TONIGHT ON METROFOCUS

Fed up with after-hours emails from your boss? One lawmaker feels your pain. He’s fighting not only for your “right to disconnect,” but to also punish bosses who don’t comply. New York City Council Member Rafael Espinal, Jr. Is here with the details. As the nation remembers the slain civil rights leader 50 years after his assassination, we take a look at Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s life, activism, and legacy through the lens of the “King In New York” photography exhibition on view at the Museum of the City of New York. Sarah Seidman, Puffin Foundation curator of social activism at the Museum of the City of New York, joins us to share her perspective. Astronaut Scott Kelly came back “different” after his record-breaking year in space. Former NASA astronaut Mike Massimino helps make sense of what happened. We follow the journey of hospice patients who are “Defining Hope,” in a film that investigates the choices patients with life-threatening illnesses make in their final months and days, from how much medical technology they accept, what they hope for, and how that hope evolves when life is threatened. Filmmaker Carolyn Jones, and a hospice nurse featured in the documentary, Diane Ryan, join us for a candid conversation.

Aired on April 4, 2018. 

TRANSCRIPT

TONIGHT ON 'METROFOCUS', FED UP WITH AFTER HOURS EMAILS FROM YOUR BOSS?

ONE LAWMAKER FEELS YOU'RE PAYING.

> MARTIN LUTHER KING'S NEW YORK.

AS THE NATION REMEMBERS THE SLAIN CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER 50 YEARS AFTER HIS ASSASSINATION, A LOOK AT KING'S LIFE, ACTIVISM AND LEGACY HERE IN THE EMPIRE STORY.

> ASTRONAUT SCOTT KELLY CAME BACK DIFFERENT AFTER HIS YEAR IN SPACE.

> AND JOIN US AS WE FOLLOW THE JOURNEY OF HOSPICE PATIENTS WHO ARE DEFINING HOPE.

> ALL THAT AND MORE AS 'METROFOCUS' STARTS RIGHT NOW.

> THIS IS 'METROFOCUS,' WITH RAFAEL P. RAMON, JACK FORD AND JENNA FLANNIGAN.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY.

CORPORATE FUNDING FOR 'METROFOCUS' WAS PROVIDED BY MUTUAL OF AMERICA, AND PSE&G.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM IS ALSO PROVIDED BY THE JPB FOUNDATION AND THE FORD FOUNDATION.

> GOOD EVENING AND WELCOME TO 'METROFOCUS,' I'M RAFAEL P.

RAMON.

THANK GOD IT'S FRIDAY, THAT'S WHAT MANY OF US SAY AT THE END OF THE WEEK, AS WE LOOK FORWARD TO DISCONNECTING FROM OUR BOSS.

BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE GET EMAILS OR TEXT MESSAGES FROM OUR BOSS WHEN WE'RE OFFICIALLY OFF WORK?

CAN WE BE PUNISHED OR EVEN FIRED?

NOW LEGISLATION IS BEING INTRODUCED TO MAKE IT ILLEGAL FOR EMPLOYERS TO REQUIRE THEIR EMPLOYEES TO TEXT OR ANSWER EMAILS AFTER HOURS.

WHEN THEY STILL TEXT AFTER HOURS DEMANDING A RESPONSE, COULD A FACE A FINE.

GOOD IDEA OR ULTIMATE IN GOVERNMENT MEDDLING.

THE CITY COUNCILMEMBER WHO INTRODUCED THE RIGHT TO UNPLUG.

HOW EXACTLY WOULD YOUR BILL WORK?

WHAT THE BILL WOULD DO IS SIMPLY GIVE THE RIGHTS TO AN EMPLOYEE TO DISCONNECT FROM THE WORKPLACE AFTER THEIR REGULAR WORK HOURS.

SO WHEN AN EMPLOYER REACHES OUT TO YOU, YOU'LL HAVE THE RIGHT TO SAY, I DON'T WANT TO RESPOND TO THIS EMAIL, THIS TEXT MESSAGE OR THIS CALL, IT'S NOT AN EMERGENCY AND YOU DRAW THAT LINE BETWEEN YOUR PERSONAL LIFE AND YOUR PROFESSIONAL LIFE WITHOUT FEAR OF RETALIATION.

HOW WOULD THIS BE ENFORCED?

