January 17, 2017: TONIGHT ON METROFOCUS

Tonight, with President-elect Donald Trump’s inauguration just days away, PBS FRONTLINE pulls back the fabric of our polarized country to examine how we got here, and what may lie ahead.

Next, as President Trump heads to the White House, a warning from our first president to future generations. Find out what worried George Washington, and why it matters today from John Avlon, editor in chief of The Daily Beast.

Finally, by 2044, America will no longer be a country where whites are the majority. Will we embrace the demographic shift, or fight against it? Earl Lewis, the president of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, engages in the debate.

TRANSCRIPT

> TONIGHT ON 'METROFOCUS.'

THE DIVIDED STATES OF AMERICA, WITH INAUGURATION DAYS AWAY, FRONT LINE PULLS BACK THE FABRIC OF OUR POLARIZED COUNTRY TO EXAMINE HOW WE GOT HERE AND WHAT MAY LIE AHEAD.

AS PRESIDENT TRUMP HEADS TO THE WHITE HOUSE, A WARNING FROM OUR FIRST PRESIDENT.

FIND OUT WHAT WORRIED GEORGE WASHINGTON AND WHY IT MATTERS RIGHT NOW.

PLUS BY 2044 AMERICA WILL NO LONGER BE A COUNTRY WHERE WHITES ARE IN THE MAJORITY.

WILL WE EMBRACE THE DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT OR FIGHT AGAINST IT?

ALL OF THAT AND MORE AHEAD AS 'METROFOCUS' STARTS RIGHT NOW.

> THIS IS 'METROFOCUS.'

WITH RAFAEL PI ROMAN, JACK FORD AND JENNA FLANAGAN.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY -- ♪

THE LIST OF DEMOCRATIC LAWMAKERS PLANNING ON SKIPPING THE INAUGURATION IS GROWING BY THE DAY.

MORE THAN 30 MEMBERS OF CONGRESS HAVE NOW CONFIRMED THEY HAVE JOINED THE BOYCOTT.

AMONG THEM NEW YORK'S LONG-TIME SERVING REPRESENTATIVES JOSE CERRANO AND JERRY MADLER.

WE WANT TO TELL YOU ABOUT A 'FRONT LINE' DOCUMENTARY COMING TO PBS TONIGHT.

'DIVIDED STATES OF AMERICA' BRINGS US A CLOSE UP AND IN-DEPTH VIEW OF WASHINGTON'S GRID LOCK AND THE RISE OF POPULOUS ANGER ON BOTH SIDES OF THE AISLE.

LET'S TAKE A LOOK.

THE PARTISANSHIP HAS BEEN SO RAW, SO DEVASTATING IT HAS PAIRALLIZED OUR SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT.

A DEEPLY DIVIDED COUNTRY.

PEOPLE FEEL AS IF THEIR COUNTRY AND COUNTRY HAS BEEN TAKEN FROM THEM AND THEY HAVE TO ACTIVELY TAKE IT BACK?

AS ONE PRESIDENT MAKES WAY FOR THE NEXT, OUR 'FRONT LINE' SPECIAL SERIES, 'DIVIDED STATES OF AMERICA.'

ONLY ON PBS.

VETERAN FILM MAKER MICHAEL KIRK IS THE DOCUMENTARY'S CREATOR AND I'M PLEASED TO WELCOME HIM TO THE SHOW.

WELCOME, MICHAEL.

GREAT TO BE HERE.

ALL RIGHT.

SO WITH THE 'DIVIDED STATES OF AMERICA,' WHICH I'M SURE MOST AMERICANS FEEL UNFORTUNATELY WE ARE RIGHT NOW, WHO OR WHAT ARE THE PLAYERS THAT HELPED GET US TO THIS POINT?

IF YOU LOOK BACK EIGHT YEARS AGO, OF COURSE YOU HAVE BARACK OBAMA, THE NEW -- SOME WOULD SAY NAIVE YOUNG PRESIDENT, THE CHANGE PRESIDENT, THE TRANSFORMATIVE PRESIDENT, THE MAN WHO IN 2004 DELIVERED THAT STUNNING, LIGHTNING BOLT OF A SPEECH AT THE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION IN BOSTON WHERE HE SAID WE ARE NOT A RED AMERICA, WE ARE NOT A BLUE AMERICA, WE ARE THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

OF COURSE, IT GOT HIM ELECTED PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

PEOPLE HAD A HUNGER FOR THAT SORT OF CHANGE, AND HE PROMISED CHANGE AND UNIFICATION.

CAME INTO WASHINGTON SOME WOULD SAY NAIVELY BUT TRANSFORMATIVELY, AND EVERYBODY WHO CAME TO WORK FOR HIM WAS FILLED WITH THE GOSPEL AND THE RELIGION OF TRANSFORMATION.

