September 14, 2016: Winners, Losers, & Weirdness. American Education & the Failing Grade. Frank Bruni & College Admission Mania. Forces of Nature.

Tonight, results from yesterday’s primary may have disappointed some New York incumbents, but it turns out a dead man can still pull in votes. We let you know where the votes fell and who will be taking over political office. With what is sure to be an exciting general election quickly approaching in November, how do the results from yesterday shift power in New York?

Next, all studies point to one thing that has a positive effect on not only the success of an individual but the national economy they live in: a quality education. That simple fact doesn’t change that America, once known as one of the top countries in educational achievement, has fallen behind, especially in topics such as math and science. So what is keeping our nation’s students back and how can we become top achievers again in a global market that becomes more competitive with each day? A new Nova documentary, School of the Future, explores those questions and the challenges facing today’s students. Dr. Pamela Cantor is one of the subjects in this film and she will join us to discuss the issues our kids deal with in and out of the classroom.

Then, as America’s youth heads back to school, high school seniors are facing the daunting task of applying to college. Between taking the SATs, writing admissions essays, and completing scholarship applications, the payoff has increasingly been a rejection letter from some of the most elite schools in the world. It’s a hard blow for many students and their parents, but does the university you attend really determine how bright your future could be? The New York Times columnist Frank Bruni joins us to discuss the stressful time students have applying for college and whether picking the right school is as important as we think it is.

Finally, what makes the world round, the sky blue, or gives every snowflake a unique shape? Those seemingly unanswerable questions are explored in a new PBS series called Forces of Nature. This four-part series will show how we experience the natural forces that shape our world and the fundamental laws governing all life and matter on Earth. Tonight, PBS’ Vice President of Programming Bill Gardner will join us to discuss the making of Forces of Nature and what you can expect from the program before it premieres tonight.

TRANSCRIPT

NEW YORK PRIMARY RESULTS ARE IN.

IT WAS A GREAT NIGHT FOR WOMEN AND A DEAD MAN.

AND A DAD NIGHT FOR INCUMBENTS AS A FRESH FACE TO THE POLITICAL SCENE MAKES HISTORY.

> WE'VE GOT ALL THE DETAILS ON WHO WON, WHO LOST AND WHAT'S AT STAKE FOR YOU.

> HOW MUCH DOES STRESS IMPACT LEARNING?

NOVA TAKES US INTO THE SCHOOL OF THE FUTURE WHERE SCIENTISTS, PSYCHOLOGISTS AND EDUCATORS REVEAL HOW THE INNER WORKINGS OF YOUR CHILD'S BRAIN CAN TEACH US HOW TO TEACH THEM.

> DOES WHERE YOU GO TO COLLEGE REALLY DETERMINE YOUR FUTURE?

'NEW YORK TIMES' FRANK BRUNI IS HERE TO DISPEL THE MADNESS BEHIND ADMISSIONS MANIA.

> AND HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED WHAT MAKES THE SKY BLUE OR GIVES A SNOWFLAKE ITS UNIQUE SHAPE OR WHY THE EARTH IS ROUND?

THOSE ANSWERS ARE ALL AVAILABLE TONIGHT AT PBS'S FORCES OF NATURE INVESTIGATES THE WORLD.

ALL THAT AND MORE AS 'METROFOCUS' STARTS RIGHT NOW.

♪ ♪

> THIS IS 'METROFOCUS' WITH RAFAEL PI ROMAN, JACK FORD AND JENNA FLANAGAN.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY --

> CORPORATE FUNDING FOR 'METROFOCUS' WAS PROVIDED BY MUTUAL OF AMERICA, YOUR RETIREMENT COMPANY.

AND BY PSE&G, SERVING CUSTOMERS, STRENGTHENING THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY AND INVESTING IN THE FUTURE.

> YESTERDAY NEW YORKERS WENT TO THE POLLS TO VOTE IN THE STATE PRIMARIES.