JUST LIKE ANY OTHER LAW THE CITY PUTS IN PLACE, THERE'S A CALL SYSTEM, 311 WILL CONNECT US TO THE DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN AFFAIRS, THAT DEPARTMENT WILL INVESTIGATE YOUR CLAIM AND INVESTIGATE YOUR EMPLOYER AND COME TO THE CONCLUSION WHETHER OR NOT YOU HAVE A VALID CLAIM AGAINST THE COMPANY.

AND THEN IF FOUND GUILTY, THE EMPLOYER WOULD HAVE TO PAY $250 TO THE EMPLOYEE AND $500 TO THE CITY.

ULTIMATELY OR AT THE OUTSET, IT DEPENDS ON THE EMPLOYEE DROPPING THE DIME ON THE EM EMP EMPLOYER, RIGHT?

HOW DO YOU KNOW THAT RETALIATION WON'T HAPPEN LATER?

HOW DO YOU PROTECT THE EMPLOYEE?

THERE ARE CONVERSATIONS TO BE HAD, BUT THIS IS ABOUT THE INSTANCE OF EMPLOYEES NOT FEELING THE PRESSURE OF ALWAYS BEING ON THE CLOCK.

I THINK THE DIGITAL ERA HAS BLURRED THE LINES.

IT'S VERY POSSIBLE NOW FOR YOUR BOSS TO CONTACT YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY AND IT'S VERY EASY TO FORGET, YOU KNOW, WHEN YOU'RE OFF THE CLOCK.

SO THIS IS REALLY GOING TO MAKE SURE THAT THERE'S A CLEAR LINE TO MAKE SURE THAT PEOPLE KNOW.

WHICH BUSINESSES ARE SUBJECT TO THE LAW AND WHICH BUSINESSES ARE EXEMPT?

THIS BILL CURRENTLY COVERS MOST AWFUL BUSINESSES BUT THERE ARE EXCEPTIONS TO THE BILL.

ANY EMPLOYEE WHO'S REQUIRED TO WORK 24 HOURS BECAUSE OF THEIR JOB TYPE, THAT'S NOT COVERED IN THIS BILL, AND IF THERE'S EMERGENCIES THAT YOUR EMPLOYER HAS TO REACH OUT TO YOU.

I UNDERSTAND THERE ARE JOBS OUT THERE WHERE YOU NEED YOUR EMPLOYEES TO BE AVAILABLE BECAUSE THINGS DO COME UP.

BUT THIS IS ABOUT DOING AWAY WITH THE NONEMERGENCY CORRESPONDENCE.

ASIDE FROM FIRST RESPONDERS AND TRANSPORTATION PUBLICLY SAFETY PERSONNEL, I DON'T SEE A LOT OF GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS OPEN ON THE WEEKEND.

THAT WAS INTENTIONAL.

THERE'S ACTUALLY A SEPARATE BILL FOCUSED ON PUBLIC EMPLOYEES.

MY BILL RIGHT NOW COVERS PRIVATE AND COMPANIES THAT HAVE SO EMPLOYEES OR MORE.

SO THERE IS CONVERSATION ABOUT THE PUBLIC SIDE, SO THAT ARGUMENT IS A SEPARATE ARGUMENT.

BUT I THINK IT'S ALSO A NECESSARY ONE.

THERE'S A LOT OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES WHO FEEL THE PRESSURE, FROM THEIR OFFICIAL BOSSES OR THE AGENCIES THEY WORK FOR.

I SAW THIS AND SAID IF YOU'RE GOING TO FORCE IT ON THE PRIVATE SECTOR, WHY NOT FORCE IT ON YOURSELF?

BUT THERE'S A SEPARATE BILL THAT'S GOING TO DO THAT.

WHAT ABOUT THE SMALL BUSINESS PERSON WHO'S JUST TRYING TO MAKE IT.

HE OR SHE IS ON THE EDGE, SHE DOESN'T TELL HER EMPLOYEES TO COME IN ON THE WEEKEND, BUT SHE DOES.

IT'S NOT AN EMERGENCY, BUT IN ORDER FOR HER TO GET THE WORK DONE ON THE WEEKENDS, SHE HAS TO CALL THE EMPLOYEES TO ASK QUESTIONS.