WAITING FOR THE HIM ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE AISLE WERE A GROUP OF REPUBLICANS WHO WERE JUST DESTROYED BY THE ELECTION OF BARACK OBAMA, THE LEADERSHIP OF THE HOUSE, JOHN BOEHNER, MITCH McCONNELL, JIM DE MINT, THEY GOT TOGETHER AT A BAR RESTAURANT ON WASHINGTON HILL WHILE MICHELLE AND BARACK OBAMA ARE DANCING TO BEYONCE, THEY ARE DRINKING AND TALKING TO JUST SAY NO TO THE NEW PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

NEWT GINGRICH IN THE FILM TONIGHT TALKS ABOUT HOW THEY DECIDED TO DO THAT.

THE PLAYERS ON BOTH SIDES FEEL EQUALLY THAT THEY HAVE A LOT AT STAKE HERE.

OBAMA, HOPING HE CAN GET UNIFICATION AND NOT BEING AWARE OF THE FACT THAT THE ENEMY ON THE OTHER SIDE IS HAVING A MEETING THAT VERY NIGHT TO JUST SAY NO TO HIM.

IT IS POSITIVELY SHARE SPEARAN.

IT REALLY WAS.

IT IS INTERESTING TO SEE HOW PASSIONATELY BOTH SIDES FELT ABOUT WHAT THEIR JOB AND CALLING WAS TO DO IN WASHINGTON.

INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH, THROUGHOUT THE FILM -- SO YOU HAVE A NARRATOR AND EVERYTHING, THERE'S AN UNDERCURRENT OF THE VOICES OF TALK RADIO.

TELL ME ABOUT THE ROLE TALK RADIO PLAYED.

MANY THINGS ARE HAPPENING IN AMERICA, THE AMERICA THAT EVENTUALLY WILL YIELD UP DONALD TRUMP.

THAT AMERICA AND THOSE FEELINGS WERE STARTED BY SARAH PALIN, JOHN McCAIN'S RUNNING MATE AGAINST BARACK OBAMA.

SARAH PALIN SOMEHOW TOUCHED THAT ANTI-INTELLECTUAL, ANTI-ELITE, ANTI-BIG MEDIA WORRY OUT THERE IN AMERICA, AND SO THEY'RE KIND OF READY.

THEY'RE PRIMED AND LIKE A MATCH TO A FUSE, IT IS BURNING SLOWLY BUT SURELY OUT THERE, FURTHERED BY THIS RISE OF THREE OR FOUR VERY GOOD, VERY STRONG VOICES THAT YOU'LL HEAR THROUGHOUT THE FILM.

THEY GET LOUDER AND LOUDER IN THE SECOND NIGHT, TOMORROW NIGHT, BUT THEY ARE PLENTY LOUD IN THIS FILM.

RUSH LIMBAUGH, LAURA INGRAHAM, MARK LEVIN, JUST OUT THERE, GLEN BECK, PUSHING, PUSHING, AT EVERYTHING FROM BIG POLICIES TO THE PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, HIS BLACKNESS, HIS NAME THAT DOESN'T SEEM LIKE A NEIGHBORHOOD NAME OUT THERE IN A LOTS OF PARTS OF AMERICA, EVEN HIS VERY AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP GETS CALLED INTO QUESTION BEFORE LONG.

SO THAT VOICE, THAT MEGAPHONE FOR THE RIGHT MATCHED UP WITH WHATEVER SARAH PALIN GOT STARTED AND CHURNED UP OUT THERE, AND ON TOP OF THAT THE COLLAPSE OF THE ECONOMY IN 2008, A LOT OF PEOPLE LOSING THEIR RETIREMENT INCOMES, LOSING THEIR HOMES, LOSING THEIR JOBS AS THEIR COMPANIES COLLAPSE OR FLEE.

THOSE PEOPLE ARE SITTING OUT THERE, SAYING, WHAT IS BARACK OBAMA GOING TO DO FOR ME?

AS WE'LL FIND OUT, WHEN THEY DON'T THINK HE IS DOING WHAT THEY WANT AND WHEN TALK RADIO TELLS THEM HE'S NOT DOING WHAT THEY WANT, THEY RISE UP AND CREATE THE TEA PARTY.

WELL, ALSO -- SO YOU ALSO MENTIONED THAT THE PRESIDENT HIMSELF WAS ALSO A PLAYER IN THIS.

WHAT DOES COME THROUGH IN THIS FILM IS THERE'S A CERTAIN LEVEL OF IDEALISM AND SOME MIGHT SAY NAIVETY THAT THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION CAME TO WASHINGTON WITH.

CAN YOU EXPLAIN TO ME HOW IT WORKED IN THE FIRST 100 DAYS AND HOW THEY BLEW OUT THEIR POLITICAL CAPITAL SO QUICKLY?

A, THEY WERE FOCUSED ON FROM THE TRANSITION ON THAT THE ECONOMY WAS GOING TO COLLAPSE AND THEY NEEDED TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT.

THEY NEEDED AN INFUSION OF MORE THAN A TRILLION DOLLARS, $800 BILLION NEEDED TO BE PUT INTO THE ECONOMY SO COMPANIES AND BANKS WOULDN'T COLLAPSE.

