TONIGHT ON METROFOCUS

Republicans unveil their tax reform bill. But, as the House heads toward a vote, mayors from across New York state call on Members of Congress to vote no. So, if the bill is passed into law, how would it affect you? We’ll tell you! Spending a year in space.  It’s a feat that’s never been accomplished, or documented—until now. We’ll give you a firsthand look at life aboard the international space station. An airport floating across the Hudson River or apartments tucked into bridges? A Queens Museum exhibit is now giving us a fascinating look at all of the wild ideas that were left on the city’s cutting room floor. The former Chief of NYPD’s Internal Affairs Bureau, Charles Campisi, tells all in his new book, “Blue On Blue.”

Aired on November 14, 2017.

TRANSCRIPT

> REPUBLICANS UNVEIL THEIR TAX REFORM BILL, AS A HOUSE MOVES TO A VOTE.

WHAT YOU MAKERS CALL ON MEMBERS OF CONGRESS TO VOTE NO.

WE WILL GET SCREWED.

SO IF THE BILL IS PASSED INTO LAW, HOW WOULD IT AFFECT YOU.

WE'LL TELL YOU.

SPENDING A YEAR IN SPACE.

IT'S A FEAT THAT'S NEVER BEEN ACCOMPLISHED OR DOCUMENTED UNTIL NOW.

WE'LL GIVE YOU A FIRSTHAND LOOK AT LIFE ABOARDS THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

AN AIRPORT FLOATING ACROSS THE HUDSON RIVER OR APARTMENTS TUCKED INTO BRIDGES.

A FASCINATING LOOK AT ALL THE WILD IDEAS THAT WERE LEFT ON THE CITY'S CUTTING ROOM FLOOR.

> NYPD'S BAD APPLES.

FORMER HEAD OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS TELLS ALL IN A NEW BOOK.

ALL THAT AND MORE AS METRO FOCUS STARTS RIGHT NOW.

> THIS IS METRO FOCUS.

WITH RAPHEAL P. RAMON, JACK FORD AND JENNA FLANAGAN.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY --

CORPORATE FUNDING WAS PROVIDED BY --

> IT'S A PIVOTAL WEEK FOR CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICAN LEADERS AS THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES PREPARES TO VOTE ON THE PROPOSED TAX REFORM LEGISLATION.

LAWMAKERS WILL CAST THEIR VOTES THIS THURSDAY WITH NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE PETER KING CONFIRMING THAT HE BELIEVES THE PARTY HAS THE VOTE TO PASS THE BILL DESPITE HIS CURRENT OPPOSITION.

A FAR STIFFER TEST IN THE SENATE IS EXPECTED WHERE THE MARGIN OF THE GOP MAJORITY IS FAR, FAR SLIMMER.

WHAT COULD BE THE DIRECT CONSEQUENCES OF THIS TAX REFORM ON NEW YORKERS SHOULD IT BE SIGNED INTO LAW.

FOR ANSWERS, WE TURN TO GREG DAVID, COLUMNIST FOR CRANE NEW YORK BUSINESS.

BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC PROGRAM.

GREG, WELCOME TO THE PROGRAM.

THANK YOU.

I WANT TO START BY ASKING ABOUT THE TAX PLAN.

CAN YOU BREAK DOWN HOW THIS MIGHT AFFECT NEW YORKERS ACROSS THE SOCIOECONOMIC PLATFORM?

WELL, EVERYONE'S TALKING ABOUT THE END OR LIMITATIONS ON STATE AND LOCAL INCOME TAX DEDUCTIONS.

THIS DOES NOT AFFECT EVERY NEW YORKER.

IT AFFECTS LESS THAN A THIRD OF NEW YORKERS.

AND THAT NUMBER IS GOING TO GO DOWN.

SO EVEN FEWER NEW YORKERS.

THOSE THAT ARE AFFECTED WOULD BE AFFECTED A GREAT DEAL AND TAX BILLS WILL GO UP.

THOSE ARE PEOPLE IN THE SUBURBS AROUND NEW YORK CITY AND IN MANHATTAN.

THEY'RE THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE THE BIGGEST STATE AND LOCAL TAX DEDUCTIONS.

IN THE SUBURBS IT'S A COMBINATION OF PROPERTY TAXES AND INCOME TAXES.

IN MANHATTAN, IT'S PRIMARILY INCOME TAXES.

THE AVERAGE DEDUCTION FOR A NEW YORKER WHO ITEMIZES IS MORE THAN $60,000.