THIS DOESN'T CINCLUDE STARTUS AND OTHER TYPES OF BUSINESSES.

SO WE'LL HAVE A PUBLIC HEARING AND HAVE PEOPLE EXPRESS A THEIR CONCERNS.

IN FRANCE AND GERMANY THEY DO HAVE THIS MEASURE IN PLACE, I THINK IT'S 30 EMPLOYEES OR MORE.

AND ANY EMPLOYEE THAT DECIDES TO CONTINUE WORKING CAN CONTINUE WORKING THIS DOESN'T MEAN THAT IF YOUR EMPLOYEE IS OFF THE CLOCK, THAT HE OR SHE DOESN'T HAVE THE RIGHT TO RESPOND TO YOU IF THERE'S A EMERGENCY.

IF YOU HAVE A HEALTHY WORK ENVIRONMENT, YOU HAVE THOSE EMPLOYEES WHO ENJOY THEIR JOB, THEY WILL CONTINUE RESPONDING.

SO FINALLY, COUNCILMEMBER.

THE VIEWERS WATCHING US RIGHT NOW, A YEAR FROM TODAY, ARE THEY GOING TO BE WATCHING KNOWING THERE'S NOT EVEN A POSSIBILITY THAT THEIR EMPLOYER IS GOING TO BE EMAILING THEM EXPECTING AN ANSWER IF YOUR LEGISLATION IS SUCCESSFUL?

I HOPE NOT.

I KNOW A LOT OF THE YOUNGER GENERATIONS HAVE SUFFERED THE BRUNT OF TECHNOLOGY COMING INTO THE WORKPLACE.

AND I'M THINKING ABOUT THE FUTURE AND LOOKING FORWARD AND PROTECTING OUR EMPLOYEES.

DO YOU THINK THIS BILL WILL PASS?

I BELIEVE IN IT, HOPEFULLY MY COLLEAGUES S DO TOO.

> SKIES ARE CRYING TONIGHT BECAUSE WE MARK A VERY SOLEMN, PAINFUL, POWERFUL OCCASION.

50 YEARS AGO THIS EVENING, WAS THE LAST NIGHT OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.'S LIFE.

AND THAT EVENING, HE GAVE A SPEECH THAT DEFINED HIS LIFE'S JOURNEY.

I WANT TO THANK ALL OF YOU FOR BEING HERE, BECAUSE YOUR PRESENCE IS PART OF CONTINUING HIS DREAM.

LET US RISE UP TONIGHT WITH A GREATER READINESS.

LET US STAND WITH A GREATER DETERMINATION AND LET US MOVE ON IN THESE POWERFUL DAYS, THESE DAYS OF CHALLENGE TO MAKE AMERICA WHAT IT OUGHT TO BE.

WE HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE AMERICA A BETTER NATION.

LAST NIGHT, NEW YORK CITY HONORED THE 50th ANNIVERSARY OF DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.'S FINAL SPEECH.

MAYOR BILL DE BLASIO ALONG WITH POLICE AND THE PARKS DEPARTMENT WERE ON HAND TO LIGHT THE ARC IN CITY PARK.

ADDRESSING INJUSTICES TO AFRICAN-AMERICANS, WHILE CALLING FOR UNITY AND NONVIOLENT PROTESTS ACROSS THE COUNTRY.

AND WHILE MUCH OF DR. KING'S ACTIVISM WAS CONCENTRATED IN THE SOUTH, FROM MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, WHERE THE HISTORICAL BUS BOYCOTT TOOK PLACE, TO THE STEPS OF THE CAPITOL, WHERE HE DELIVERED HIS FAMOUS 'I HAVE A DREAM SPEECH.'

AS PART OF OUR OWN CHASING THE DREAM SERIES.

THAT IMPACT IS NOW TANGIBLE THROUGH A COLLECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS TITLED KING IN NEW YORK THAT TRACES THE CIVIL RIGHTS LEADERS ENCOUNTERED IN THE BIG APPLE FROM THE 1960s, UNTIL HIS ASSASSINATION IN 1968.

I WOULD LIKE TO WELCOME THE CURATOR OF THE DISPLAY.

HOW DID YOU COME ACROSS THESE PH PHOTOS?

WE WANTED TO COMMEMORATE MR.