HE DIDN'T WANT IT TO BE WHAT HIS FIRST THING WAS, BUT IT WAS, AS IT TENDS TO BE WITH THE NEW PRESIDENT, THERE'S SOMETHING LAYING ON YOUR DESK WAITING FOR YOU LIKE TOXIC WASTE YOU HAVE TO DEAL WITH.

THAT WAS THE ECONOMY FOR OBAMA.

I THINK HE PUSHED IT AS HARD AS HE COULD.

HE HOPED THE REPUBLICANS WOULD HAVE TO GO ALONG WITH HIM BECAUSE IT WAS SUCH A CRISIS IN THE ECONOMY, BUT THEY DECIDED, NO, THEY WERE GOING TO SLOW WALK THIS PROBLEM, THEY WEREN'T GOING TO GET ALONG WITH HIM.

ERIC CANTOR TELLS US IN THE FILM TONIGHT HE HAD FIVE IDEAS FOR THE PRESIDENT, THE PRESIDENT REJECTED THEM AND TOLD HIM, ELECTIONS HAVE CONSEQUENCES, ERIC, I WON, HERE WE GO.

THEY SAID THE PRESIDENT WASN'T WILLING TO PLAY THE GAME OF HORSE TRADING, IN EFFECT, AND HE WASN'T.

THE PRESIDENT THOUGHT, WELL, THEY HAVE TO GO ALONG BECAUSE THE ECONOMY IS IN SUCH PERIL.

THEY DIDN'T GO ALONG, AND WITHIN ONE WEEK HE HAD HAD TO USE ALL OF HIS DEMOCRATIC MAJORITY BUT NOT A SINGLE REPUBLICAN VOTE.

THERE'S A VACUUM THAT'S BEING CREATED IN AMERICA, AND OUR PRESIDENT-ELECT FOUND A WAY TO STEP IN.

HOW DID HE DO THAT AND GROW?

WELL, HE IS SITTING THERE WATCHING IT HAPPEN.

HE GETS IN, HE'S ALWAYS HAD KIND -- SINCE 1987 OR SO HE'S HAD AN INTEREST IN PRESIDENTIAL POLITICS AND ONLY PRESIDENTIAL POLITICS.

DIDN'T WANT TO RUN FOR GOVERNOR OR SENATE.

HE FLIRTED WITH RUNNING FOR GOVERNOR.

MAYBE.

ANYWAY, HE SEES THIS DESTRUCTION HAPPENING IN THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND HE SAYS, OKAY, WHERE THERE'S CHAOS I CAN ENTER.

I THINK HE BEGAN TO PICK UP THE VOCABULARY FROM TALK RADIO THAT WE'VE TALKED ABOUT BEFORE.

I THINK HE PICKED UP THE VOCABULARY FROM SARAH PALIN.

I THINK HE SAW THE DESTRUCTION OF THE REPUBLICAN ESTABLISHMENT OR AT LEAST THE WOBBLINESS OF THE REPUBLICAN ESTABLISHMENT.

I THINK HE SAW THE VULNERABILITY OF OBAMA OR IDENTITY POLITICS AND THOUGHT HE COULD GET INVOLVED IN SOME OF THAT AND IT WOULD ALL WORK FOR A GROUP OF AMERICANS WHO FEEL BETRAYED BY THEIR GOVERNMENT, THEY'RE ANGRY ABOUT IT, WHO MIGHT HAVE A XENOPHOBIC, RACIST STRAIN INSIDE THEM AS WELL, AND THAT IF HE COULD -- IF HE COULD SOMEHOW CONVINCE THEM THAT HE WAS, EVEN THOUGH HE WAS A BILLIONAIRE, HE WAS A GUY WHO WAS GOING TO BE ABLE TO TALK BACK TO WASHINGTON.

ALL RIGHT.

LISTEN, MICHAEL.

THANK YOU FOR JOINING US.

MY PLEASURE.

JUST A PROGRAMMING NOTE FOR THOSE OF YOU WATCHING FROM HOME, 'FRONT LINES DIVIDED STATES OF AMERICA' DEBUTS TONIGHT ON CHANNEL 13.

IT IS A FOUR-HOUR TWO-NIGHT SPECIAL WITH PART ONE AIRING THIS EVENING AT 9:00 AND PART TWO COMING TO YOU TOMORROW NIGHT, ALSO AT 9:00.

> DON'T ENGAGE IN HYPERPARTISAN POLITICS, DON'T LET FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS INFLUENCE OUR NATION.

BE WEAR OF THE RISE OF DEMAGOGUES.

DIRE WARNING OF THE THREATS TO OUR DEMOCRACY BY A TWO-TERM PRESIDENT DELIVERING HIS FAREWELL ADDRESS TO OUR NATION, EXCEPT IT WASN'T FROM PRESIDENT OBAMA'S FAREWELL ADDRESS BUT ADMONISHMENTS FROM OUR FIRST AMERICAN PRESIDENT, GEORGE WASHINGTON.

MORE THAN 200 YEARS AGO.

IN A 1796 DOCUMENT THAT SOUNDS AS IF IT IS RIPPED FROM THE HEADLINES TODAY, OUR FOUNDING FATHER CALLED FOR US TO PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO ISSUES THAT ARE JUST AS RELEVANT TO US TODAY.