SO IT'S OF ENORMOUS BENEFIT TO THOSE PEOPLE.

WE HEARD A LOT OF OPPOSITION COMING OUT OF LAWMAKERS FOR THE HOUSE.

I'M WONDERING, SHOULD WE HAVE ANY CONCERN OVER WHAT MIGHT BE COMING FROM THE SENATE?

NO, I MEAN THE FACT IS, THAT $10,000 PROPERTY TAX ALLOWS 5 OR 6 OF THE UPSTATE REPUBLICANS IN NEW YORK TO SUPPORT THE BILL.

BECAUSE IT GREATLY DIMINISHES THEY'RE CONSTITUENTS.

NOT ONLY PETER KING, BUT DAN DONOVAN HAS SAID HE'S GOING TO APOSE THE BILL AS ARE A COUPLE NEW JERSEY REPUBLICANS.

THE QUESTION IS, WILL IT BE ENOUGH.

AND THE INDICATION AT THE MOMENT IS NO.

THE WAY THE WHITE HOUSE IS PRESENTING THIS LEGISLATION, IS THAT IT WILL BE MORE DETRIMENTAL FOR THE UNER 1% OF AMERICANS.

THE PRESIDENT HIMSELF HAS GONE SO FAR TO SAY HE WOULD COME OUT AS A LOSER IF THIS PASSES.

THE UPPER 1% WHO LIVE IN NEW YORK CITY?

YES.

THE UPPER 1% WHO LIVE IN THE WHOLE COUNTRY ALMOST CERTAINLY NOT.

IT ALL DEPENDS ON WHERE YOU LIVE, AND THE LOCAL TAX STRUCTURE.

IT'S NOT GOING TO BE DETRIMENTAL FOR THE 1% IN FLORIDA OR TEXAS.

SPEAKING OF THE DIFFERENT CHANGES WITHIN THE LEGISLATION.

THERE'S BEEN A LOT OF TALK ABOUT WHAT IS COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS THE DEATH TAX.

IT'S REALLY JUST AN ESTATE TAX.

THE BILLS HAVE SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT PROVISIONS, BUT IF TAXES ARE PAID BY VERY FEW PEOPLE, BUT FOR THOSE THAT PAY IT, IT'S A LOT OF MONEY.

THIS IS CLEARLY A BENEFIT TO RICH PEOPLE WHO WANT TO PASS ALONG THE BUSINESSES OR WEALTH TO THEIR CHILDREN.

IT'S A VERY CONTROVERSIAL PROVISION.

IT'S ANOTHER REASON WHY TRUMP IS WRONG.

THIS WILL BE OF ENORMOUS BENEFIT TO TRUMP'S CHILDREN IF THERE'S NO ESTATE TAX ON HIS ESTATE WHEN HE PASSES IT ON TO HIS KIDS.

PART OF THE WHITE HOUSE'S PRESENTATION IS THAT THEY CAME TO THE TABLE WITH THIS TINY LITTLE POSTCARD WE COULD FILE OUR TAXES ON.

THAT MAY BE PRETTY EXCITING IF YOU FIND FILING YOUR TAXES TO BE AN OVERWHELMING AND INTIMIDATING EXPERIENCE.

WHO DOES THAT REALLY BENEFIT IF THERE'S SO FEW DEDUCTIONS TO BE MADE?

WE DON'T KNOW WHETHER THE POSTCARD'S GOING TO WORK.

WHILE THE HOUSE HAS ONLY FOUR TAX BRACKETS, THE SENATE HAS SEVEN.

ITS COMPLEXITY MIGHT NOT BE REDUCED.

THE ADMINISTRATION RULED THIS OUT AS A MIDDLE CLASS TAX CUT.

TAXES GO UP APPROXIMATELY A THIRD.

WHAT THIS BILL DOES IS LOWERS TAXES ON CORPORATIONS.

IT GREATLY SLASHES THE CORPORATE TAX RATE IN AMERICA, WHICH IS AMONG THE HIGHEST IN THE WORLD, IN AN EFFORT TO SPUR ECONOMIC GROWTH.

THE REPUBLICANS EVEN ARGUE THAT IT WILL INCREASE WAGES, ALTHOUGH MOST ECONOMISTS, ESPECIALLY THOSE WHO ARE IN THE PROGRESSIVE CAMP SAY IT'S JUST NOT GOING TO END.

AND THAT'S THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTEMPT OF THE REPUBLICANS.

BY LOWERING TAXES ON BUSINESS OWNERS, THEY HOPE TO SPUR --

THAT'S AN EXCELLENT POINT, WHAT DO WE KNOW OF WHAT THIS TAX LEGISLATION WOULD DO TO THE DEFICIT.