KING ON THE 50th ANNIVERSARY OF HIS DEATH, WE HAD A FEELING THAT HE HAD A CLOSE CONNECTION TO NEW YORK AND WAS HERE A LOT.

SO WE STARTED DIGGING AND FOUND A LOT OF PRIVATE PHOTOGRAPHS, COLLECTIONS, AND WHAT WE FOUND WAS HE WAS HERE A LOT, AND HIS PRESENCE IN NEW YORK REALLY PROVIDES AN INTERESTING LENS THROUGH WHICH WE CAN VIEW HIM IN A KIND OF BROADER WAY.

HIS CIVIL RIGHTS WORK, BUT HOW HE RELATED IT TO GLOBAL ISSUES, HE SPOKE OUT AGAINST THE VIETNAM WAR ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS IN NEW YORK CITY, REALLY USED THE CITY AS A STAGE TO DO SO, TALKED TO LABOR UNIONS HERE.

SO WE BEGIN THE SHOW WITH A SERMON HE GAVE AT ST. JOHNS THE DIVINE DURING 1956 WHEN HE WAS JUST BECOMING A NATIONAL FIGURE AND HE SPOKE TO 12,000 PEOPLE THERE AND SORT OF JUST TAKE IT FROM THERE, HOW NEW YORK PROVIDES A GREAT MEDIA OPPORTUNITY FOR KING AND AS THE KIND OF GAETEWAY TO THE WORLD AD PROVIDES A PLATFORM FOR HIM TO SPEAK ON A RANGE OF ISSUES, BOTH LOCAL AND GLOBAL.

AND I THINK THAT DOES SPEAK TO THE WAY THAT WE'RE SORT OF RELOOKING AT HIS LEGACY, BECAUSE THERE WAS A LOT OF UNION WORK THAT THINGS THAT WORKED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT.

ABSOLUTELY.

I THINK AS HISTORIANS HAVE DONE JUST AMAZING WRITING AND RESEARCH IN THE LAST 10, 20 YEARS ABOUT THE BLACK FREEDOM STRUGGLE AND WORK THAT HAS SHAPED ME AS A HISTORIAN AND A CURAATOR WANTED TO REPRESENT THT INDIVIDUAL FORM, HOW THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT HAD A GLOBAL SCOPE AND HOW KING DENOUNCED, NOT JUST RACISM, BUT MILITARISM AND MATERIALISM AND TO SUPPORT SO MUCH OF THAT WORK THAT HAS BEEN TAKING PLACE IN THE LAST SEVERAL YEARS.

HOW BIG IS THIS EXHIBIT WE'RE TALKING GOT?

THIS ISN'T JUST A FEW PHOTOGRAPHS, CORRECT?

IT'S OVER 40 PHOTOGRAPHS, WE PACK THEM IN.

IT STARTS IN 1956 AT ST. JOHN THE DIVINE, AND THEN WE GO UP, HE SPOKE IN CARNEGIE HALL IN 1958, ON WHAT WOULD HAVE BEEN THE BIRTHDAY OF THE ICONIC BLACK ACTIVIST.

AND IT WAS A VERY INTERESTING SPEECH.

AND THEN WE GO BEYOND HIS DEATH ON APRIL 4, 1968 AND LOOK AT THE RECEPTION OF HIS MURDER IN NEW YORK CITY AND HOW NEW YORKERS GRIEVED, BUT ALSO CAME TOGETHER, YOU KNOW, TO PROTEST AND COMMEMORATE HIM.

AND FOR PEOPLE WHO MIGHT BE, YOU KNOW, STUDENTS OF DR. KING, BUT MIGHT NOT BE ABLE TO GET TO THIS EXHIBIT, IS THERE A WAY TO SEE THIS PERHAPS ONLINE?

OR IF YOU COME TO THE CITY AT SOME LATER POINT?

RIGHT NOW IT'S ONLY ON THE WALLS OF THE MUSEUM, SO WE'LL HAVE TO BRING EVERYONE IN THAT WE CAN.

BUT I DO THINK THERE HAVEN'T BEEN ANY OTHER EXHIBITIONS ON THIS TOPIC, SO IT HAS BEEN EXCITING TO BRING TOGETHER THESE PHOTOGRAPHS FROM DISPARATE SOURCES SO IT WOULD BE AMAZING FOR THEM TO LIVE ON TOGETHER.

