January 31, 2017: Tonight On MetroFocus

Tonight, we continue our ongoing investigative series Corruption Watch, as U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara puts Mayor Bill de Blasio in the hot seat without immunity. Will he uncover a City Hall quid pro quo, or will he finally let de Blasio off the hook? We break down what’s on the docket.

Next, as the country debates travel bans and safety, PBS FRONTLINE gives us an inside look at the fight against ISIS, and the terror we’re trying to keep at bay. We’re at the center of the conflict in the battle for Mosul.

Finally, when you think of the subway, you think of New York City, right? Wrong. Tonight, PBS American Experience uncovers The Race Underground, as we travel to the city that beat us to this transit triumph.

TRANSCRIPT

CORRUPTION WATCH IS ON THE DOCKET AS THE U.S. ATTORNEY PUTS THE MAYOR IN THE HOT SEAT WITHOUT IMMUNITY.

WILL HE UNCOVER A CITY HALL QUID PRO QUO OR WILL HE FINALLY LET de BLASIO OFF THE HOOK.

> AS THE COUNTRY DEBATES TRAVEL BANS AND SAFETY, FRONT LINE GIVES US AN INSIDE LOOK AT THE FIGHT AGAINST ISIS AND THE TERROR WE'RE FIGHTING TO KEEP AT BAY.

WE'RE AT THE CENTER OF THE CONFLICT IN THE BATTLE FOR MOSUL.

> PLUS WHEN YOU THINK OF THE SUBWAY UPPING OF NEW YORK CITY, RIGHT?

WRONG.

TONIGHT AMERICAN EXPERIENCE UNCOVERS 'THE RACE UNDERGROUND' AS WE TRAVEL TO THE CITY THAT BEAT US TO THE PUNCH.

ALL THAT AND MORE AS 'METROFOCUS' STARTS RIGHT NOW.

♪♪

> THIS IS 'METROFOCUS.'

WITH RAFAEL PI ROMAN, JACK FORD AND JENNA FLANAGAN.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY --

> GOOD EVENING AND WELCOME TO 'METROFOCUS.'

I'M JENNA FLANAGAN.

QUID PRO QUO OR NO?

THAT IS THE QUESTION.

AS ALLEGATIONS OF A PAY TO PLAY CULTURE HAVE LINGERED OVER CITY HALL AND LANDED MAYOR de BLASIO ON THE FEDERAL HOT SEAT.

PROSECUTORS ALLEGE THE MAYOR AND HIS AIDES TRADED FAVORS FOR DONATIONS TO THE MAYOR'S NONPROFIT CAMPAIGN FOR ONE NEW YORK FOR HIS 2013 MAYORAL CAMPAIGN.

IN RESPONSE de BLASIO HAS AGREED TO SIT DOWN WITH U.S. ATTORNEY PREET BHARARA'S OFFICE AND ANSWER QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ALLEGATIONS WITHOUT IMMUNITY.

JOINING US NOW TO DISCUSS WHAT COULD COME OUT OF THIS INVESTIGATION AND WHAT IT COULD MEAN FOR CITY HALL IS JENNIFER RODGERS, THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR FOR THE CENTER FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PUBLIC INTEGRITY AT COLUMBIA LAW SCHOOL.

WELCOME.

THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

SO FIRST OFF YOU'VE GOT THE U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE ASKING TO SIT DOWN WITH THE MAYOR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK.

THE HEADLINE ALONE DOES NOT LOOK GOOD.

CAN YOU SORT OF WALK US THROUGH WHAT EXACTLY IS HAPPENING HERE?

SURE.

WELL, IT'S BEEN REPORTED THAT THERE HAS BEEN AN INVESTIGATION GOING ON FOR A NUMBER OF MONTHS NOW INTO WHAT YOU DESCRIBED AT THE TOP OF THE SHOW, WHETHER THEY WERE TAKING CAMPAIGN DONATIONS IN EXCHANGE FOR SOME SORT OF OFFICIAL ACTION.

SO OF COURSE THEY HAVE COLLECTED DOCUMENTS, THEY'VE BEEN SPEAKING TO A WHOLE BUNCH OF PEOPLE AND NOW THEY WANT TO SPEAK TO THE MAYOR.

SOME PEOPLE THINK THAT MEANS THEY'RE GETTING TOWARDS THE END OF THE INVESTIGATION AND THEY'RE GETTING READY TO EITHER CHARGE OR NOT CHARGE AND THAT'S PROBABLY RIGHT, BECAUSE THE MAYOR OF COURSE IS THE CENTRAL FIGURE HERE, YOU WOULDN'T WANT TO TALK TO HIM UNTIL YOU HAD ALL OF THE OTHER EVIDENCE THAT YOU COULD COLLECT.

IF I'M JUST A REGULAR PERSON, PICKING UP THE MORNING PAPER AND READING THIS AND I'M LIKE, WAIT, HE'S GOING TO TALK WITHOUT IMMUNITY.

REGARDLESS OF WHO YOU IT MAY LOOK ON THE SURFACE WHAT DOES THAT ACTUALLY MEAN THAT HE HAS CHOSEN TO DO THIS WITHOUT IMMUNITY?

