTUNATELY RIGHT NOW WHEN THEY THINK OF GOVERNMENT AT THE CITY, STATE, AND FEDERAL LEVEL THEY DO NOT THINK OF DIGNITY.

YEAH.

WELL I THINK, LISTEN WE HAVE ALLOWED OURSELVES TO GET TO THIS PROCESSION POSITION, NO QUESTION.

AS VOTERS WE NEED TO BE MORE NANLD.

HOLD PEOPLE ACCOUNTABLE.

WITHOUT QUESTION THE STATE GOVERNMENT AND THIS ADMINISTRATION HAS BEEN INFECTED BY A CULTURE OF CORRUPTION.

NO WONDER PEOPLE LOST FAITH.

I THINK PUBLIC OFFICIALS -- I'M NOT PERFECT WITH YOU I TRY TO HOLD MYSELF TO THE HIGHEST STANDARD OR MY MOTHER MIGHT COME BACK AND MIGHT NOT LET ME RUN FOR OFFICE ANYMORE.

BUT I DO THINK AS VOTERS WE NEED TO BE ENGAGED WE NEED TO TO CHALLENGE ELECTED OFFICIALS AND HOLD THEM ACCOUNTABLE REGARDLESS OF THE PARTIES.

AND ELECTED OFFICIALS NEED TO RECOGNIZE THE RELATIONSHIP WE HAVE WITH VOTERS IS PERSONAL.

YOU LEARN THAT IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

THE DECISION YOU MAKE HAS A PROFOUND IMPACT ON SOMEONE'S LIFE.

IN MANY WAYS PEOPLE AT THE LOCAL LEVEL WANT PROBLEMS SOLVED.

IF YOU KOCHT IT THAT WHICH.

I BEGAN MY POLITICAL CAREER RUNS IN PLACE WHERE PARTY AFFILIATION DIDN'T MATTER.

I THINK WE NEED TO CONFRONT THE TRIBALISM THAT'S ININFECTED US.

WE CAN DO MORE TO GET THE BEST OUT OF OUR ELECTED OFFICIALS.

AND FRANKLY THOSE WHO DON'T I HAVE UP TO THE STANDARD OR THINK DEMOCRACY IS TOO DIFFICULT SHOULD FIND ANOTHER LINEUP OF WORK.

PRETTY POWERFUL WORDS.

BUT I'M WONDERING HOW DO YOU TAKE THAT MESSAGE TO A PLACE LIKE ALBANY.

CORRUPTION AND ALBANY HAVE GONE HAND IN HAND SINCE IT STOPPED BEING FOR THE ORANGE.

I THINK TOO MANY IN NEW YORK HAVE SORT OF GOTTEN USED THIS CULTURE OF CORRUPTION SO THEY DON'T CHALLENGE IT AND ACCEPT THAT'S THE WAY IT IS.

THAT CAN'T BE THE WAY IT IS.

AND AGAIN, I WAS ONE WHO BELIEVED THIS GOVERNOR WOULD COME IN AND SWEEP IN A NEW DAY.

INTSZ SEVEN YEARS OF A NEW NORMAL.

WHERE THE CULTURE HAS INFECTED THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF STATE GOVERNMENT.

I THINK FIRST YOU JUST REALLY -- YOU LEAD BY EXAMPLE.

BUT THEN YOU ALSO EMPOWER PEOPLE.

WHAT HAPPENED IN ALBANY AND SEE FEWER AND FEWER PEOPLE ARE INVOLVED IN DECISION MAKING.

OF COURSE THE FEWER THAT HAVE POWER THE MORE CORRUPTED THEY CAN BE.

WE HAVE SEEN IT ON TRIAL THE LAST FEW MONTHS AND ON TRIAL THE NEXT FEW MONTHS.

WELL THEN ONE OF THE LAST THINGS I WANT TO ASK IN THIS PART OF THE INTERVIEW IS WITH THIS SEASON THAT WE HAVE RIGHT NOW WHERE WE HAVE SO MANY PEOPLE TAKING TO THE STREETS AND TRYING TO MAKE THEIR VOICES HEARD.

YES.

IS THERE A WAY THAT YOU AS A REPUBLICAN -- BECAUSE SO MANY OF THEM ARE PROTESTING ON THE LEFT.

SURE.

IS THERE A WAY YOU AS A REPUBLICAN CAN HAHNERESS SOME OF THAT ENERGY AND BE THE LEADER FOR THOSE PEOPLE TO BRING THEM TO THE POLLS.

HERE IS MY PROMISE TO ANYONE.

I WILL LISTEN.

I WILL LISTEN.