ESPECIALLY IF IT ADDS TO WHAT WE UNDERSTAND OF AN INCREDIBLY GREAT AND COMPLEX MAN.

LISTEN, SARAH, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US ON THE PROGRAM AND ESPECIALLY FOR THIS EXHIBIT OF 'KING IN NEW YORK.'

THANK YOU SO MUCH.

> ASTRONAUT SCOTT KELLY SPENT A YEAR ABOARD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, A BOLD MISSION THAT ENDED IN 2016.

THE MISSION'S PURPOSE WAS TO DISCOVER THE EFFECTS ON KELLEY'S BODY.

THE RESULTS WE WERE TOLD THAT 7% OF SCOTT KELLY'S GENE EXPRESSIONS CHANGED SINCE RETURNING TO EARTH.

BUT FOR THOSE OF US WHO ARE NOT ROCKET SCIENTISTS, THAT TOOK ON A NEW, SOMEWHAT EXAGGERATED AND CONFUSING MEANING, QUESTIONS ABOUT WHAT SCOTT KELLY'S DNA REALLY WAS CHANGE.

COULD THIS MEAN AS WAS SUGGESTED THAT THEY ARE NO LONGER QUITE IDENTICAL TWINS?

WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED UP THERE IN SPACE?

HERE TO SORT IT OUT, FORMER NASA ASTRONAUT MICHAEL MASSIMINO, MICHAEL, THANKS FOR BEING WITH US.

PLEASURE TO BE HERE.

IT'S FAIR TO SAY THAT THERE WAS SOME CONFUSING REPORTING ABOUT THIS.

YES.

I THINK THERE WAS SOME CONFUSION ON THE PART OF NASA'S STATEMENTS IN TERMS OF NOT MAKING IT CLEAR TO THOSE OF US AS WE SAID WHO ARE NOT ROCKET SCIENTISTS.

WHAT WAS THE CAUSE OF THE CONFUSION?

I THINK IT WAS THE WAY THE STATEMENT WAS RELEASED OR THE INFORMATION THAT WAS RELEASED, IT SOUNDED LIKE THIS IS A BIG, BIG CHANGE AND THEY MAY NO LONGER BE TWINS.

BUT KNOWING THOSE TWO GUYS, I DON'T CARE WHAT HAPPENS TO THEIR DNA, THEY'LL BE FOREVER BROTHERS AND BEST FRIENDS.

I DON'T CARE WHAT HAPPENED TO THEM.

BUT A SCIENTIFIC STANDPOINT, I THINK THAT WAS A MISINTERPRETATION OF THAT STATEMENT.

I DON'T THINK NASA TRIED TO LEAD PEOPLE IN THE WRONG WAY OR ANYONE DID, BUT IT SOUNDED LIKE AN INTERESTING PIECE AND IT WAS A BIT MISINTERPRETED AND EXAGGERATED.

FROM WHAT I SAW, SCIENTISTS FOUND A 7% DIFFERENCE IN GENE EXPRESSION.

ARE YOU SAYING THAT THE GENES WERE CHANGED 7%? T THAT'S NOT WHAT IT MEANS, RIGHT?

I THINK OVERALL, THE TWIN STUDY, THE VALUE OF IT IS THAT THEY PUT NASA IN A POSITION THAT THEY WANTED TO STUDY THE CHANGES IN THE HUMAN BODY FROM A MOLECULAR LEVEL, AND TODAY YOU CAN STUDY THE GENOME AND WE'RE VERY LUCKY THAT WE HAVE THAT TECHNOLOGY.

NASA HAD LOOKED AT CHANGES IN ASTRONAUTS BY LOOKING AT OTHER THINGS IN THE PAST.

SO THIS WAS A NEW THING FOR THEM.

WE ALWAYS TRY TO MEASURE THINGS LIKE BONE LOSS, CHANGES IN VISION OR HEARING, ANYTHING YOU WOULD CHECK WHEN YOU GET A PHYSICAL.

THOSE ARE THINGS THAT ARE EASILY MEASURED.

THEY WOULD DO THINGS LIKE CHECK OUR BALANCE, PUT YOU ON YOUR BACK AND SEE HOW WELL YOU COULD STAND UP, YOUR BALANCE, HOW THAT WAS AFFECTED.