I THINK THE MAYOR HAS TWO DIFFERENT CONSIDERATIONS HERE THAT HE HAS TO THINK ABOUT, ONE IS THE POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS, RIGHT, WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE IF HE IS TALKING TO FEDERAL AUTHORITIES WITH OR WITHOUT IMMUNITY, AND THE SECOND IS MORE OF A LEGAL CONSIDERATION.

SO ON THE POLITICAL FRONT HE'S OBVIOUSLY AN ELECTED OFFICIAL, HE HAS AN ELECTION COMING UP THIS YEAR SO I THINK THE MAYOR PROBABLY WANTS TO BE VIEWED AS FULLY COOPERATIVE, HE IS NO THE GOING TO MAKE THEM HAUL HIM INTO THE GRAND JURY, HE'S GOING TO GO SIT DOWN WITH THEM VOLUNTARILY AND ANSWER QUESTIONS.

I THINK THAT THOSE ARE THE OPTICS THAT HE WANTS TO PUT OUT THERE, ESPECIALLY IN AN ELECTION YEAR.

HE DOESN'T WANT TO SEEM TO BE UNCOOPERATIVE FOR SURE.

BECAUSE THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GOING INTO A GRAND JURY AND ALSO GOING IN IF YOU'VE BEEN SUSTAINED.

AM I CORRECT?

THERE ARE A BUNCH OF DIFFERENCES.

SO HE'S GOING IN VOLUNTARILY, HE WILL HAVE HIS LAWYERS WITH HIM, IT WILL BE de BLASIO, HIS LAWYERS, THE PROSECUTORS AND INVESTIGATORS AND THAT'S IT.

THE GRAND JURY OF COURSE IS AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT THING, IT'S A FORMAL ATMOSPHERE, IT'S LEGAL PROCESSES INVOLVED, HE WOULD BE SUBPOENAED TO GO THERE, HE WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO BRING HIS LAWYERS INTO THE ROOM WITH HIM AND de BLASIO IS NOT A LAWYER SO HAVING YOUR LAWYERS WITH YOU FOR COUNSEL IS A BIG TEAL AND THERE ARE 16 TO 23 NEW YORKERS CITIZEN WHO SIT ON THE GRAND JURY AND WATCH THE PROSECUTOR QUESTION MAYOR de BLASIO.

SO IT'S MUCH MORE FORMAL, MUCH MORE ADVERSARIAL, MUCH MORE FRAUGHT WITH POTENTIAL DANGERS SINCE HE DOESN'T HAVE HIS LAWYERS PRESENT.

I THINK THAT'S THE LEGAL REASON THAT HE DECIDED TO GO WITH A VOLUNTARY INTERVIEW INSTEAD OF SEEING WHETHER OR NOT THE FEDS WOULD SUBPOENA HIM TO THE GRAND JURY.

IN LAYMAN'S TERMS AS OPPOSED TO BEING SUSTAINED AND HAVING TO GO BEFORE A FOR THIS IS MORE OF AN INFORMAL CONVERSATION?

IT IS.

AND HE WON'T BE UNDER OATH, I MEAN, THERE'S STILL A CHARGE FOR LYING TO FEDERAL OFFICIALS IF HE WERE TO DO THAT BUT HE WON'T BE UNDER OATH.

IF THERE ARE ANY QUESTIONS THAT HE AND HIS LAWYERS DECIDE THEY DON'T WANT TO ANSWER THEY JUST WON'T ANSWER THEM, WHEREAS IN THE GRAND JURY IF HE'S IN THERE WITHOUT IMMUNITY HE WILL HAVE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS UNLESS HE DECIDES TO ASSERT HIS FIFTH AMENDMENT RIGHT AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION WHICH AGAIN LOOKS BAD FOR THE MAYOR TO BE ASSERTING SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

FOR ALL OF THOSE REASONS I THINK THAT THE MAYOR AND HIS COUNSELORS DECIDED TO GO WITH THE VOLUNTARY INTERVIEW.

GETTING BACK TO THE ALLEGATIONS OF THE PAY TO PLAY QUID PRO QUO, THERE HAS BEEN INSTANCES OF ALLEGATIONS AND EVEN SOMETIMES CONVICTIONS ON THIS VERY MATTER THROUGHOUT NEW YORK STATE USUALLY IN THE STATE LEGISLATURE.

ONE OF THE THINGS THAT A LOT OF PEOPLE SAY IS, LISTEN, I KNOW THIS IS BAD, I KNOW IT LOOKS BAD, ET CETERA, BUT THIS IS JUST HOW POLITICS IS DONE.

THIS ISN'T ACTUALLY NORMAL.

AS A FORMER FEDERAL PROSECUTOR I OF COURSE CAN'T ACCEPT THAT.

QUID PRO QUO BRIBERY IS EXACTLY THAT, IT'S BRIBERY.

IT'S SAYING YOU'VE GIVEN ME A BUNCH OF MONEY AND IN EXCHANGE I'M GOING TO DO SOMETHING FOR YOU WITHIN MY GOVERNMENTAL POWERS, RIGHT?

SO THAT'S NOT HOW OUR PUBLIC OFFICIALS SHOULD BEHAVE.

I THINK THAT CERTAINLY I THINK AND I THINK MANY OTHERS THINK CERTAINLY EVERYONE IN THE U.S.