HERE TO TELL US WHY GEORGE WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT TO ALL OF US AFTER THIS ELECTION IS CNN POLITICAL ANALYST, ALSO EDITOR IN CHIEF OF 'THE DAILY BEAST' AND AUTHOR OF WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL, THE FOUNDING FATHER'S WARNING TO FUTURE GENERATIONS.

JOHN, GOOD TO HAVE YOU HERE.

GOOD TO BE HERE.

YOU AND I WERE TALKING ABOUT THIS BEFOREHAND.

IF YOU ASKED PEOPLE ABOUT WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS, THEY WILL SAY HIS FAREWELL ADDRESS TO THE TROOPS, RIGHT?

THAT'S WHAT YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT?

THAT WAS THE SIGNIFICANT CONVERSATION HE HAD.

RIGHT.

BUT THIS ONE, NOT AS WELL-KNOWN BUT CERTAINLY MORE IMPORTANT.

NOT ONLY MORE IMPORTANT, BUT MUCH BETTER KNOWN THROUGHOUT MUCH OF AMERICAN HISTORY.

YOU KNOW, THE FAREWELL TO THE TROOPS DOWN AT FRANCIS' TAVERN IN LOWER MANHATTAN IS A GREAT AND IMPORTANT MOMENT BUT COMPARATIVELY SMALL TO WHAT WASHINGTON DID IN 179.

HIS FAREWELL ADDRESS WRITTEN WITH JAMES MADISON AND REALLY ALEXANDER HAMILTON, RELEASED SEPTEMBER 19th, 1796, DATED THE 17th, AND PUBLISHED IN A PAPER WAS ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS SPEECH OF ITS DAY.

IT WAS AN OPEN LETTER TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, AS YOU SAY, A WARNING ABOUT THE FORCES THAT HE FEARED COULD DESTROY OUR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.

IT WAS MORE WIDELY REPRINTED THAN THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE THE FIRST 150 YEARS OF OUR HISTORY.

FIRST OF ALL, WHAT GOT YOU INTERESTED IN THIS?

PARTLY AS A FORMER SPEECH WRITER BACK IN THE DAY, I WAS CHIEF STRATEGY WRIER WITH MAYOR GUILLIANI WHEN HE WAS MAYOR OF NEW YORK, SO I'M INTERESTED IN SPEECHES AND THE ADVICE PREVIOUS GENERATIONS HAVE GIVEN US.

ALL OF A SUDDEN IN THE CASE OF WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL, IN MY FIRST BOOK 'INDEPENDENT NATION' AND SECOND BOOK 'WINGNUTS' I KEPT BUMPING INTO ADVICE, PARTICULARLY WARNINGS AGAINST THE DANGERS OF HYPERPARTISANSHIP, WHICH IS RELEVANT TO WHAT WE DEAL WITH TODAY.

I REALIZED YOU HAVE THIS AMAZING, FORGOTTEN PIECE OF HISTORY WHICH WAS CONFERRED CIVIC SCRIPTURE, BUT AT EVERY STEP YOU REALIZED YOU WERE UNCOVERING THIS FASCINATING DOCUMENT, THIS MEMO TO FUTURE GENERATIONS WRITTEN BY THE FIRST FOUNDING FATHER AND SO MUCH, AS YOU SAY, IS RIPPED FROM THE HEADLINES TODAY.

SHOULD BE REQUIRED READING FOR ANY CANDIDATE FOR ANY OFFICE.

IT REALLY SHOULD.

FOR ONE POP CULTURE REFERENCE OVER THE COURSE OF WRITING THE BOOK IS THE PLAY 'HAMILTON' HAS AN ENTIRE SONG ABOUT THIS SPEECH ONE LAST TIME. WHEN I BUMPED INTO THAT, I SAID, MAYBE THE STARS ARE ALIGNING FOR THIS.

YES, WE'RE RIPE FOR THIS.

PEOPLE MIGHT BE SURPRISED TO LEARN WHERE WASHINGTON WAS SORT OF EMOTIONALLY.

YOU TALK IN TERMS OF WHAT WAS ACTUALLY GOING ON WITH WASHINGTON AND THE REST OF THE COUNTRY AT THE TIME.

IT IS SO MUCH MORE INTERESTING TO VIEW THE FOUNDING FATHERS AS ACCESSIBLE RATHER THAN PUTTING THEM ON A PEDESTAL.

THAT'S ONE OF THE WAYS WE GET DISTANCE FROM OUR HISTORY AND STOP DRAWING ON IT, IS WE VIEW THESE FIGURES AS FALSELY PERFECT, AND, THEREFORE, THERE'S A STANDARD WE CANNOT REACH.

SO THEIR WISDOM SEEMS ITSELF DISTANT.

IF YOU UNDERSTAND THEM AS REAL, FLAWED HUMAN BEINGS WHO WERE PASSIONATE AND FRUSTRATED AND DIDN'T ACHIEVE ALL THEIR DREAMS, THAT MAKES THEM MUCH MORE RELATABLE AND, THEREFORE, ACCESSIBLE, AND ACCESSIBLE SOURCE OF WISDOM.