THERE'S BEEN TALK OF IT ADDING TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO THE NATIONAL DEBT?

WELL, THE PROPONENTS OF THE BILL ARE ALLOWED TO INCREASE THE BUDGET BY 1 $1/2 TRILLION.

THE DEFICIT BY 1 $1/2 TRILLION.

THAT'S WHAT THE LEGISLATION ALLOWS.

THE QUESTION IS WHETHER IT WILL INCREASE IT BY MORE.

THE BUDGET PLAN HAS UNSPECIFIED CUTS IN DOMESTIC PROGRAMS OVER THE 10-YEAR HORIZON OF THE BILL.

DOES THAT MEAN SOCIAL SECURITY?

DOES THAT MEAN MEDICARE?

DOES THAT MEAN MEDICAID?

COULD YOU GET THOSE CUTS WITHOUT IT?

OR WHAT HAPPENS IF POLITICS DON'T ALLOW THOSE CUTS?

SO THE ANSWER IS, THE DEFICIT'S GOING UP BY A LITTLE MORE THAN A TRILLION.

AND THE QUESTION IS, WHETHER IT WILL GO UP BY MUCH MORE.

THERE WILL DEFINITELY BE SOMETHING TO WATCH.

I THINK WE ALL HAVE A FINANCIAL INVESTMENT IN IT.

GREG DAVID, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US ON THE PROGRAM.

MY PLEASURE.

> THE FINAL FRONTIER, ONE PAIR OF ASTRONAUT BROTHERS ARE BOLDLY GOING WHERE NO ONE HAS GONE BEFORE.

THE INFORMATION GATHERED ABOUT THE KELLY TWINS WILL BE USED AS A KEY RESEARCH ELEMENT FOR FUTURE MISSIONS.

THEIR EFFORTS AND THE EFFORTS OF THE CREW ARE CHRONICLED IN A DOCUMENTARY CALLED A YEAR IN SPACE.

TAKE A QUICK LOOK.

TWINS ARE BORN WITH THE SAME GENETIC MATERIAL, CHANGES OVER TIME.

AND MAYBE IT CHANGES MORE RAPIDLY IN SPACE THAN ON EARTH.

NASA'S DOING A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MY BROTHER MARK AND I, SINCE WE'RE IDENTICAL TWINS.

I CALL HIM MUCH MORE WHEN I'M IN SPACE THAN I DO ON EARTH.

AND IT'S BECAUSE HE -- YOU JUST FEEL LIKE YOU'RE SO FAR AWAY, YOU NEED TO TRY TO MAINTAIN SOME KIND OF CONNECTION.

I'LL BE PROBABLY MORE EXCITED FOR HIM THAN ANYBODY ELSE.

I'VE FLOWN FOUR FLIGHTS, THIS WILL BE HIS FOURTH FLIGHT.

MY MOM'S PASSED AWAY, BUT FOR MY DAD, TO HAVE GONE THROUGH THIS WHOLE EXPERIENCE EIGHT TIMES NOW IS A LOT.

> JOINING ME NOW TO TALK ABOUT THIS MISSION, COLOMBIA UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR AND A FORMER NASA ASTRONAUT HIMSELF.

DR. MICHAEL MASSAMINO.

IT'S A PLEASURE TO HAVE YOU WITH US.

YOU NOT ONLY KNOW ABOUT THIS ACADEMICALLY, YOU DID TWO SPACE MISSIONS AND FOUR SPACE WALKS.

WHICH I THINK IS REALLY REALLY COOL.

ME TOO, IT WAS A LOT OF FUN.

I'M WATCHING THIS VIDEO YOU HAVE UP THERE.

IT'S A FUN JOB.

SOME OF OUR VIEWERS MAY LOOK AT YOU AND SAY, WAIT A MINUTE, WEREN'T YOU ON THE BIG BANG THEORY PLAYING AN ASTRONAUT A COUPLE TIMES?

YES, I GOT A CHANCE TO DO THAT TOO.

YOU KNOW FROM WHENCE YOU SPEAK SO THEY SAY.

WE'LL FIND OUT.

WE'RE TALKING ABOUT THE FACT THAT SCOTT KELLY HAS BEEN IN SPACE NOR A FULL YEAR.

YEAH.

IT'S THE LONGEST ANYBODY HAS DONE THAT.

WHY IS THAT SUCH A BIG DEAL.

THE IDEA OF SPENDING A FULL YEAR IN SPACE.