ATTORNEY'S OFFICE THINKS THAT QUID PRO QUO BRIBERY SHOULD NOT BE BUSINESS AS USUAL AND IF IT APPEARS THAT THE FACTS SUPPORT THAT THEN CHARGES WILL BE BROUGHT.

IF CHARGES ARE BROUGHT WHAT KIND OF PENALTIES COULD THE MAYOR OR CITY HALL BE LOOKING AT?

USUALLY THEY WILL CHARGE THEFT OF SERVICES WHICH IS A FORM OF WIRE FRAUD, THOSE CHARGES CARRY A MAXIMUM SENTENCE OF 20 YEARS IN PRISON BUT YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER THAT OF COURSE IT DOESN'T USUALLY AMOUNT TO 20 YEARS BY THE TIME THEY DO A SENTENCING GUIDELINE CALCULATION AND THE JUDGE USES HIS OR HER OWN DISCRETION.

IN THEORY A NUMBER OF CHARGES IF YOU CHARGED WIRE FRAUD, IF YOU CHARGED EXTORTION, WHICH IS ANOTHER COMMON CHARGE, YOU WOULD BE TALKING ABOUT 20 YEAR MAXIMUM OR EACH COUNT.

IF YOU'RE FACING THAT KIND OF TIME WHAT WOULD -- WHAT COULD POSSIBLY BE I GUESS THE DEFENSE OR WHAT'S THE TACTIC TO PROTECT YOURSELF.

I THINK THE TACTIC --

ASIDE FROM NOT COMMITTING ANY CRIMES.

THAT'S THE FIRST TACTIC.

I THINK THE MAYOR IS PLANNING TO EXPLAIN THAT WHATEVER WAS BEING DONE AT LOWER LEVELS TO COLLECT DONATIONS AND IF THERE WERE ANY PROMISES MADE TO THE PEOPLE WHO WERE GIVING MONEY THAT HE WASN'T AWARE OF THOSE, HE DIDN'T HAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH THAT, YOU KNOW, HE WILL I ASSUME TRY TO EXPLAIN THAT HE SETS A TENOR AND TONE OF COMPLYING WITH ALL OF THE LAWS AND HE WILL JUST WANT TO EXPLAIN THAT HE DIDN'T HAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH ANY POTENTIAL PROMISES OR AGREEMENTS TO EXCHANGE OFFICIAL ACTION FOR CAMPAIGN DONATIONS.

VERY QUICKLY BECAUSE WE'RE WRAPPING UP HERE, BUT THIS ISN'T THE ONLY CASE NECESSARILY, BECAUSE IF I'M TO UNDERSTAND THE MANHATTAN DISTRICT ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, THE MANHATTAN DISTRICT ATTORNEY'S OFFICE HAS ALSO LOOKED INTO SOMETHING VERY SIMILAR.

THAT'S RIGHT.

SO THE MAYOR, ANOTHER REASON HE PROBABLY IS GOING TO SPEAK WITH THE FEDERAL AUTHORITIES THAT HE HE DID THE SAME THING A FEW WEEKS AGO WITH THE MANHATTAN DISTRICT ATTORNEY'S OFFICE.

THEIR INVESTIGATION IS LOOKING INTO POTENTIAL VIOLATIONS OF STATE CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS WHEN de BLASIO AND HIS TEAM WERE TRYING TO GET SOME MORE DEMOCRATS ELECTED TO THE STATE SENATE.

SO THEY HAD GIVEN SOME MONEY TO THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND THEN THEY WERE APPARENTLY DOLLING THEM OUT TO CERTAIN CANDIDATES AT THE DIRECTION OF THE de BLASIO ADMINISTRATION WHICH IT'S ALLEGED TO BE A VIOLATION OF THE STATE CAMPAIGN FINANCE RULES.

SO IT'S THE SAME IDEA IN THE SENSE OF YOU'RE GIVING MONEY AND STEERING IT IN CERTAIN PLACES, IT'S A DIFFERENT ALLEGATION AND IT'S UNDER DIFFERENT LAWS WHICH IS WHY THE STATE AUTHORITIES ARE LOOKING INTO THAT ONE.

ALL RIGHT.

JENNIFER, ANY IDEAS AS TO WHEN WE MIGHT KNOW WHEN THIS SIT-DOWN HAPPENS?

DID YOU SEE THIS HAVE A TIMELINE?

I READ IN THE PAPERS IT WAS SUPPOSED TO BE EARLY FEBRUARY.

I CERTAINLY DON'T HAVE ANY INSIGHT BASED ON THAT.

IT SEEMS SINCE IT'S OUT IN THE PUBLIC THAT IT'S HAPPENING THAT THE MAYOR MAY IF HE DOESN'T MAKE AN ACTUAL STATEMENT ABOUT IT THAT HE WILL AT LEAST LET REPORTERS KNOW THAT HE DID GO AND SIT DOWN WITH PROSECUTORS.

SO I THINK WE CAN EXPECT TO HEAR IN THE NEXT TWO FOR THREE WEEKS THAT IT'S HAPPENED.

WE WILL BE WATCHING TO FIND OUT AND I'M SURE YOU WILL AS WELL TO FIND OUT HOW THAT PLAYS OUT.

I WILL.

THANK YOU FOR JOINING US.

THANK YOU.