SO WHO WON?

WHO LOST?

AND WHAT WAS AT STAKE?

IF YOU MISSED IT, HERE IS WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW.

FIRST, IT WAS A BAD NIGHT FOR INCUMBENTS AT SOME OF THE BIGGEST RACES IN MANHATTAN WENT TO CHALLENGERS, IT WAS, HOWEVER, A GOOD NIGHT FOR A NUMBER OF WOMEN IN NEW YORK, ONE OF WHOM MADE HISTORY, IT WAS IRONICALLY ALSO A GOOD NIGHT FOR A NOW DEAD UPSTATE ASSEMBLYMAN WHO COMMITTED SUICIDE WHILE FACING FRAUD CHARGES JUST A FEW DAYS AGO.

WE WILL HAVE MORE ON THAT IN A MOMENT.

BUT THE RACE TO WATCH HERE IN THIS CITY WAS FOR THE 65th ASSEMBLY DISTRICT IN LOWER MANHATTAN AN AREA CONTROLLED FOR 40 YEARS BY THE NOW DISGRACED FORMER ASSEMBLY SPEAKER SHELDON SILVER.

SILVER WAS CONVICTED LAST YEAR ON FEDERAL CORRUPTION CHARGES.

THE FORMER SPEAKER WHO WAS APPEALING HIS CONVICTION FOUGHT HARD IN APRIL TO HELP HIS ALLY ALICE CANSELL TAKE HIS PLACE, YET U LEAN YU WON IN A SIX-WAY RACE TO INHERIT SILVER SEAS SEAT.

I'M HUMBLED TO BE THE FIRST ASIAN-AMERICAN TO REPRESENT CHINA TOWN OR ANY PART OF THE MANHATTAN IN THE STATE LEGISLATURE.

IT FEELS REALLY GREAT.

I THINK MY DISTRICT IS SPEAKING UP AND IS ASKING FOR A CHANGE.

THIS VICTORY SILENCES THE VOICE OF HATE, OF RACISM.

YU DISPLACED CAN SOUTHEAST HE WILL IS.

WHEN CAN SOUTHEAST SELL WAS ASKED ABOUT SILVER'S EFFECT SHE RELIED.

LIVING HERE FOR 40-PLUS YEARS AND BEING A COMMUNITY GRASSROOTS CANDIDATE I'D SAY THAT WOULD HAVE NO PLAY IN THIS ELECTION.

IN ANOTHER PRIMARY RACE THAT INCLUDES NORTHERN AND WESTERN MANHATTAN, A WIDE SWATH THAT STR ETCHES FROM WASHINGTON HEIGHTS TO HELS KITCHEN M MARIA CANTADA WON IN A FOUR-WAY CONTEST TO REPLACE AFTER YAN IN A ESP PLCHLT INET WHO IS RUNNING FOR CONGRESS.

I WANT TO THANK EVERYBODY WHO CAME OUT TONIGHT.

BECAUSE OF YOU THERE WILL BE ONCE AGAIN A LATINA IN THE NEW YORK STATE SENATE.

HER WIN HAS SOME DEMOCRATS WORRIED AS SHE IS PLANNING ON JOINING THE INDEPENDENT DEMOCRATIC CONFERENCE IF AS EXPECTED SHE IS ELECTED IN NOVEMBER'S GENERAL ELECTION.

THE INDEPENDENT DEMOCRATIC CONFERENCE IS A BREAK AWAY GROUP OF DEMOCRATS THAT HAS TEAMED UP WITH REPUBLICANS TO CONTROL THE NEW YORK STATE SENATE.

ANOTHER WOMAN OF DO MINUTE CAL DESCENT CAR MINUTE DAY LA ROSA MADE THE ASSEMBLYMAN IN HIS DISTRICT.