IF YOU LOOK AT WHAT WE'VE DONE ON LEAVING OUR PLANET.

WE TAKE THESE STEPS, GOING TO THE MOON MANY YEARS AGO MANY THE SPACE STATION WAS REALLY OUR FIRST EXPERIENCE OF HAVING A PERMANENT PRESENCE -- AT LEAST FOR THE UNITED STATES.

RUSSIA, WHILE WE WERE GOING TO THE MOON AND FLYING THE SPACE SHUTTLE, THEY HAD SPACE STATIONS.

ESPECIALLY THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE EFFORT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA, THIS WAS A MAJOR STEP IN GETTING A PERMANENT FACILITY UP THERE, THAT'S BEEN UP THERE SINCE 2000, WE'VE HAD A PERSON ON THE SPACE STATION, WE'VE CHANGED THEM OUT SINCE THAT TIME.

WE'VE HAD THIS PERMANENT PRESENCE IN SPACE.

THEY'VE BEEN BASICALLY SIX MONTH TRIPS.

NOW WE HAVE SCOTT AND HIS COUNTERPART, RUSSIANS COULD MONDAY AT UP THERE FOR A FULL YEAR.

THERE WAS TALK ABOUT GOING TO MARS OR THE MOON.

IT SEEMS LIKE MOMENTUM IS PICKING UP TO GO TO MARS.

THAT'S A LONG TRIP.

YOU'RE GOING TO PUT PEOPLE IN SPACE FOR ABOUT 2 1/2 YEARS.

BY DOING THIS YEAR MISSION, WE'RE LEARNING AN AWFUL LOT OF WHAT IT'S GOING TO TAKE TO PUSH PEOPLE OUT THERE FOR A LONGER MISSION, WHICH IS OUR GOAL.

I THINK OUR GOAL AS HUMANITY, TO GET AWAY FROM THE MOON, GET GOING AND GET PEOPLE OUT TO MARS.

THIS IS A HUGE STEP IN TAKING THAT BIG LEAP.

NEXT 20, 30 YEARS, DO YOU THINK REALISTICALLY, THERE'S A FAIRLY GOOD CHANCE WE GET TO MARS?

I THINK THERE IS.

I WAS TALKING TO ONE OF MY FRIENDS THAT HAD JUST COME BACK FROM THE SPACE SHUTTLE, WHO WAS UP FOR SIX MONTHS WHEN SCOTT WAS UP THERE, HE JUST GOT BACK, HE WAS UP THERE LAST WEEK, I GOT TO SPEND SOME TIME WITH HIM, HE WAS SAYING THIS NEW -- THEY'RE PICKING A NEW ASTRONAUT CLASS AND HOW THEY'RE SAYING, THEY'RE GOING TO SEND THESE GUYS TO THE MOON OR MARS.

AND HE WAS SAYING, THEY TOLD MIKE THE SAME THING IN 1996.

YOU'RE ALL GOING TO MARS.

YOU'RE GOING TO THE MOON OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

IT'S BEEN LONGER THAN WE EXPECTED.

WE WERE HOPING WE WOULD ALREADY BE THERE.

I THINK REALISTICALLY IT'S A REALLY TOUGH PROBLEM.

GOING TO A PLACE LIKE MARS AS FAR AWAY AND IT'S IN A DIFFERENT ORBIT.

EVEN THE MOON, WE KNOW WHERE IS IT IS.

WE'RE IN THE SAME PLANE OF THE ECLIP TICK AS MARS.

SOMETIMES IT'S FURTHER AWAY.

YOU'LL HAVE TO LEAVE THE PLANET AND REALLY NO KIDDING LEAVE, WITHOUT BEING ABLE TO COME BACK FOR A WHILE.

AND THAT'S THE BIG CHALLENGE, YOU'RE GOING TO BE GONE FOR.

IS IT REALISTIC?

I THINK IT IS.

WE'RE GETTING TO THE POINT, ESPECIALLY WITH WHAT WE'VE DONE ON THE SPACE STATION, THINGS WE'VE LEARNED DURING SCOTT'S MISSION ARE GOING TO HELP US GET THERE.

YES, I THINK THERE'S A LOT OF INTEREST, TECHNOLOGY IS GROWING, COMMERCIAL COMPANIES LIKE SPACEX AND SOME OF THESE OTHER COMPANIES THEY'RE SEEING WAYS TO MAKE THIS COMMERCIALLY VIABLE, SPACE TRAVEL THAT IS.