IN THE CASE OF WASHINGTON AT THE END OF HIS SECOND TERM, HE WAS A DEEPLY FRUSTRATED MAN.

HE WAS FRUSTRATED AND FEARFUL OF THE RICE OF PARTISANSHIP.

HE WAS THE ONLY INDEPENDENT PRESIDENT, REMEMBER.

THE CONSTITUTION DOESN'T MENTION POLITICAL PARTIES, DOES MENTION JOURNALISTS I WILL SAY.

SO HERE WASHINGTON WAS WITNESSING THE BIRTH OF THE TWO-PARTY SYSTEM.

HE WAS WITNESSING FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, FRANCE AND ENGLAND, INTRUDE ON OUR POLL SICKS AND TRY TO INFLUENCE OUR ELECTIONS AND THE EX DR. OF OUR POLICY.

HE HIMSELF WAS GETTING OLD AND TIRED, BRITTLE AND ILL-TEMPER.

THE NEWSPAPERS OF THE TIME, WHAT HE CALLED THE INFAMOUS SCRIBBLERS, AS A GENERAL ON THE BATTLEFIELD HE WAS NOT ACCUSTOMED TO DIRECT CRITICISM, AND THIS PARTICULAR --

AND HE GOT A LOT OF IT.

OH, A LOT OF IT, AND IT GOT UNDER HIS SKIN.

YOU SEE A MAN IN FULL AND THE MAN BEHIND THE MASK OF COMMAND, WHICH WE DON'T SEE VERY OFTEN, WHERE HE IS INSECURE, HE IS ILL-TEMPERED, HE IS IN PAIN, BUT STILL TRYING TO COMMUNE NOT JUST WITH THE PAST BUT WITH THE FUTURE, AND THAT'S AN AMAZING PLACE TO BE.

IT MAKES HIM SO MUCH MORE COMPELLING AND ACCESSIBLE THAN WE'VE SEEN HIM RECENTLY.

HE GIVES US WARNING IN THIS DOCUMENT.

YEAH.

HOW OPTIMISTIC WAS HE ABOUT THIS EXPERIMENT, THIS EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY THAT HE HAD LED FOR EIGHT YEARS?

WASHINGTON UNDERSTOOD THAT CIVILIZATION WAS NOT A GIVEN, THAT DEMOCRACIES IN PARTICULAR WERE FRAGILE.

FOLKS NEED TO REALLY APPRECIATE THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICS HAD BEEN TRIED IN THE PAST AND THEY HAD ALWAYS FAILED.

THAT WAS THE ASSUMPTION.

SO BRITAIN WHEN THEY LOST THE WAR FIGURED THAT WE WOULD FLAIL ABOUT FOR A BIT AND EVENTUALLY COME RUNNING HOME TO THE MOTHER COUNTRY.

OTHER COLONIAL POWERS WERE LOOKING TO COME AND REINVADE AND RECONQUEST THE CONTINENT, BECAUSE THAT'S WHAT HUMAN HISTORY HAD TAUGHT US TO THAT POINT.

ONE OF THE MOST FASCINATING THINGS I FOUND IN THE BOOK IS WASHINGTON AND MADISON AND HAMILTON, REALLY ESPECIALLY AROUND THE CONSTITUTION ALCON -- CONVENTION, STARTED STUDYING PAST REPUBLICS, SPECIFICALLY HOW THEY FAILED SO THEY COULD COUNTERACT THAT.

WE ARE TALKING IN THE CASE TODAY ABOUT RUSSIAN HACKS.

THE ANCIENT GREEK CITY STATES WERE UNDERMINED BY FOREIGN POWERS, NEIGHBORING POWERS THAT PRETENDED TO BE FRIENDLY, THEY WOULD BUY OFF POLITICIANS, WEAKEN RESOLVE AND THEN MOVE IN.

THAT WAS AN OLD STORY.

CONTEMPORANEOUS TO THE FOUNDING FATHERS IN POLAND, FIRST CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY IN EUROPE, THE RUSSIANS INFILTRATED THE PARLIAMENT AND BOUGHT OFF A BUNCH OF PARLIAMENT AIRANS AND THE COUNTRY BECAME PARTITIONED TO A SKELETAL STATE TO WHERE IT WAS EASILY OVERRUN BY RUSSIA AND PRUSSIA.

WASHINGTON AND THE OTHER FOUNDING FATHERS WERE TRYING TO SEND WARNING ABOUT HOW TO AVOID THOSE TRAPS IN THE PAST.

IT IS INTERESTING.

THEY'RE ALMOST RETRO ENGINEERING, SORT OF LOOKING AT THESE ARE THE ONES THAT CAME BEFORE US BUT DIDN'T WORK AND HERE IS WHY.

THAT'S RIGHT.

SO LET'S TRY TO DEAL WITH THAT?

THAT'S RIGHT.

AND THE THREE BIG WARNING ARE HYPERPARTISANSHIP, EXCESSIVE DEBT AND FOREIGN WARS.