> WE TURN NOW TO THE FIGHT AGAINST ISIS AND THE BATTLE TO RETAKE THE BESIEGED CITY OF MOSUL IN NORTHERN IRAQ.

A NEW FRONTLINE DOCUMENTARY 'BATTLE FOR IRAQ' TAKES US TO THE CENTER OF THE CONFLICT AS IRAQI FORCES GO HEAD TO HEAD WITH A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION THAT HAS OVERRUN THE REGION.

THE FILM BRINGS US INSIGHTS FROM SOLDIERS, ISIS SUSPECTS AND THE RESIDENTS AFFECTED BY THE CARNAGE AND HIGHLIGHTS HOW THE DISTANCE BETWEEN WAR AND CIVILIAN LIFE IN THE BATTLE FOR MOSUL IS VIRTUALLY NONEXISTENT.

HERE IS A LOOK.

THIS IS THE ENTRANCE OF THE BUILDING.

AN ISIS TRUCK BOMB HAS EXPLODED A FEW FEET IN FRONT OF THE HOUSE WHERE GHAITH AND THE SOLDIERS SPENT THE NIGHT.

THE HOUSE HAS COLLAPSED.

GHAITH IMMEDIATELY STARTS FILMING.

HE FINDS THE SOLDIER WHO WARNED HIM.

[ SPEAKING FOREIGN LANGUAGE ]

ISIS GUNMEN ARE NOW TRYING TO PICK OFF THE SOLDIERS WHO FIRE BACK.

WE WERE IN THE MIDDLE OF THIS HUGE SCENE OF CARNAGE.

EVERYTHING IS THIS DARK, BLACK, GRAY MIXTURE OF CONCRETE AND BURNT PLASTIC.

PUDDLES OF WATER, DEBRIS, BURNED HUMVEES.

THEN THE CIVILIANS START EMERGING FROM THE COLLAPSED HOUSES.

GHAITH'S COLLEAGUE AND PRODUCER JOSH BAKER HAS DUG HIMSELF OUT OF THE RUBBLE.

HE WILL LATER DISCOVER HE HAS A FRACTURED SPINE.

AND JOINING US NOW IS PRODUCER AND DIRECTOR JOSHUA BAKER.

JOSHUA, WELCOME.

THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.

IT'S NICE TO BE HERE.

NOW, JOSHUA, AS WE JUST SAW IN THAT CLIP YOU WERE BADLY HURT AND THAT A CAR EXPLOSION IN FACT AS WE HEARD YOU BROKE YOUR BACK, YOU FRACTURED YOUR SPINE.

HOW ARE YOU DOING NOW?

I'M DOING MUCH BETTER.

THANK YOU.

INDEED.

WHEN THE BOMB WENT OFF I ACTUALLY SUSTAINED A NUMBER OF INJURIES.

I STILL HAVE SHRAPNEL IN MY HEAD STILL AND I INDEED DID FRACTURE MY SPINE AS YOU SAY, BUT I'M DOING MUCH BETTER NOW, I'M ABLE TO WALK AROUND AND CARRY THINGS NOW WHICH IS NICE.

THAT DANGEROUS SITUATION THAT YOU PLACED YOURSELF IN BEGS THE QUESTION WHY DID YOU DECIDE TO JOIN FORCES WITH CORRESPONDENT GHAITH ABDUL-AHAD TO MAKE THIS VERY DANGEROUS FILM?

WELL, GHAITH AND I WE HAD NEVER MET ACTUALLY BEFORE THIS FILM BUT WE WERE BOTH SORT OF -- IT'S A VERY SMALL INDUSTRY OUR INDUSTRY AND WE WERE BOTH LOOKING TO MAKE SOMETHING ABOUT THE BATTLE FOR MOSUL AND WHAT IT MEANS TO THE FUTURE OF IRAQ AND WE SORT OF JUST FOUND OURSELVES COMING TOGETHER TO MAKE THIS.

WHAT WE NEVER EXPECTED AS I'M SURE YOU CAN IMAGINE IS TO COME QUITE SO CLOSE TO THE FIGHTING AS WE DID, BUT WE SAT OUT TO TELL A STORY ABOUT HOW THIS BATTLE WILL IMPACT THE FUTURE OF THE COUNTRY AND ALSO TO LOOK AT THE IMPACT TO THE CIVILIANS, THOSE LIVING AMONGST THE FIGHT.

WELL, YOU KNOW, THE BATTLE OF MOSUL IS OBVIOUSLY FAR FROM A TRADITIONAL BATTLE, FAR FROM TRADITIONAL WARFARE.

AS WE SAID IN THE INTRODUCTION THERE IS NO LINE BETWEEN THE BATTLE LINE.

IN FACT, AND THE CIVILIAN POPULATION.

WHAT TOLL HAS THAT TAKEN FROM A HUMANITARIAN POINT OF VIEW ON THE POPULATION OF MOSUL?

WE WERE SUPPOSEDLY HEADING INTO A SAFE AREA, AN AREA THAT HAD BEEN CLEARED OF ISIS AND IT WAS ANYTHING BUT THAT.

THE FIGHTING INSIDE MOSUL IS STREET BY STREET AND CIVILIANS, CHILDREN, WOMEN, THEY ARE VERY MUCH AMONGST THAT FIGHTING.