IF YOU GO THROUGH CHANGES IN 0 GRAVITY, PRIMARILY THINGS IN YOUR INNER EAR, IT WORKS ON GRAVITY, AND THAT'S NOT THE CASE IN SPACE.

HOW LONG CAN YOU NOT DRIVE A CAR, FLY AN AIRPLANE, THOSE MEASURES, MUSCLE, BONE, EYESIGHT, HEARING, BALANCE, ALL THESE THINGS ARE VERY IMPORTANT.

NOW I THINK WHAT'S INTERESTING WITH THE TWIN STUDY IS IT PUT THEM IN A POSITION WHERE THEY REALLY COULD SEE WHAT THE CHANGES WERE MOLECULARLY.

HAVING A ONE ON THE GROUND TO GIVE YOU A BASELINE SO TO SPEAK.

YOU DON'T USUALLY HAVE THAT.

IT'S VERY RARE, IT'S THE FIRST PAIR OF TWINS.

THEY WEREN'T SELECTED BECAUSE THEY WERE TWINS, THEY WERE BOTH NAVY TEST PILOTS.

I INTERVIEWED WITH MARK, I KNOW THESE GUYS A LONG TIME.

BUT TO GET BACK TO THE CHANGES THAT HAPPENED WITH SCOTT --

TELL US ABOUT THOSE GENE EXPRESSIONS.

SO PEOPLE UNDERSTAND.

ESSENTIALLY I THINK IT'S NOW BEEN BETTER EXPLAINED.

BUT CORRECT ME IF I'M WRONG, THEY'RE NOT TALKING ABOUT A CHANGE IN YOUR MOLECULAR AGGENEC STRUCT STRUCTURE.

IT'S HOW THE BODY RESPONDS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS.

WHEN YOU GO INTO SPACE YOUR BODY IS GOING TO REACT DIFFERENTLY.

IT'S SIMILAR TO CHANGE WITH PEOPLE THEY HAVE SEEN UNDER SEA, HIGH ALTITUDE, MOUNTAIN CLIMBERS, PEOPLE WHO ARE POLAR EXPLORERS, BEING IN A DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT, BECAUSE IT WAS A DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT, COULD CHANGE THE WAY THE GENE CHANGES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL.

AND WITH SCOTT, WHILE THESE CHANGES ARE DIFFERENT FOR THAT YEAR IN SPACE, CHANGES IN OXYGEN LEVELS, CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS, SPACE RADIATION AND SO ON.

PLUS STRESS LEVEL, BEING AWAY FROM HOME AND SO ON.

WHAT'S EXCITING ABOUT THIS IS THAT NASA NOW HAS THE TECHNIQUES AND HAS STARTED THIS NEW ERA OF NOT JUST LOOKING AT VITAL SIGNS BUT ALSO AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL AND IF WE WANT TO SEND PEOPLE ON LONGER JOURNEYS TO OTHER PLANTS.

WE HEARD ABOUT THE PLANS TO GO TO MARS, THREE YEARS IN SPACE OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT?

MARS IS REALLY TOUGH.

IT'S REALLY TOUGH TO GET PEOPLE THERE, THAT'S WHY WE HAVEN'T DONE THAT YET.

I THINK WHAT'S MORE LIKELY AS OUR NEXT STEP FOR EXPLORATION, AFTER WE'RE FINISHED WITH THE SPACE STATION IS TO GO TO THE MOON.

BUT NOT JUST GO BACK FOR A QUICK VISIT AND TAKE SAMPLES, LIKE WE DID IN THE 60s AND EARLY 70s, BUT GO BACK AND ESTABLISH SOME SORT OF BASE.

AND BY DOING THAT, ESTABLISHING A PRESENCE ON THE MOON, WE'LL BE ABLE TO GET TO MARS QUICKLY.

WE ALWAYS UNDERSTAND THINGS BETTER WHEN WE GET TO CHAT WITH YOU.

MIKE, YOU BE WELL.

THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

TAKE CARE.

> DEFINING HOPE IS A POWERFUL DOCUMENTARY WHICH FOLLOWS EIGHT PATIENTS WITH LIFE THREATENING ILLNESSES AND SOME OF THE EXTRAORDINARY NURSES WHO CARE FOR THEM.