WE HAVE BEEN SKT INNED BY POLITICIAN RUNNING TO PRESS CONFERENCE AND STAND IN FRONT OF THE CAMERA AND DON'T LISTEN.

WHETHER THEY'RE A PART OF THE PROTEST OR NOT.

I GET DISAPPOINTWOOD THIS GOVERNOR WHO RUSHES REALLY TO THE SCENE BUT DOESN'T SPEND ENOUGH TIME LISTENING AND INTERACTING.

I WILL NEVER TAKE SUPPORT FOR GRANTED.

I WANT PEOPLE REGARDLESS WHERE THEY FIND THEMSELVES ON THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM ENGAGED.

I WANT THAT POWER AND ENERGY USED TO BRING CHANGE.

AND I WANT PEOPLE WHO DISAGREE OR COME FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES TO LISTEN TO ONE ANOTHER SO THAT WE CAN MOLD SKENS TO US SOLVE.

PROBLEMS.

IT'S THE ONLY WAY THE DEMOCRACY WORKS AND MAKES NEW YORK STATE.

AND IT IS WHAT WOULD DEFINE AN ADMINISTRATION SHOULD I BE GIVEN THE HONOR OF SERVING AS GOVERNOR.

SO MARK MOLINARO I'M LISTENING IS THAT ON THE BUMPER STICKERS.

SEEMS LONG BUT I'M LISTENING.

HASHTAG I'M LISTENING.

THANK YOU FOR JOINING US ON THE PROGRAM.

> FROM NEW YORK CITY TO NIGERIA, MORE THAN 200 EVENTS ACROSS THE GLOBE MARKED THE ANNUAL MARCH FOR SCIENCE THIS APRIL AS ACTIVISTS RALLIED FOR CHANGE FROM ALL WALKS OF LIFE.

NOW IN THE SECOND YEAR OF EXISTENCE THE MOVEMENT BEHIND THE MARCH IS CALLING FOR SOCIETY TO HOLD PUBLIC OFFICIALS TO GREATER ACCOUNT AND PUSH LAWMAKERS ENACT EVIDENCED BASED POLICIES.

BILL NYE HAS BEEN INSTRUMENTAL IN ELEVATING THE UNDERSTANDING OF CLIMATE CHANGE.

HIS FILM, BILL NYE SCIENCE GUY DEBUTED RECENTLY ON THE PBS SERIES POIF.

AND I'M PLEASED TO WELCOME HIM BACK.

WELCOME.

GOOD TO BE BACK NOW.

YOU REFER TO IT AS MY FILM.

AHH.

IT'S REALLY A FILM ABOUT ME.

I HAD NO CREATIVE CONTROL.

I SIGNED A THING, A DOCUMENT, A CONTRACT, AN AGREEMENT.

YOU LET THEMT FOLLOW YOU ANYWHERE.

ALMOST EVERYWHERE.

TRP THERE WERE A COUPLE OF MEN'S ROOMS I GOT THEM TO STAY OUTSIDE OF BY WAY OF EXAMPLE.

BUT THEY FOLLOWED ME FOR TWO YEARS.

YOU TOOK US ON AN IMPORTANT JOURNEY INTO YOUR WORK SKDING CLIMATE CHANGE.

WE CONFRONTED A COUPLE OF CLIMATE DENIERS.

THE GUY ON FOX NEWS HE DOES SPEAKING IN FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY VENUES.

AND HE IS -- AS MANY OF THE CONTRARIENS SEEMED TO HAVE DONE, HE HAS CONFUSED OR CONFLATED THE IDEA THAT CASHEN MONOXIDE IS A SMALL FRACTION OF THE EARTH'SFER, LESS THAN HALF A HUNDREDTH OF A PERCENT WITH THE IDEA THAT IT'S MOT IMPORTANT.

DEALING WITH THE CLIMATE DENIERS.

A LOT OF PEOPLE SAY BECAUSE THERE ISN'T 00% CONSENSUS AMONG THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY ABOUT THE NOTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE THAT THAT'S REASONS TO POKE HOLES IN THE THEORY AND SAY IT'S NOT REAL.

THE PERFECT ANALOGY IS MEDICAL DOCTORS.

IF YOU HAVE 97 OR 98 MEDICAL DOCTORS TELLING YOU TO GET YOUR PARATHIGH RADIO GLAND REMOVED AND THREE DOCTORS TELLING YOU NO.

WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

WOULD YOU ONLY GO FOR THE THREE?

PROBABLY NOT.

YOU'D GO WITH THE 97.

WELL I THINK I'D BE MOST CONCERNED -- MOST PEOPLE WANT TO KNOW WHAT THAT GLAND IS.