YOU WILL HAVE FIGHTING GOING ON OUTSIDE A HOUSE, WITHIN THAT HOUSE YOU WILL HAVE FAMILY AND THOSE FAMILY ARE OFTEN TRAPPED, THEY HAVE BEEN TRAPPED IN MOSUL FOR TWO YEARS AND THE FIGHTING OFTEN DESTROYS THEIR HOUSES.

NOW, 160,000 PEOPLE HAVE FLED MOSUL DUE TO THE FIGHTING AND THAT IN ITSELF IS ASTONISHING, THE BATTLE THAT BEGAN ON THE 17th OF OCTOBER, BUT WHAT'S MORE CONCERNING IS THAT IRAQ WAS IN A STATE OF HUMANITARIAN CRISIS IN TERMS OF REFUGEES FLEEING FROM SYRIA, IN TERMS OF PEOPLE BEING DISPLACED FROM OTHER PARTS OF COUNTRY LONG BEFORE THE BATTLE FOR MOSUL CAME ALONG.

THE ONLY THING THAT THIS HAS ACTUALLY DONE IS DEEPEN A HUMANITARIAN CRISIS THAT ALREADY EXISTED AND MADE THINGS FAR WORSE.

YOUR TEAM GOT PERMISSION TO A SPEAK WITH A CAPTURED ISIS FIGHTER.

WHAT DID YOU LEARN FROM WHAT HE HAD TO SAY.

ONE OF THE THINGS THAT I THOUGHT WAS INTERESTING ABOUT THE FIGHTER WAS THAT I THINK A LOT OF PEOPLE WHEN THEY THINK OF ISIS THEY THINK OF PEOPLE WHO PERHAPS, YOU KNOW, ARE EXTREME IN THEIR PERSPECTIVE OR OVERTLY AGGRESSIVE AND THINGS LIKE THAT WHEREAS THIS GUY WAS CERTAINLY AN INTELLIGENT MAN, HE WAS A MAN WHO DEFINITELY WAS EXTREME IN HIS BELIEFS BUT HE WAS A LOT MORE APPROACHABLE THAN PEOPLE MIGHT IMAGINE OF A MEMBER OF THE WORLD'S MOST DANGEROUS TERRORIST ORGANIZATION.

AND HE BASICALLY REVEALED TO US THAT IN THE AREA OF IRAQ THAT HE HAD BEEN LIVING THE PEOPLE THERE FELT THAT THEY HAD BEEN OPPRESSED BY THE IRAQI ARMY PRIOR TO ISIS'S ARRIVAL SO THAT WHEN THEY CAME ISIS IN THE FIRST INSTANCE WERE ALMOST SEEN AS RELIEF AND THAT INDEED IS SOMETHING THAT WE DISCOVERED INSIDE MOSUL ITSELF IS THAT FOR YEARS UNDER THE IRAQI ARMY THE PEOPLE OF MOSUL HAD A VERY DIFFICULT TIME AND THAT'S BEEN WELL DOCUMENTED IN THE IRAQI ARMY HAS EVEN ADMITTED THAT.

SO WHEN ISIS INITIALLY CAME THE CONDITIONS WERE RIGHT FOR A NEW ORGANIZATION TO TRY TO TAKE CONTROL WHICH IS ONE OF THE REASONS IN THE FIRST INSTANCE THEY WERE SO SUCCESSFUL.

AT THE BEGINNING OF THE DOCUMENTARY CORRESPONDENT GHAITH ABDUL-AHAD SAID THAT HE WAS HOPEFUL THAT A VICTORY IN MOSUL WOULD LEAD TO FINALLY LEAD TO PEACE IN IRAQ, THE FIRST PEACE SINCE THE WAR BEGAN IN 2003.

AT THE END OF THE DOCUMENTARY THAT HOPE WAS GONE.

WAS THAT YOUR TRAJECTORY AS WELL?

DID YOU GO FROM HOPE TO HOPELESSNESS AS WELL?

YEAH, I THINK WE BOTH WENT INTO THIS WITH THE -- YOU KNOW, PERHAPS IT WAS TOO IDEALISTIC BUT ESSENTIALLY IRAQ HAS BEEN IN A STATE OF WAR FOR SOME TIME NOW, A CIVIL WAR, AND IT IS A COUNTRY THAT'S DIVIDED, BUT ONE THING THAT ISIS HAS DONE IS UNITE THE MANY DIVIDED GROUPS AGAINST ONE ENEMY.

SO GHAITH AND I WERE INTRIGUED BY THAT, DOES THAT MEAN WHEN ISIS IS DRIVEN OUT THERE IS A CHANCE OF RECONCILIATION, AND A CHANCE TO START COMING FORWARD AND PERHAPS THERE WILL BE BUT SADLY WHAT WE CAME AWAY FROM FEELING IS THAT ACTUALLY IT'S JUST GOING TO BE A NEW ROUND OF FIGHTING AGAINST DIFFERENT ACTORS, WORRYINGLY THE CHANCE OF SOMETHING REPLACING ISIS IS HIGH IN TERMS OF OTHER INN SURGE SEES SO WE DIDN'T COME AWAY WITH THE GREATEST HOPE FOR THE FUTURE OF IRAQ WHICH WILL UNDOUBTEDLY HAVE AN IMPACT ON ALL OF US IN THE WEST.