I THINK ONCE WE GET WHAT NASA'S DOING, WHAT WE'RE LEARNING ON THE SPACE STATION AND HOPEFULLY COMBINED WITH WHAT'S GOING ON WITH THESE COMMERCIAL COMPANIES, AND THE GENERAL INTEREST.

THE MOVIE THE MARTIAN.

IT HAS PEOPLE THINKING ABOUT IT.

I THINK WE'LL GET THERE, HOPEFULLY WITHIN OUR LIFETIMES.

IT'S A REAL PLEASURE MEETING YOU.

IT'S ALL FASCINATING.

THANK YOU.

THANK YOU.

BE WELL.

> THE WAY NEW YORK LOOKS IS SOMETHING USUALLY US RESIDENTS TAKE FOR GRANTED.

IMAGINE THE SKYLINE THAT INCLUDED A GIANT SUSPENSION BRIDGE CUTTING THROUGH THE TIP OF MANHATTAN STRETCHING PAST GOVERNOR'S ISLAND ALL THE WAY TO BROOKLYN.

OR A FLOATING AIRPORT ALONG THE HUDSON RIVER.

HOW ABOUT A GIGANTIC DOME OVER MID MANHATTAN TO PROVIDE GOOD CLIMATE CONTROL.

AS COOKIE AS THESE IDEAS SOUND, THEY WERE ALL PROJECTS PLANNED FOR NEW YORK CITY THAT NEVER MADE IT PAST THE DRAWING BOARD.

NOW, NEARLY 150 PLANS RENDERINGS AND MODELS OF SOME OF THE BOLDEST AND MOST FARFETCHED URBAN DESIGNED IDEAS ARE BEING SHOWCASED IN A NEW EXHIBITION IN THE QUEENS MUSEUM TITLED NEVER BUILT NEW YORK.

THAT BOOK'S AUTHOR AND CO CURATOR'S OF THE EXHIBIT JOIN ME NOW.

GENTLEMEN, WELCOME TO THE PROGRAM.

THANK YOU.

THANK YOU.

IN COMBING THROUGH ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT IDEAS, FIRST AND FOREMOST FOR EACH OF YOU, WHAT WAS THE WHACKIEST THAT YOU SAW, THAT YOU WERE JUST LIKE, SOMEONE SERIOUSLY THOUGHT THIS WAS A GOOD IDEA?

THE FLOATING AIRPORT.

I THINK THE AIRPORT IN THE HUDSON RIVER, THE SCALE IS UNTHINKABLE.

IT'S SOMETHING LIKE 48 BLOCKS LONG.

WOULD HAVE CONSUMED THE ENTIRE -- HALF THE HUDSON RIVER AND PROBABLY HALF OF THE WEST SIDE OF MANHATTAN.

I CAN'T IMAGINE THAT EVER HAVING BEEN BUILT.

CAN YOU IMAGINE THE SOUND OF AIRPLANES FLYING OVER YOU RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF MAN HATTEN?

YEAH, YEAH.

ON ONE HAND YOU THINK, THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN REALLY HELPFUL FOR CAPTAIN SULLY SULLENBERGER.

BUT AT THE SAME TIME THAT DOES SEEM COMPLETELY RIDICULOUS.

IS THERE ONE THAT STUCK OUT FOR YOU?

IT'S NOT USUALLY CONSIDERED WACKY, BUT IT WOULD HAVE BEEN DESTRUCTIVE, THE LOWER MANHATTAN EXPRESSWAY, WHICH WAS PROPOSED BY ROBERT MOSES AND WOULD HAVE GONE FROM BROOM STREET TO THE HOLLAND TUNNEL ALL THE WAY TO THE WILLIAMSBURG BRIDGE AND MANHATTAN BRIDGES.

IT WOULD HAVE TAKEN OUT A LOT OF SOHO AND THE LOWER EAST SIDE.

THAT'S SOME GOOD REAL ESTATE.

GOOD BACK THEN.

IT WENT EXTREMELY CLOSE TO HAPPENING.

WE'RE HAPPY THAT ONE DIDN'T HAPPEN.

GOING THROUGH SOME OF THESE IDEAS, THERE WAS ONE THAT STUCK OUT TO ME, AS MAYBE NOT A FARFETCHED IDEA, BUT AN IDEA THAT COULD HAVE COME TO PASS.

THAT WAS FROM 1920, A GENTLEMAN NAMED DANIEL LAWRENCE TURNER WHO WAS WITH THE TRANSIT COMMISSION SUBWAY COMMISSION PLAN, HE WAS PROPOSING A TUNNEL THAT WENT FROM BROOKLYN TO STATEN ISLAND.