IT SHINES A LIGHT ON NURSES AND PALLIATIVE CARE, TAKING CARE OF PATIENTS WHO ARE FAR FROM GIVING UP ON LIFE EMPOWER PATIENTS.

IF SOMEONE SAID YOU'RE GOING TO GO NOW OR FOUR MONTHS, I WOULD TAKE THE FOUR MONTHS.

THIS IS MY MOM'S BIRTHDAY.

THAT'S ME.

I JUST KEEP MOVING.

TOMORROW I GET CHEMO AND TODAY I GET TO TEST DRIVE.

I THINK YOU CAN APPRECIATE LIFE BEFORE YOU CAN APPRECIATE DEATH.

YOU'RE NOT AFRAID.

WE'RE ALL AFRAID OF DYING.

FIVE MONTHS, SIX MONTHS, I DON'T CARE.

I'M HERE NOW.

AND JOINING US NOW ARE CAROLYN JONES THE PRODUCER AND EXECUTIVE PRODUCER OF DEFINING HOPE AND DIANE RYAN WHO FEATURES PROMINENTLY IN THE DOCUMENTARY.

THANK YOU BOTH FOR BEING HERE.

WHAT MADE YOU WANT TO MAKE A FILM DEALING WITH THE SUBJECT THAT MOST OF US DON'T EVEN WANT TO THINK ABOUT, DEATH AND DYING.

IT WAS A JOURNEY.

IT STARTED WITH A PROJECT I DID CALLED THE AMERICAN NURSE, AND I INTERVIEWED NURSES ALL OVER THE COUNTRY AND I DID A BOORKK AND FILM CALLED THE AMERICAN NURSE.

NURSES WERE TELLING ME THAT WE WEREN'T DYING VERY WELL.

ONE NURSE SAID TO ME, AMERICANS THINK THAT DEATH IS OPTIONAL.

AND I STARTED TO THINK ABOUT IT, AND I THINK IT'S TRUE.

I THINK THAT WE KIND OF THINK WE CAN BUY OURSELVES OUT OF THIS PIECE OF BUSINESS.

AND WE CAN'T.

SO I DECIDED I WANTED TO DO A FILM THAT REALLY ADDRESSED END OF LIFE ISSUES AND HOW PEOPLE WERE DEALING WITH IT.

DID YOUR OWN IDEAS ABOUT DEATH AND DYING CHANGE IN THE COURSE OF MAKING THE FILM?

OH, MY GOODNESS.

I HAVE DO SAY YES.

I STARTED OFF THINKING THAT WE HAD KIND OF A SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS MEMBERS OF SOCIETY TO KIND OF KNOW WHEN OUR CARD WAS UP, TO KNOW WHEN IT WAS TIME TO STOP THE NEXT TREATMENT OR THE NEXT PROCEDURE.

AND YOU KNOW, I DISCOVERED OVER AND OVER, THAT MOMENT DOESN'T COME, THE WILL TO LIVE IS AN AMAZING THING.

SO I STARTED TO REALIZE THAT WE HAVE TO RESPECT EACH AND EVERY PERSON'S CHOICE ALONG THE WAY.

YOU KNOW, DIANE, ONE REVIEWER OF THE DOCUMENTARY COMMENTED THAT YOUR COMMITMENT TO YOUR WORK AND THE SENSE OF FULFILLN'T IT OBVIOUSLY GIVES YOU COMES THROUGH POWERFULLY IN YOUR INTERVIEWS AND YOUR INTERACTIONS WITH YOUR PATIENTS.

WHAT IS IT ABOUT THIS WORK THAT MOTIVATES YOU IN SUCH A WONDERFUL AND POWERFUL WAY?

BECAUSE IT'S SO REAL.

WHAT I LIKE ABOUT IT IS BECAUSE YOU'RE SEEING PEOPLE IN THEIR OWN REAL STATE ABOUT MAKING DECISIONS.

I THINK I ENJOY BEING THERE AS AN ADVOCATE AND LISTENING TO THEM AND SHARING, THEY DON'T KNOW I'M SICK, THEY NEVER KNEW I WAS SICK.