OH, MY GOODNESS.

ALL RIGHT.

WE LOOK AT PARALLELS.

THAT'S RIGHT.

FOR TODAY.

WHEN YOU LOOK AT OUR CURRENT STATE OF PARTISANSHIP, DO YOU THINK WHAT WASHINGTON ESSENTIALLY DREADED HAS ACTUALLY COME TO BE BE?

YES, BUT NOT TO ITS COMPLETE FRUITION.

WASHINGTON EXPLICITLY WARNED ABOUT THE DANGERS NOT JUST OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND EXTREME PARTISANSHIP, BUT POLITICAL PARTIES DIVIDING ALONG REGIONAL AND IDEOLOGICAL LINES.

WHAT HE WAS ANTICIPATING WOULD ULTIMATELY BECOME THE CIVIL WAR, AND IN THE RIDE UP TO THE CIVIL WAR PEOPLE QUOTED WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL AS A WARNING NOT TO GO DOWN THAT PATH, AND IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR IT BECAME REQUIRED READING IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS TO HEAL THE WOUNDS OF THE NATION, BUT OBVIOUSLY WITH LESS IMMEDIATELY DIRE STRAITS WE HAVE TWO POLITICAL PARTIES THAT ARE GEOGRAPHICALLY AND IDEOLOGICALLY STRATIFIED, IN DIRECT CONTRADICTION OF HIS WARNING.

REMEMBER, THE FOUNDING GENERATION WAS ALSO INFLUENCE WILLED BY THE EXAMPLE OF THE BRITISH CIVIL WAR, THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR WHERE PARTISANSHIP HAD GOTTEN SO TOXIC.

THAT WAS THE EXAMPLE THEY HAD OF POLITICAL PARTIES BECOMING CORRUPT, EXTREME AND TURNING FELLOW CITIZENS AGAINST ONE ANOTHER, THE INABILITY TO REASON TOGETHER.

THAT'S -- AND HE WARNS AGAINST THAT, NOT ONLY FROM PARTIES BUT PARTISAN CHEERLEADERS IN THE PRESS AS WELL, THESE CONNIVING DIVIDERS WHO COME IN AND PRETEND TO BE LOOKING OUT FOR THE GOOD OF THE NATION BUT DIVIDING FELLOW CITIZENS AGAINST ONE ANOTHER.

HIS REAL DANGER IS THAT A DYSFUNCTIONAL DEMOCRACY THAT ARISES FROM HYPERPARTISANSHIP COULD OPEN THE DOOR TO DEMAGOGUE.

THANKS.

THERE'S A LOT MORE TO TALK ABOUT.

DON'T GO AWAY.

WE WILL CONTINUE THE CONVERSATION, A REMINDER FOR ALL OF YOU THERE, WE HAVE MORE TO DISCUSS WITH JOHN TOMORROW NIGHT.

MAKE SURE YOU COME BACK.

SO HERE IS A STATISTIC FOR YOU.

IN 2011 FOR THE FIRST TIME IN OUR NATION'S HISTORY, THE MAJORITY OF BABIES BORN WERE NON-WHITE.

NOW, LET'S FAST FORWARD A BIT.

BY THE YEAR 2044, PROJECTIONS ARE THAT WHITE PEOPLE WILL NO LONGER BE THE RACIAL MAJORITY IN AMERICA.

OUR COUNTRY WILL HAVE EVOLVED INTO A TRUE MELTING POT OF VARIOUS ETHNICITIES, RACISMS AND RELIGIONS.

THE QUESTION IS THIS.

WILL WE AS A NATION EMBRACE THIS DIVERSITY WITH FAIRNESS AND INCLUSION, OR WILL THERE BE RESISTANCE TO THIS CHANGE?

A NEW COLLECTION OF ESSAYS ON THE SUBJECT, THE FIRST IN A MULTI-YEAR SERIES ENTITLED 'OUR COMPELLING INTEREST, THE VALUE OF DIVERSITY FOR DEMOCRACY AND A PROSPEROUS SOCIETY,' POSES THAT QUESTION AND ENGAGES IN DEBATE OVER THE DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION TAKING PLACE IN AMERICA.

TO PONDER WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS IN STORES NOR THESE UNITED FATS WE TURN TO EARL LEWIS, PRESIDENT OF THE ANDREW W.

MELLON FOUNDATION AND ONE OF THE EDITORS OF THE BOOK.

NICE TO HAVE YOU WITH US.

THANK YOU.

PLEASURE.

LET'S START WITH THE CONCEPT BEHIND THIS MULTI-PART SERIES.

HOW DID IT COME ABOUT?

LATE 2012, EARLY 2013 WE WERE LOOKING AHEAD AND THINKING ABOUT THE FUTURE OF AMERICA, THINKING THE DEMOCRATIC PROJECT THAT IS THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE, AND WE HAD SOME SENSE OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION.

WE STARTED TO ASK A QUESTION.