THAT DIDN'T HAPPEN, WHY NOT?

HE HAD A VERY AMBITIOUS PLAN FOR MANHATTAN, ALREADY BACK IN 1920, THE PLACE WAS WAY TOO CONGESTED.

HE REALIZED THAT THEY HAD TO GET OUT IN FRONT OF IT QUICKLY, AND HE PROPOSED THAT SUBWAY CONNECTION FROM STATEN ISLAND TO BROOKLYN, BUT HE ALSO PROPOSED ABOUT TWICE THE SIZE OF THE CURRENT SYSTEM THAT WE HAVE TODAY.

INCLUDING IF YOU LOOK AT THE MAP ABOUT SIX TIMES AS MANY, OR EVEN MORE AS MANY CROSS TOWN SUBWAYS IN MANHATTAN WHICH WE ALL KNOW IS A PROBLEM NOW.

AND IT'S A BORROW TRANSIT, THEY WOULD HAVE BEEN CRISSCROSSED WITH A LOT MORE.

HE LOOKED AT THE SAME THING WE'RE LOOKING AT NOW AND SAID, THIS IS NOT GOOD.

THERE'S A GREAT QUOTE HE SAID IN HERE, THIS WAS 1920.

IN ORDER TO KEEP PACE WITH THE ENORMOUS TRAFFIC GROWTH, THE CITY MUST BUILD MORE TRANSIT FACILITIES THAN MORE AGAIN, AND STILL MORE AGAIN.

AND MUST KEEP DOING THIS CONTINUALLY.

EXACTLY.

TO ME, THAT'S IT.

HE WAS RIGHT ON, AND WE'VE LOOKED AT A LOT OF TRANSIT THAT WOULD HAVE CHANGED THE CITY.

THERE WAS A PLAN IN THE 1870s FOR PNEUMATIC VENTURE NAMED ALFRED ELI BEACH.

MUCH LIKE ELON MUSK, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN CARRIED ON A CURTAIN OF AIR FROM ONE STATION TO THE NEXT.

THERE WERE OTHER ONES IN 1870 ELEVATED ONES IN 1870, THERE WERE PLANS TO TAKE ALL TRUCK TRANSIT INTO MANHATTAN AND TURN IT INTO A MINIATURE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD TO MOVE ALL GOODS THROUGHOUT THE CITY, YOU WOULD NEVER SEE A TRUCK ON THE SURFACE ROADS IN MANHATTAN.

THAT WAS PROPOSED BEFORE WORLD WAR I.

THESE ALL SOUND LIKE REALLY PRACTICAL IDEAS NOW.

WAS IT JUST FUNDING AND MONEY THAT KILLED A LOT OF THESE IDEAS?

IT'S A -- THERE'S SO MANY DIFFERENT REASONS.

THE REASONS ARE THE SAME AUTHOR OF HISTORY.

MONEY IS REALLY THE IMPORTANT ONE.

POLITICS IS WHAT KILLED THAT SUBWAY, I MENTIONED.

THAT DOES IT A LOT.

THE TRANSIT COMMISSION TURNER WORKED FOR BECAME THE STATE COMMISSION, BECAUSE THEY WERE WORRIED THEY WERE SICK OF THE SHENANIGANS AT TAMMANY HALL, ET CETERA, ET CETERA.

AND THEY WANTED TO CENTRALIZE EVERYTHING.

BUT THAT HELD EVERYTHING UP AND THEN IT BECAME NEVER BUILT.

AN IDEA CAN BE AHEAD OF ITS TIME AND STILL NEVER BE REALIZED, NO ONE WILL COME TO ACCEPT IT IS A GOOD IDEA.

FLAT OUT.

ALL RIGHT.

WELL, TAMMANY HALL SEEMS TO BE THE GIFT THAT JUST KEEPS GIVING.

GENTLEMEN, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR CURATING THIS EXHIBIT, I THINK IT WILL BE REALLY EXCITING AND INTERESTING TO SEE WHAT COULD HAVE BEEN.

THIS IS A GREAT COMPANION BOOK THAT GOES WITH IT.

THANK YOU.

THANK YOU.

THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

> THE NEVER BUILT NEW YORK EXHIBIT WILL BE AT THE QUEENS MUSEUM UNTIL FEBRUARY 18th OF 2018.

BE SURE TO SEE IT, AND FOR MORE INFORMATION LOG ON TO METRO FOCUS.ORG.