JOSHUA, WE HAVE TO END IT THERE.

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US TODAY.

THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

TAKE CARE.

THE FRONTLINE SPECIAL 'BATTLE FOR IRAQ' WAS CO-PRODUCED WITH THE GUARDIAN, YOU CAN WATCH IT HERE TONIGHT ON THIRTEEN AT 10:00.

> AFTER ALMOST A CENTURY OF CONSTRUCTION NEW YORK CITY'S SECOND AVENUE SUBWAY IS UP AND RUNNING.

A MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENT FOR A CITY THAT PRIDES ITSELF ON HAVING ONE OF THE LARGEST SUBWAY SYSTEMS IN THE WORLD.

ALTHOUGH THE CITY'S SUBWAY SYSTEM FIRST LAUNCHED IN 1904 WHAT MANY PEOPLE MIGHT NOT REALIZE IS THAT BOSTON IS ACTUALLY HOME TO AMERICA'S FIRST SUBWAY SYSTEM ACCOMPLISHING THE FEAT IN THE LATE 1800s, THE NEW DOCUMENTARY 'THE RACE UNDERGROUND' EXPLORED THE CREATION OF AMERICA'S FIRST SUBWAY SYSTEM IN BOSTON AND WHILE WE CAN'T IMAGINE GETTING AROUND WITHOUT SUBWAYS TODAY THIS RACE TO REPLACE HORSE DRAWN TROLLIES WAS FRAUGHT WITH CHALLENGES, CONTROVERSY AND CORPORATE FWREED.

> ON AMERICAN EXPERIENCE.

THE IDEA OF A SUBWAY IN BOSTON WAS AN ENORMOUS RISK.

IT WAS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ENGINEERING ACHIEVEMENTS OF OUR TIME.

THE CONDITIONS ARE MUCH MORE CHALLENGING THAN IMAGINED AND THERE IS TREMENDOUS CHAOS.

PEOPLE WERE HORRIFIED.

THERE WAS A LOT OF OPPOSITION TO IT.

THE RACE UNDERGROUND ON AMERICAN EXPERIENCE.

AND JOINING ME NO YOU TO DISCUSS THIS HISTORIC SHIFT IN CITY TRANSPORTATION IS 'THE RACE UNDERGROUND'S' WRITER, PRODUCER AND DIRECTOR MICHAEL ROSSI.

MICHAEL, WELCOME TO THE SHOW.

THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

SO FIRST OFF WHAT IS IT ABOUT ASIDE FROM THE FACT THAT BOSTON BEAT NEW YORK AND THAT MIGHT BE ONE OF THE FEW TIMES THAT THAT'S OKAY, BUT WHAT IS IT ABOUT THE RACE TO ACTUALLY CREATE THE SUBWAY SYSTEM THAT MOST PEOPLE DON'T REALIZE?

IT REALLY WAS THE PUSH BY AN ENGINEER NAMED FRANK SPRAGUE WHO WAS VERY CURIOUS AND EXCITED ABOUT ELECTRICITY AND IN PARTICULAR HE WAS PERFECTING HIS OWN VERSION OF THE ELECTRIC MOTOR WHICH HE FELT KIND OF THE FUTURE HELD IT IN ITS HANDS IN TERMS OF HAVING A NEW MODE OF FORCE TO REPLACE THE KIND OF SLOW CLIP CLOPPING HORSES THAT WERE CROWDING THE STREETS AND REALLY NOT FUNCTIONING THE WAY PEOPLE NEEDED THEM TO IN THIS, YOU KNOW, LATE 19th CENTURY AMERICA WHERE MET ROP PLUSES WERE FORMING IN NEW YORK AND BOSTON AND PHILADELPHIA.

HE SEEMS TO BE THE TESLA OF ALL OF THIS WHERE HE WAS INFLUENCE BUT FORGOTTEN BY MOST PEOPLE.

WHY IS THAT?

HE HAD HIS OWN AMBITIONS TO CHANGE THE WORLD.

EVERYONE AT THIS TIME LOOKED AT THOMAS EDISON THE GREAT INVENTOR, THE WIZARD OF MENLO PARK AND WANTED TO EMULATE HIS SUCCESSES WE HAD WITH ELECTRICITY IN PARTICULAR THE LIGHT BULB AND FRANK SPRAGUE BEING PASSIONATE ABOUT THE MOTOR THOUGHT THAT HIS TICKET TO FAME WAS TO GET THINGS MOVING SORRY FOR THE FUN WITH HIS ELECTRIC MOTOR, BUT IT KIND OF WAS THE SPIRIT OF THE TIMES.

THIS KIND OF HERO INVENTOR IDEA, PARTICULARLY WITH THOMAS EDISON, BUT AS THE CENTURY COMES TO A CLOSE AND, YOU KNOW, AS ALL OF THESE KIND OF INDUSTRIES MECHANIZE AND BECOME VERY LARGE, YOU KNOW, AND EVEN AS THOMAS EDISON'S COMPANY CON GLOM RATES INTO GENERAL ELECTRIC REALLY YOU HAVE THE FIRST COOPERATION'S FORMING AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY AND THEY'RE EATING UP ESSENTIALLY WHAT FRANK SPRAGUE'S COMPANY IS A START UP.