OKAY.

APPENDIX.

97 OUT 100 DOCTORS TELL YOU THAT YOU NEED TO TO HAVE YOUR APPENDIX OUT BECAUSE IT'S INFLAMED AND YOU FOUND THREE DOCTORS SOMEWHERE THAT TELL YOU, NO, IT'S NOT INFLAMED YOU'RE FINE.

THAT'S A CONSPIRACY OF APPENDIX DOCTORS, YOU LOVE.

IT SOUNDS LAUGHABLE, IT DOES.

RIGHT.

SO THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE IS OVERWHELMING.

WHAT'S HAPPENED IS THE FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY HAS BEEN VERY SUCCESSFUL IN INTRODUCING THE IDEA TO THE PUBLIC, TO US, THAT 3% -- PLUS OR MINUS 3% OR IS SAME AS PLUS OR MIEP US 100%. THAT'S WRONG.

SPEAKING OF GETTING TO WORK ON THE MANY, HOW IS IT WE GO ABOUT HOLDING GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS OR PUBLIC OFFICIALS TO ACCOUNT TO LOOKING AT EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY WHEN WE RIGHT NOW HAVE A FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AT LEAST THAT SEEMS TO BE VERY RESISTANT, IF NOT OUTRIGHT DENYING OF THE POLICIES?

YEAHING WITH BILL NYE, WHAT'S WRONG?

WHY AREN'T YOU SAYING SOMETHING ABOUT THIS, BILL NYE?

WELL, MY RESPONSE IS I HAVE BEEN SAYING SOMETHING ABOUT IT FOR A LONG TIME.

WHAT I TELL EVERYBODY IS VOTE.

WHAT HAPPENED AT STONEMAN DOUGLAS HIGH SCHOOL IN FLORIDA IS VERY TROUBLING.

BUT YOU LOOK AT THE ACTIVISM THAT IT IMBUED IN THOSE STUDENTS.

THEY ARE OUT THERE FIGHTING THE FIGHT NOW FOR THE NEXT FEW YEARS ABOUT THIS OTHER ISSUE.

UM-HUM.

THEY'RE GOING TO DO THE SAME ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE.

WHEN THESE PEOPLE COME OF AGE AND ARE ABLE TO VOTE -- BY THESE PEOPLE MEANING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS -- THEY'RE DEMANDING CHANGES.

AND THE CURRENT BACKWARD OR WHATEVER YOU CALL IT CLIMATE CONTRARIEN POINT OF VIEW AT THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND THE ADMINISTRATION IS GOING TO GET SWEPT AWAY.

THERE'S BEEN A LOT OF TALK ABOUT THE DOOMS DAY CLOCK.

AND HAVE WE GONE TOO FAR OR WILL THERE BE ENOUGH TIME WHEN THE YOUNG PEOPLE COME OF AGE AND BECOME A MAJOR VOTING BLOC CAN WE CORRECT.

WHAT IF I TOLD YOU WE CONWHAT KWO WOULD DO YOU?

GO BUY ALL THE SUV VEHICLES YOU COULD FIND, START OPEN FLAMES EVERYWHERE, AND LEAVE ALL THE LIGHTS ON AND ALL THE WATER RUNNING AUTO NIGHT?

NO.

WE WOULD NEVER DO THAT.

IT'S NOT HOW HUMANS OPERATE.

INSTEAD, WE ARE OPTIMISTIC AND GOING TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM AND WE'RE GOING TO TURN IT AROUND AND PRESERVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR BILLIONS OF PEOPLE.

LET'S GO.

ALL RIGHT THEN.

IT'S JUST HUMAN NATURE.

EYE YOU'RE NOT THROWING IN THE TOWEL.

HAVE WE REACHED A TIPPING POINT WHERE IT'S IRREVERSIBLE.

I DON'T THINK THERE IS SUCH A THING.

FOR LAST PEOPLE PEOPLE AT THE FILM WHAT IS THE FEELING YOU WANT POEM TO COME AWAY WITH?

IS THIS OPTIMISTIC.

YES.

YES SCIENCE IS THE BEST IDEA HUMANS HAVE EVER HAD.

AND THIS PROCESS OF KNOWING NATURE ENABLES US TO ACCOMPLISH EXTRAORDINARY THINGS.

ALL RIGHT THEN.

WELL, LISTEN BILL NYE I WANT TO THANK YOU SO MUCH.

SAME HERE.

NOT ONLY OF COURSE FOR THE FILM THAT'S GOING TO BE ON.

EVERY NIGHT BECAUSE YOU'RE GOING TO WATCH IT.