BUT I LOVE THE FACT THAT I WAS ABLE TO BE THERE FOR THEM AND I LOVE THAT SUPPORT THAT I COULD GIVE THEM.

IN THE COURSE OF THE FILM OF OVARIAN CANCER THAT CAME BACK WHILE YOU WERE WORKING ON THE FILM, HOW DID THAT AFFECT YOUR RELATIONSHIP WITH YOUR PATIENTS?

HAVING CANCER CHANGED MY WHOLE VIEW AND THE WAY I TREAT CANCER AND ONE I THINK IS PAIN, AND THE PAIN IS WHAT I WANTED TO HIDE.

AND THAT BECAME SUCH A REALLY WAY OF CARING FOR THEM, THE WAY I WANTED TO BE CARE FOR, BECAUSE I KNOW HOW SICK I WAS.

WHEN I CAME BACK AFTER BEING SICK I WAS VERY DIFFERENT.

HOW ARE YOU DOING AGAIN?

I'M ACTUALLY DOING WELL.

CAROLYN, THE THING THAT REALLY COMES THROUGH IN THE FILM, IS THAT THERE'S A POWER WHEN A PATIENT HAS CONTROL OVER THE PROCESS OF DEATH AND DYING, IT'S A LITTLBERATION.

BUT WHAT ABOUT NOT WANTING TO BE A BURDEN TO THEIR FAMILY?

THE WILL TO LIVE TRUMPS EVERY OTHER DECISION.

AT THE END OF LIFE, PEOPLE ARE THINKING OF SO MANY DIFFERENT THINGS, BUT WHAT MAKES LIFE WORTH LIVING IS WHAT DRIVES THEM IN THE END.

AND I DON'T THINK PEOPLE, YOU SHOULD SPEAK TO THIS MORNE THAN YOU OR I.

IF THERE WAS A WILLIN TO LIVE, KICKED IN.

BUT THE QUESTION IS ARE WE LISTENING TO OUR PATIENTS AND ARE WE DOING THE RIGHT THING FOR OUR LOVED ONES.

OUR LOVED ONES OR FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSION?

BOTH.

FAMILY MEMBERS FIRST AND FOREMOST, BECAUSE VERY OFTEN THE FAMILY WILL HAVE A DESIRE THAT THE PATIENT REALLY DOESN'T HAVE.

YOUR EXPERIENCE, DIANE, THAT THE PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES ARE MAKING THE DECISIONS RIGHTLY?

I MEAN ON THE RIGHT BASIS?

I ACTUALLY THINK THAT THERE'S ALWAYS A CONTROVERSY WITH THE FAMILIES.

THE FAMILIES ARE STILL AFRAID WHEN THEY SEE THEIR LOVED ONES DYING, THEY DON'T WANT TO SEE THEM DIE, SO THEY'RE TRYING EVERY MEANS POSSIBLE.

AND THAT'S THE UNFORTUNATE PART.

BECAUSE WE HAVE ALREADY TRIED EVERY MEANS AND NOW THE PATIENT IS SAYING WHAT THEY WANT, AND THE FAMILY IS SAYING -- AND THERE'S ALWAYS A BIT OF TENSION THERE AND THEY'RE NOT QUITE UNDERSTANDING THAT THIS IS WHAT THE PATIENT WANTS.

IT'S REALLY NOT UP TO THEM ANYMORE.

AND I THINK IT'S THE CHILDREN OR THE FAMILY, IT'S VERY HARD FOR THEM TO LET GO.

THANK YOU SO MUCH, AND DIANE, THANK YOU SO MUCH, GOOD LUCK TO BOTH OF YOU, IT'S A WONDERFUL FILM.

DEFINING HOPE PREMIERS APRIL 5 AT WNET AND YOU CAN CATCH IT AGAIN ON APRIL 7 AT 5:00 P.M.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY --

Funders

MetroFocus is made possible by James and Merryl Tisch, Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III, the Sylvia A. and Simon B. Poyta Programming Endowment to Fight Anti-Semitism, Bernard and Irene Schwartz, Rosalind P. Walter, Barbara Hope Zuckerberg, Jody and John Arnhold, the Cheryl and Philip Milstein Family, Janet Prindle Seidler, Judy and Josh Weston and the Dr. Robert C. and Tina Sohn Foundation.

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