> WHO'S IN CHARGE OF POLICING THE POLICE.

WHEN IT COMES TO THE NYPD, THE LARGEST IN THE COUNTRY.

THAT JOB FALLS TO THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS BUREAU.

THE IAB IS NOW THE SUBJECT OF A NEW BOOK WRITTEN BY THE MAN WHO RAN THE UNIT FOR NEARLY TWO DECADES, BLUE ON BLUE, AN INSIDER'S STORY OF GOOD COPS CATCHING BAD COPS.

THE BOOK READS LIKE A HOLLYWOOD SCRIPT, WIRETAPS, LATE NIGHT STINGS AND INTERAGENCY TURF BATTLES.

IT GIVES US NEW PERSPECTIVE ON SOME OF THE MOST NOTORIOUS CASES OF POLICE MISCONDUCT IN THE HISTORY.

JOININGING US NOW IS CHARLES.

THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

YOU WATCH MOVIES, TV SHOWS.

THE USUAL LOOK OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT, THE POLICE DEPARTMENT IS THE RAT SQUAD.

YOU KNOW, FULL OF COWARDLY COPS OR FANATICS.

I GUESS YOU DON'T AGREE WITH THAT PORTRAYAL?

CERTAINLY NOT.

THAT'S ONE OF THE REASONS I WROTE THE BOOK, TO SET THE STORY STRAIGHT ON WHO REALLY IS IN INTERNAL AFFAIRS?

WHO IS?

IN THE NYPD, CAN YOU NOT VOLUNTEER TO GO INTO THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS.

YOU ARE SELECTED BECAUSE OF YOUR EXPERIENCE BECAUSE OF YOUR PREVIOUS WORK, AND YOUR REPUTATION WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT.

AND SO YOU WERE SELECTED?

YES, I WAS.

YOU DIDN'T HAVE TO TAKE IT.

WHY DID YOU TAKE IT?

YOU HAD TO TAKE IT, ONCE YOU ARE SELECTED YOU'RE REQUIRED TO FULFILL YOUR OBLIGATIONS.

YOU THOUGHT YOU WERE ONLY GOING TO BE THERE A COUPLE YEARS?

MY BELIEF AND HOPE, IT DIDN'T WORK THAT WELL.

YOU WRITE ABOUT THE SO-CALLED BLUE WALL OF SILENCE.

THE UNWRITTEN RULE.

DOES IT REALLY EXIST, AND IF IT DOES, WHY DOES IT EXIST, WHY WOULD GOOD COPS NOT WANT TOER IF ET OUT BAD COPS THAT GIVE GOOD COPS A BAD NAME.

THE BLUE WALL OF SILENCE DOES EXIST.

PEOPLE THINK IT'S JUST WITHIN POLICING, IT'S MORE OF AN OCCUPATIONAL WALL OF SILENCE.

WE SEE IT IN ALL PROFESSIONS.

IN THE LAWYERS, THE JUDGES THE LEGISLATORS, THERE IS AN OCCUPATIONAL WALL OF SILENCE IN MOST ORGANIZATIONS.

PEOPLE WHO WORK TOGETHER, PEOPLE WHO RELY ON EACH OTHER, ESPECIALLY IN POLICING, WHERE THERE'S DANGER INVOLVED.

YOU START TO SEE SOME CAMARADERIE FORMING.

WAS THAT THE BIGGEST OBSTACLE YOU HAD?

IN A LOT OF CASES IT WAS.

IN THE MORE SERIOUS CASES, YOU SAW THAT THE BLUE WALL OF SILENCE ISN'T AS FORMIDABLE AS PEOPLE THINK.

IN SOME OF OUR DIFFICULT CASES, IT WAS THE MEN AND WOMEN OF THE NYPD THAT CAME FORWARD.

WE'LL GET TO THAT.

IN YOUR EXPERIENCE, WHAT MAKES A GOOD COP GOO BAD.

THERE'S A COUPLE THINGS.

THEY CALL IT THE SLIPPERY SLOPE, WHERE AN OFFICER MAY DO SOMETHING WRONG THE FIRST TIME, GET AWAY WITH, AND THEN THINK THAT THEY CAN CONTINUE TO DO IT.

SOMETIMES IT'S JUST PURE GREED, PEOPLE HAVE SEEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO PROFIT PERSONALLY FROM A SITUATION, AND THEY TAKE ADVANTAGE OF IT.

NOT EVERYONE IS SUSCEPTIBLE TO THE SLIPPERY SLOPE.

IS THE SCREENING PROCESS BECOMING BETTER AND BETTER?