YOU'RE STREAMING.

YOU'RE GOING TO DO POV STREAMING.

BUT IN ADDITION TO STREAMING BILL NIMO I WANT TO THANK YOU FOR YOUR WORK AND JOINING US ON THE PROGRAM.

THANK YOU.

LET'S CHANGE THE WORLD!

THANK YOU.

> I'M MADDIE ORTON FOR METROFOCUS.

WELL, CLASSICAL MUSIC COMPOSITIONS HAVE BEEN PRESERVED FOR LISTENING PLEASURE, IT'S RARE TO HEAR THEM PLAYED AS THEY WOULD HAVE BEEN OVER A CENTURY AGO.

THAT'S BECAUSE INSTRUMENTS HAVE EVOLVED QUITE A BIT IN THAT TIME.

BUT ONE NEW YORK CITY ORCHESTRA IS PITTING A BIT OF THE PAST IN THE MUSIC WITH INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES OF THE PAST.

CHECK THEM OUT.

WHEN BRAHMS WROTE THIS IN 1839 HE WROTE IT FOR THE INSTRUMENTS OF THE TIME, WOODEN FLUTES, GUT STRING VIOLINS AND FRENCH HORNS.

AND THE AMERICAN CLASSICAL ORCHESTRA OUT OF NEW YORK CITY, THOSE ARE THE INSTRUMENTS ON WHICH AUDIENCES OF TODAY WILL HEAR PERFORMED.

MUSICAL DIRECTOR TOM CRAWFORD FOUNDED THE ORGANIZATION OVER 30 YEARS AGO.

THE GROUP FOCUSES ON MUSIC FROM THE 1770s TO 1830s.

THE POST-BAROQUE CLASSICAL PERIOD.

. THIS IS ONE OF THE MUSICAL GROUPS THAT PAUL INTO THE HISTORICALLY INFORMED PERFORMANCE MOVEMENT.

DEDICATED TO PRESENTING PERIOD MUSIC AS IT WAS INTENDED TO BE PLAYED CENTURIES AGO.

A WHILE BACK, A GOOD 50 YEARS OR MORE IN EUROPE, PEOPLE REALIZED, WAIT A MINUTE, IF THE FLUTE WAS MADE OF WOOD, IF THE OBOE HAD FEWER KEYS, IF IT WAS A DIFFERENT INSTRUMENT WITH THE SAME NAME, YOU KNOW, BACK WHEN MOZART WAS WRITING WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES AND HOW WOULD THEY WORK IF WE PUT THEM TOGETHER.

CRAWFORD SAYS WHEN THE MOVEMENT TOOK OFF CURIOUS MUSICIANS WHO DO NOT GET THEIR HANDS ON ORIGINAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS TURNED TO MAKERS TO CREATED COPIES OF THE INSTRUMENTS.

THAT MEANT MUSICAL GROUPS LIKE CRAWFORD'S WERE ABLE TO GET A TASTE OF AUTHENTIC CLASSICAL MUSIC.

SPEAKING FOR MYSELF AND OTHER MUSICIANS.

WE WERE ASTONISHED AT THE TEXTURE.

IT CHANGED PROFOUNDLY.

THIS IS A HUGE THING FOR A MUSICIAN.

BECAUSE THE NATURAL BLEND OF PERIOD INSTRUMENTS IS -- FOR ME AND MANY OTHERS -- THE GREATEST ASSET OF ALL.

THAT BLEND ON CLASSICAL INSTRUMENTS TO WHICH CRAWFORD REFERS CAN BE CHALLENGING TO GET ON MODERN INSTRUMENTS.

WHICH ARE CREATED TO BE LOUDER AND BRIGHTER SOUNDING.

AS THEY EVOLVED OVER THE LAST FEW CENTURIES, STRING INSTRUMENTS WERE REINFORCED INSIDE TO ALLOW MUSICIANS TO PLAY LOUDER IN LARGE CONCERT HALLS.

WOODEN FLUTES GAVE WAY TO METAL PARTIALLY FOR THE SAME PURPOSE.

WHEN CRAWFORD STARTED HIS ORCHESTRA MUSICIANS WERE INCREASING INTERESTED IN THE PRECURSERS TO THEIR INSTRUMENTS BY MANY DIDN'T KNOW HOW TO PLAY THEM.

PRINCIPAL OBOIST MARK SHACKMAN PICKED UP THE BAROQUE OBOE AFTER GRADUATES FROM JEWEL YARD.

I FELT IT WAS KWOB.

HOW THE HELL WILL WE DO THIS.

IT WAS A CHALLENGE.