WE SPENT SO MUCH TIME DEBATING AND ARGUING ABOUT RACE AND INCLUSION IN THE 19th AND 20th CENTURIES, AS WE THINK ABOUT THE 21st CENTURY, WHAT ARE THE OPPORTUNITIES?

HOW DO WE ACTUALLY THINK OF THE DIFFERENCES AMONG US NOT AS SOMETHING WE WANT TO RUN AWAY FROM BUT THAT WE NEED TO EMBRACE, BECAUSE THOSE DIFFERENCES WILL MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN ALL OF OUR LIVES.

ONE OF THE THINGS, AND YOU JUST MENTIONED IT HERE BUT I KNOW IS MENTIONED IN THE BOOK, IS THIS IDEA OF WILL WE EMBRACE, WILL WE LOOK AS IT AS AN OPPORTUNITY OR LOOK AT IT AS SOME KIND OF A THREAT THAT NEEDS TO BE MANAGED.

YES, AND THAT'S THE CORE QUESTION, ONE OF THE CORE QUESTIONS THAT ANIMATES BOTH THIS FIRST VOLUME AND THE OVERALL SERIES.

WE BELIEVE THAT WE NEED TO EMBRACE ALL OF THE TALENT THAT'S DISTRIBUTED ACROSS THE U.S.

I MEAN ONE COULD ARGUE, AND I CERTAINLY BELIEVE, THAT TALENT IS EVENLY DISTRIBUTED, ACCESS IS NOT.

SO HOW DO WE --

WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY THAT?

WHAT I MEAN IS THAT THERE ARE DIFFERENT WAYS IN WHICH IF YOU LOOK ACROSS THE U.S. AND START LOOKING AT WHERE PEOPLE LIVE AND TRYING TO THINK THROUGH, DO THEY HAVE ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITY FOR EDUCATION, DO THEY HAVE ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITIES FOR FAIR WAGES AND INCLUSION IN ALL ASPECTS OF AMERICAN SOCIETY, IT HAS HISTORICALLY NOT BEEN THE CASE THAT IS ANSWER IS YES.

WE THINK THOUGH THAT IF YOU THINK JUST THE DEMOGRAPHICS ALONE, I'M A BABY BOOMER --

I AM TOO.

AND YOU ARE, TOO.

SO WE LOOK AHEAD AND WE REALIZE, WE BABY BOOMERS DEPEND ON THIS NEXT GENERATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE WHO REALLY THEN WILL GO ON TO EARN A LIVING AND A WAGE THAT WILL PAY INTO SOCIAL SECURITY.

WITHOUT THEM, WE'RE STUCK BECAUSE WE'VE PAID FORWARD, RIGHT?

SO THERE'S A WAY THAT THE CURRENT GENERATION THEN IS LINKED TO ALL FUTURE GENERATIONS, AND WE NEED TO TIE THAT TOGETHER IN A WAY.

THAT'S PART OF THE QUESTION ABOUT A PROSPEROUS SOCIETY, AND AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY.

WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT ENOUGH AMERICANS -- AND WE NEED TO TALK ABOUT THIS, ENOUGH AMERICANS IMAGINE THEMSELVES BEING PART OF THE ENTIRE SOCIETY AND THAT THEY WANT TO THEN CONTRIBUTE IN ALL WAYS, BOTH FINANCIALLY, POLITICALLY, SOCIALLY AND ECONOMICALLY.

WHAT WOULD THE RESPONSE BE TO SOMEBODY WHO IS WATCHING OUR CONVERSATION AND THEY HEAR WHAT WE SAID IN THE INTRODUCTION, BY THE YEAR 2044 THE NUMBERS WILL HAVE IT SHIFTED DRAMATICALLY.

SURE.

AND THAT PERSON MIGHT SAY, WHY DO WE HAVE TO ACTUALLY ACTIVELY EMBRACE, NUMBERS WILL CARRY IT FORWARD, THE NUMBERS MAKE SURE THAT THIS DIVERSITY GETS EMBRACED?

WHAT WE SAY IN THIS VOLUME AND WHAT THE RESEARCH WILL SHOW IS THAT THE NUMBERS THEMSELVES ARE NOT SUFFICIENT.

PEOPLE CAN ACTUALLY LIVE IN WHAT WE THINK OF AS PARALLEL UNIVERSES.

THINK OF LITTLE KIDS WHO ARE TODDLERS, AND IF YOU WATCH TODDLERS THEY CAN PLAY NEXT TO EACH OTHER AND NEVER INTERACT, SORT OF PARALLEL PLAY.

ADULTS ARE ALSO CAPEAL OF PARALLEL PLAY.

IF YOU THINK THAT THE NUMBERS WILL CHANGE WITHOUT FORMAL PROGRAMS, WITHOUT STRUCTURES FOR INTERACTION, WE KNOW FROM THE THE RESEARCH THAT MEANS WE WON'T BE ABLE TO BENEFIT FULLY FROM THE DIVERSITY AMONG US.

ONE OF THE SESAYS TALKS IN THE BOOK ABOUT THE PARADOX OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

YEAH.

YOU LOOK AT HOW THINGS ARE PLAYING OUT.