YES, HE HAS HIS SUCCESSES BUT HE'S REALLY AN ENGINEER AND A BRILLIANT MIND --

AND HIS SUCCESSES ACTUALLY HAVE STAYED WITH US THROUGH THE YEARS, AM I CORRECT?

YES.

ABSOLUTELY.

WHERE IS IT THAT WE DON'T REALIZE THAT HE HAS STILL LEFT HIS MARK ON SUBWAYS?

A LOT OF HIS INNOVATIONS THAT YOU CERTAINLY SEE IN ANY ELECTRIC TROLLEY SYSTEM STILL EXIST TODAY, PARTICULARLY IF YOU LOOK IN BOSTON, YOU KNOW, THE OVERHEAD WIRE SYSTEM THAT HE -- HE DIDN'T NECESSARILY INVENT THAT SYSTEM BUT HE PERFECTED A WAY FOR THE TROLLEY SYSTEM WHICH IS THE THING THAT GLIENDS ON THE WIRE ABOVE THE TROLLEY TO ACTUALLY STAY IN PLACE AND REMAIN IN CONTACT AND RUN EFFICIENTLY.

NOW, HE ALSO YEARS AFTERWARDS WHEN NEW YORK WAS DEVELOPING HIS SUBWAY, HE CAME UP WITH SOMETHING CALLED THE MULTIPLE UNIT CONTROLLER WHICH ESSENTIALLY ENABLED SUBWAY TRAINS TO BE LONGER, YOU KNOW, IN BOSTON YOU HAD THE SINGLE TROLLEY, YOU KNOW, PROPELLING ITSELF UNDERGROUND, BUT IN NEW YORK YOU HAVE MULTIPLE CARS AND THIS CONTROL SYSTEM ENABLED, YOU KNOW, WHAT YOU SEE TODAY IN WASHINGTON AND NEW YORK AND IN CITIES AROUND THE WORLD, THE SAME EXACT TECHNOLOGY IS IN PLACE AND IT'S THANKS TO FRANK SPRAGUE.

WELL, BEING ABLE TO FIND A SEAT IN THAT ONE EMPTY CAR IS SOMETHING I THINK WE CAN ALL THANK HIM FOR.

GOING INTO THE ACTUAL BUILDING OF THE SUBWAYS, WAS THERE A DIFFERENCE IN THE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION THAT NEEDED TO TAKE PLACE IN BOSTON VERSUS NEW YORK AND IS THAT WHY BOSTON BEAT US TO IT?

WELL, IT'S NOT NECESSARILY WHY THEY BEAT THEM TO IT.

I THINK THAT THERE WAS A LOT OF POLITICAL AND BUSINESS MINDS AT WORK THIS TERMS OF THE DECISION-MAKING AND, YOU KNOW, IT'S ALWAYS KIND OF SILLY IN MY MIND TO COMPARE BOSTON AND NEW YORK JUST GIVEN THE FACT THAT NEW YORK IS SO MUCH LARGER AND SO MUCH MORE COMPLICATED AND THAT CERTAINLY WAS AT PLAY IN TERMS OF WE HAVE TO BUILD THIS ENORMOUS SYSTEM THAT HAS TO SERVE SUCH A HUGE POPULATION.

BOSTON WAS A LITTLE BIT MORE MOBILE, A LITTLE BIT MORE ABLE TO KIND OF MAKE THE POLITICAL DECISIONS AN PUSH THINGS THROUGH.

ULTIMATELY WHEN THEY CONSTRUCTED THE FIRST 1.8 MILES AS YOU SEE IN THE FILM IT WAS CALLED THE CUT AND COVER METHOD WHERE YOU ESSENTIALLY BUILD A TRENCH, YOU GET DOWN TO THE LEVEL THAT YOU NEED IN THE SUBTERRANEAN AREA AND THEN YOU COVER IT OVER AFTER INSERTING ALL THE NECESSARY INFRASTRUCTURE.

WHEREAS IN NEW YORK YOU HAD TO DO A LOT -- YOU DID SOME CUT AND COVER TECHNIQUES WHERE YOU RIPPED OUT THE STREETS BUT YOU ALSO DID DEEP BORE MINING WHERE YOU'RE GOING DOWN WITH DYNAMITE AND REALLY FAR BELOW THE CITY BECAUSE THE GROUND COVER WAS LIKE ESSENTIALLY ROCK, THE MANHATTAN SHIFT AS IT'S CALLED.

IT'S REALLY HARD TO DIG THROUGH SO YOU HAD TO BLOW THROUGH IT OR YOU HAD TO KIND OF USE WHAT'S KNOWN AS THE GREAT HEAD SHIELD, PARTICULARLY IN THE UPPER WEST SIDE OF MANHATTAN THEY HAD TO GO REALLY, REALLY FAR DOWN IN THE SUBWAYS.

WELL, SPEAKING OF GOING REALLY, REALLY FAR DOWN, ANYTHING IN NEW YORK WHO HASN'T SEEN THE NEWS SECOND AVENUE SUBWAY LINE KNOWS THAT YOU HAVE TO GO REALLY FAR DOWN, IT ALMOST FEELS LIKE SOME OF THE SUBWAY SYSTEMS IN LIKE LONDON OR SOMETHING, BUT THE FACT THAT THAT TOOK A CENTURY TO GET IT DONE, DOES THAT FIT WITH WHAT YOU SORT OF DISCOVERED WHILE MAKING THIS DOCUMENTARY?