THE MODERN OBOE HAS ABOUT 20 KEYS.

THE BAROQUE OBOE.

AT THIS REHEARSAL HE IS PLAYING THE CLASSIC.

. IT'S MORE EVOLVED THAN THE BAROQUE BUT STILL DIFFERENT DIFFERENT THAN THE MODERN VERSION.

IN MOZART'S TIME YOU CAN SEE A FEW KEYS WERE ADDED.

THE BIGGEST CHANGES WERE INTERNAL IN THE QUESTION OF THE BORE.

THIS IS A NARROWER BORE.

THE KEYS WERE ADD AND IT BECOMES MORE APPROPRIATE FOR MOZART OR BEETHOVEN WHERE HE LIKES THE HIGHER REGISTER OF AS OPPOSED TO THE LOWER REGISTER OF THE OBOE.

HE SAYS IT TOOK YEARS TO MASTER THE CLASSICAL OBOE.

HE DECIDED TO SELL HIS MODERN OBOE ALTOGETHER.

R.J. KELLY IS SLRLY INCHANTED WITH HIS 19th CENTURY KOR DECHARS.

A PRECURSOR TO THE FRENCH HORN MADE IN PARIS.

HE PREFERS TO PLAY PERIOD PIECES ON THIS INSTRUMENT BECAUSE HE FEELS THERE IS KNEWEN LOST ON THE MODERN ONE.

WHEN YOU SEE THE MODERN FRENCH HORN YOU SEE THE HAND IN THE BELL.

IT'S A LEGACY TECH KNEE FOR THIS OLDER INSTRUMENT.

IF I CLOSE MY HAND A BIT ON THIS INSTRUMENT I GET A SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT NOTE WITH A SECOND SOUND.

> WHEN YOU KNOW WHAT THE COMPOSER INTENT IS WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE NOTE AND KNOW IF IT'S OPENED OR CLOSE, CHANGES THE COLOR, THE DYNAMIC CONTENT, MAY ALTER THE ARCSATION.

ALL OF THESE THINGS INFORM YOUR INTERPRETATION.

AND I LIKE TO THINK THAT IT GIVES US A BETTER IDEA OF WHAT THE COMPOSER HAD IN MIND, WHETHER THAT'S THE DIRECTION YOU WANT TO GO IN OWNER IS A SEPARATE ISSUE ALTOGETHER.

> ACCORDING TO FOUNDER CRAWFORD, AN INCREASING NUMBER OF MUSICIANS AND MUSIC LOVERS WANT TO GO IN THAT DIRECTION.

HE THINKS THE INTEREST IN PERIOD MUSIC PLAYED ON PERIOD INSTRUMENTS COMES FROM A BELIEF IN THE LITERATURE, THE MUSIC AS WRITTEN.

AND A REALIZATION THAT THE EXPERIENCE IS ENGAGING FOR AUDIENCES AND MUSICIANS ALIKE.

> THE DEPTH OF THE PLAYERS AND THE PERIOD INSTRUMENT MOVEMENT HAS NOW -- DID IS NOW PERMANENT.

AND IT'S WONDERFUL.

> FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE AMERICAN CLASSICAL ORCHESTRA, VISIT METROFOCUS.ORG.

> WE RECENTLY TOLD YOU ABOUT ONE BOOK ONE NEW YORK, THE CITYWIDE PROJECT WHERE NEW YORKERS ACROSS THE CITY CAN READ THE SAME BOOK AT THE SAME TIME.

THE VOTES HAVE BEEN TALLIED.

AND THIS YEAR'S WINNER IS JENNIFER EGAN'S MANHATTAN BEACH, THE NOVEL SET IN BROOKLYN DURING THE 1930s AND '40s FOLLOWS A WOMAN WORKING AT THE NAVY YARD.

I READ IT IT'S WONDERFUL.

ONE THOUSAND COPIES OF THIS BOOK HAVE BEEN DONATED TO THE NEW YORK CITY LIBRARIES AND THE PUBLISHER WILL DISTRIBUTE ANOTHER 500 COPIES TO HELP PEOPLE GET ACCESS.

YOU CAN LOG ONTO METROFOCUS.ORG FOR INFORMATION WHERE TO GET A COPY AND FOR CITY READINGS PLANNED AROUND THE READING OF THE BOOK.

ANNOUNCER: FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY --

ANNOUNCER: CORPORATE FUNDING FOR METROFOCUS WAS PROVIDED BY MUTUAL OF AMERICA, YOUR RETIREMENT COMPANY.

AND BY PSE&G, SERVING CUSTOMERS, STRENGTHENING THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY AND INVESTING IN THE FUTURE.

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