YES, IT'S DIFFICULT TO BECOME A NEW YORK CITY POLICE OFFICER.

YOU GO THROUGH A VARIETY OF SCREENING PROCESSES, I WANT TO MAKE ONE POINT VERY CLEAR, THE VAST MAJORITY OF THE MEN AND WOMEN OF THE NYPD, HARDWORKING, HONEST DEDICATED PEOPLE.

YOU WRITE EXTENSIVELY ABOUT THE INFAMOUS ABNER LOUIMA CASE, A POLICEMAN DID THE RIGHT THING, THEY SODOMIZED THIS MAN WITH A BROOM HANDLE.

DID THAT INVESTIGATION CHANGE THE WAY THE DEPARTMENT DID THINGS?

YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER, THAT WAS SUCH A HORRIBLE INCIDENT.

MANY PEOPLE IN THE BEGINNING DIDN'T WANT TO BELIEVE THAT SOMETHING THAT HORRENDOUS COULD HAPPEN.

THAT ONE HUMAN BEING WOULD DO THAT TO ANOTHER, AND THAT A POLICE OFFICER WOULD DO THAT TO ANOTHER HUMAN BEING.

HAVE THINGS CHANGED SINCE THEN?

ONE OF THE THINGS WE DID, WE SET UP A HOTLINE WHERE OFFICERS CAN REPORT, AND WE HAVE IT SO THEY DON'T HAVE TO IDENTIFY THEMSELVES.

EACH YEAR WE GOT MORE AND MORE CALLS FROM POLICE OFFICERS WHO GAVE US GOOD INFORMATION.

TALK ABOUT THE CASE WHERE THE MAN WAS SHOT 41 TIMES, HE WAS UNARMED.

TAKING OUT HIS WALLET.

THESE COPS WERE NOT CORRUPT.

NO, THEY WERE NOT.

WHAT HAPPENED THERE?

IT'S A SERIES OF ERRORS THAT OCCUR.

THE OFFICERS SEE A MAN WHO THEY BELIEVE FIT A DESCRIPTION OF SOMEONE THEY WERE LOOKING FOR FOR A SERIES OF SEXUAL ASSAULTS.

HE RUNS INTO HIS VESTIBULE, THE OFFICERS TRY TO CONFRONT HIM.

ONE OF THE OFFICERS BELIEVED HE HAD A GUN.

HE YELLED GUN, AS HE'S COMING DOWN THE STAIRS, HE FIRES A SHOT, HE STARTS TO TRIP.

HIS OTHER OFFICERS BELIEVE HE'S FIRED UPON AND STARTS TO SHOOT.

ALL OF THESE COPS ARE OUT OF THE FORCE EXCEPT ONE?

THAT'S CORRECT.

SHOULD THEY HAVE BEEN OUT OF THE FORCE?

THEY WERE NOT RUPT, THEY MADE MISTAKES.

IS IT GOOD FOR THE DEPARTMENT WHEN PEOPLE WHO MAKE THAT KIND OF MISTAKE ARE OFF THE FORCE?

WELL, THEY CAN'T GO BACK TO PATROL AND DO NORMAL POLICE DUTIES MANY IT WENT BEFORE A TRIAL.

THREE OF THE FOUR LEFT THE DEPARTMENT, ONE IS STAYING, BUT HE'S NOT DOING NORMAL PATROL WORK.

IT'S GOOD FOR THE DEPARTMENT TO FIND OTHER JOBS FOR THEM.

YOU'VE BEEN GONE OVER THREE YEARS, DO YOU MISS IT, AND IS THE BUREAU DOING OKAY?

YES, I DO MISS IT, IT WAS A PART OF MY LIFE FOR 41 YEARS.

AND THEY'RE DOING WELL, THEY'RE DOING WELL.

CHARLES, THANK YOU SO MUCH.

THE BOOK IS BLUE ON BLUE, INSIDER STORY OF GOOD COPS.

> BEFORE WE SAY GOOD NIGHT, WE OFFER YOU A GIFT.

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Funders

MetroFocus is made possible by Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III, the Sylvia A. and Simon B. Poyta Programming Endowment to Fight Anti-Semitism, The Peter G. Peterson and Joan Ganz Cooney Fund, Bernard and Denise Schwartz, Barbara Hope Zuckerberg, The Ambrose Monell Foundation, Janet Prindle Seidler, Jody and John Arnhold, the Cheryl and Philip Milstein Family, Judy and Josh Weston and the Dr. Robert C. and Tina Sohn Foundation.

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