I HAVE BEEN A VISITING PROFESSOR AT YALE FOR TEN YEARS, AND IT'S BEEN AN INTERESTING TEN YEARS WHEN I SEE HOW THINGS HAVE CHANGED AT YALE, ESPECIALLY SINCE I WAS A STUDENT THERE DECADES AGO.

YOU TALK ABOUT THE PARADOX, THERE'S MORE AND MORE DIVERSITY PRESENT ON CAMPUSES NOW, BUT THE CAMPUSES SEEM TO BE THE SITE OF MORE CONFLICT OVER THE NOTIONS OF DIVERSITY.

WHY IS IT PLAYING THAT WAY, DO YOU THINK?

I THINK WHAT UNIVERSITIES HAVE DONE SINCE THE LATE 1960s, AND COLLEGES AS WELL, IS BELIEVE THAT DIVERSITY WAS LINKED TO HOSPITALITY.

THAT IS IF WE INVITE PEOPLE IN AND WE CREATE A HOSPITABLE ENVIRONMENT, THEN THOSE THAT COME IN WILL CHANGE AND BE LIKE US IN A WAY.

WHAT GENERATIONS OF STUDENTS HAVE SAID, NOT JUST THIS GENERATION BUT PREVIOUS GENERATIONS AS WELL, IT IS NOT JUST ABOUT HOSPITALITY.

IT IS ALSO ABOUT EQUITY.

EQUITY MEANS THEN THAT NOT ONLY SHOULD I CHANGE, BUT PERHAPS THE INSTITUTION SHOULD CHANGE A LITTLE BIT AS WELL.

THAT REALLY IS WHAT IT IS TO INCLUDE ME.

SO WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO THINK THROUGH AND WHAT THE VOLUME SUGGESTS AND WHAT YALE HAS EXPERIENCED AND OTHERS IS IN SOME WAYS THAT PARADOX, THAT DIVERSITY PLUS INCLUSION OR INTEREST ACTING WITH INCLUSION ALL EQUALS EQUITY AND WE HAVE TO TALK ABOUT WHAT THAT MEANS.

ONE OF THE INTERESTING ARGUMENTS WE HAVE SEEN PLAYING OUT IS THE SUGGESTION THAT THE MEASURE OF SUCCESS AND DIVERSITY SHOULD BE FOCUSING MORE ON ECONOMICS THAN THE IDEA OF GENDER OR RACE.

SURE.

WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THAT ARGUMENT?

I ACTUALLY THINK MOST OF US ARE WHOLE PEOPLE.

IF YOU ARE ONLY GOING TO DEAL WITH ONE ASPECT OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND IGNORE THE OTHER PARTS, WE WILL ACTUALLY NEVER COMPLETE THE PROJECT, WHICH IS TO TALK ABOUT INCLUSION AND HOW DO WE CREATE A JUST AND FAIR SOCIETY AND HOW DO WE MAKE SURE ALL-AMERICANS IMAGINE THEY'RE PART OF THE FUTURE.

AS A BLACK MAN, I AM COGNIZANT OF THE FACT THAT THAT'S NOT ALL OF WHO I AM.

THERE ARE OTHER ASPECTS OF ME THAT ACTUALLY ARE VISIBLE SOMETIMES AND PIECES THAT ARE INVISIBLE, BUT I CAN'T CARVE OUT ONE PIECE AND SAY THAT'S WHO I AM.

LAST QUICK QUESTION FOR YOU.

SHOULD WE BE OPTIMISTIC?

YES.

I MEAN I THINK -- I ACTUALLY BELIEVE WE SHOULD BE OPTIMISTIC.

THERE'S INCREDIBLE TALENT AROUND THIS COUNTRY, AND IF WE THINK ABOUT WHAT IT MEANS TO LIVE ON THE EAST COAST AND THE WEST COAST AND THE GULF COAST, AND WHEN YOU SEE A LOT OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THAT WAS OUTLINED IN THE BEGINNING, YOU ALSO REALIZE THAT YOUNG PEOPLE LIVE NOT ONLY THERE BUT THEY LIVE IN THE INTERIOR STATES, THEY LIVE IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, THEY LIVE IN THE MOUNTAIN WEST, THAT IN SOME WAYS IF WE IGNORE THE FACT THAT DIVERSITY IS NOT JUST ABOUT THOSE PEOPLE WHO HAPPEN TO LIVE ON THE COAST BUT IS ACTUALLY A NATIONAL PROJECT, I THINK WE SHOULD BE OPTIMISTIC.

IN SOME WAYS CALIFORNIA IS OUR FUTURE, AND CALIFORNIA IS DOING PRETTY WELL.

ONCE AGAIN, THIS IS FIRST OF A NUMBER CALLED 'OUR COMPELLING INTEREST, THE VALUE OF DIVERSITY FOR DEMOCRACY AND A PROSPEROUS SOCIETY,' AND THERE'S WONDERFUL ESSAYS AND PRO VOCABULARY TICK LOOKS AT THESE.

THANK YOU FOR SPENDING TIME WITH US.

THANK YOU.

HAPPY NEW YEAR.

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