YES, BECAUSE WHAT -- YOU KNOW, LIKE I SAID, AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY THE MET ROP PLUS WAS FORMING AND THE YOUNG MAYOR IN BOSTON, NATHAN MATTHEWS JR. IN HIS INAUGURATION IN 1891 HE SPOKE TO THAT IDEA THAT, YOU KNOW, BOSTON IS NO LONGER A SLEEPY NEW ENGLAND TOWN, IT'S A METROPOLIS SO AS THESE CITIES GREW AND BECAME MORE COMPLICATED AND MORE OPPRESSED BY THE MASSIVE AMOUNT OF PEOPLE LAYERS AND LAYERS OF INFRASTRUCTURE WERE INSERTED, WATER SYSTEMS AND SEWER SYSTEMS CAME ABOUT A LITTLE EARLIER, THEN YOU HAVE THE ELECTRIC GRID GOING DOWN, THEN YOU HAVE SUBWAY SYSTEMS.

SO IT WAS KIND OF A FRESH PALLET AT THE TIME BECAUSE THEY DIDN'T REALLY, YOU KNOW, HAVE TO DEAL WITH CONTENDING OR EXISTING STRUCTURES.

IF YOU TRY TO DO SOMETHING IN NEW YORK CITY TODAY THERE'S SO MANY FACTORS THAT YOU HAVE TO MITIGATE AGAINST, NOT TO MENTION THE CONVENIENCE OF COMMUTERS.

LET ME ASK YOU VERY QUICKLY BECAUSE WE ARE ABOUT TO WRAP UP WHAT IS IT THAT YOU WOULD WANT SOMEBODY WATCHING THIS DOCUMENTARY TO SORT OF TAKE AWAY ABOUT THE SUBWAY SYSTEM THEY PROBABLY DON'T THINK THAT MUCH ABOUT?

WELL, THE FACT THAT YOU TAKE IT FOR GRANTED AS YOU MENTIONED AT THE TOP IS INTERESTING TO ME AND THE FACT THAT PEOPLE WERE, YOU KNOW, KIND OF FEARFUL OF THE POWER THAT WOULD ULTIMATELY, YOU KNOW, PUSH THE SUBWAYS AROUND, ELECTRICITY AND THE IDEA OF JUST GOING UNDERGROUND WAS SOMETHING THAT DIDN'T HAPPEN BEFORE.

THE OTHER TAKE AWAY TO ME IS REALLY THAT, YOU KNOW, PEOPLE PUT THEIR TRUST IN THE FUTURE AND THEY TOOK A CHANCE ON THIS PHANTOM INVISIBLE FORCE ELECTRICITY IN THE MINDS OF PEOPLE LIKE FRANK SPRAGUE BECAUSE THEY KNEW THEY NEEDED TO AND THEY KNEW IT WOULD BE AN INCONVENIENCE, IT WOULD CERTAINLY RIP UP THEIR CITY IN A VERY INCONVENIENT WAY BUT IT WAS SOMETHING THAT NEEDED TO BE DONE SO IT TOOK THE PUBLIC WILL TO GET BEHIND IT AND I THINK THAT'S SOMETHING THAT'S VERY IMPORTANT FOR PEOPLE TO REMEMBER.

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR TAKING US ON A HISTORY LESSON UNDERGROUND AND GIVING US SOMETHING TO BE THANKFUL FOR ABOUT OUR SUBWAYS.

THANK YOU SO MUCH.

IT WAS A PLEASURE.

AMERICAN EXPERIENCE, 'THE RACE UNDERGROUND,' AIRS TONIGHT AT 9:00 P.M. ON THIRTEEN.

> BEFORE WE LET YOU GO HERE IS THE DISH ON HOW YOU CAN SCORE A DEAL ON DINNER AND A SHOW IN MANHATTAN.

IT IS BOTH RESTAURANT AND BROADWAY WEEKS HERE IN THE BIG APPLE WHICH MEANS FOR A LIMITED TIME YOU CAN WINE AND DINE AT SOME OF THE NEW YORK'S POSHEST EAT REESE AND CATCH SOME OF THE BROADWAY'S BIGGEST HITS FOR A FRACTION OF THE COST.

BUT THESE DEALS ARE GOING FAST, RESTAURANT WEEK WRAPS UP ON FEBRUARY 10th AND BROADWAY WEEK'S FINAL CURTAIN CALL IS ON FEBRUARY 5th.

> FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY --

CORPORATE FUNDING FOR 'METROFOCUS' WAS PROVIDED BY MUTUAL OF AMERICA, YOUR RETIREMENT COMPANY.

AND BY PSE&G, SERVING CUSTOMERS, STRENGTHENING THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY AND INVESTING IN THE

Funders

MetroFocus is made possible by Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III, the Sylvia A. and Simon B. Poyta Programming Endowment to Fight Anti-Semitism, Bernard and Denise Schwartz, Barbara Hope Zuckerberg, Janet Prindle Seidler, Jody and John Arnhold, the Cheryl and Philip Milstein Family, Judy and Josh Weston and the Dr. Robert C. and Tina Sohn Foundation.

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