THE NUMBERS 36% TO 32%. IN WHAT MAY HAVE BEEN THE STRANGEST VICTORY OF ALL ROCHESTER REPUBLICAN ASSEMBLYMAN BILL NOJAY WON WITH A 58% TO 41% DESPITE HAVING COMMITTED SUICIDE LAST FRIDAY.

HE WAS FACING AN FBI FEDERAL FRAUD TRIAL RELATED TO A TRUST FUND HE HANDLED AS AN ATTORNEY.

SO WHAT HAPPENS NEXT IN THAT DISTRICT?

REPUBLICAN LEADERS WILL HAND PICK A CANDIDATE TO REPLACE HIM IN THE NOVEMBER GENERAL ELECTION.

ALL OF THIS ADDING DRAMA TO WHAT WILL BE AN EXCITING NOVEMBER WHICH INCLUDES THE RACE FOR THE WHITE HOUSE.

A RACE WILL BE CLOSELY FOLLOWING.

FOR 'METROFOCUS' I'M RAFAEL PI ROMAN.

> NO MATTER WHERE YOU'RE FROM ALL STUDIES SHOW THAT ACCESS TO A QUALITY EDUCATION HAS A POSITIVE AFFECT, NOT ONLY ON THE SUCCESS OF AN INDIVIDUAL, BUT ON THE NATIONAL ECONOMY AS A WHOLE.

HOWEVER, WHILE THE UNITED STATES ONCE SCORED AMONGST THE TOP COUNTRIES IN EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT, TODAY IT IS FALLEN BEHIND, MOST NOTABLY IN SUBJECTS SUCH AS MATH AND SCIENCE.

SO WHAT'S KEEPING OUR STUDENTS BACK AND HOW CAN WE ONCE AGAIN BECOME TOP ACHIEVERS IN AN EVER GROWING AND COMPETITIVE GLOBAL MARKET?

A NEW NOVA DOCUMENTARY SCHOOL OF THE FUTURE AIMS TO EXPLORE THE CHALLENGES FACING OUR STUDENTS TODAY BOTH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM.

LET'S TAKE A LOOK.

INEQUALITY IN THE UNITED STATES IS OUR ACHILLES HEAL.

WE WANT A WORLD WHERE REGARDLESS OF WHERE YOU ARE BORN YOU HAVE GOT AN EQUAL SHOT.

CAN SCIENCE HELP US FIND A WAY TO GIVE ALL CHILDREN AN EQUAL SHOT?

WHAT DO YOU THINK, YOU LOOK LIKE AN ASTRONAUT MAYBE.

WE SHOULDN'T BE ASKING KIDS TO BEAT THE ODDS, WE SHOULD BE USING SCIENCE TO CHANGE THE ODDS.

TODAY'S RESEARCHERS ARE PEERING INTO THE BRAIN, TRYING TO UNLOCK THE SECRETS OF HOW CHILDREN LEARN.

READING IS NOT A SKILL THAT THE BRAIN IS WIRED TO DO.

WE ARE TRYING TO GET TO THE POINT WHERE I CAN SAY THAT THIS IS THE MAGIC THAT WILL REALLY HELP ENHANCE SCHOOL PERFORMANCE.

SO WE MIGHT RETHINK THE WORD REFLECTION.

CAN THEIR DISCOVERIES HELP EDUCATORS TRANSFORM OUR SCHOOLS?

I WANT TO SMELL IT, I WANT TO TASTE IT, I WANT TO KNOW HOW IT LOOKS.

IT IS POSSIBLE TO CHANGE THE BRAINS OF CHILDREN IN WAYS THAT CAN LEVEL THE PLAYING FIELD.

HOW MANY PEOPLE SAW --

INDIVIDUAL CHILDREN LONG DIFFERENTLY, LEARN DIFFERENT, ARE ON DIFFERENT PATHS CAN GET THE THINGS THAT WORK BETTER FOR THEM.

AND I'M JOINED BY ONE OF THE SUBJECTS OF SCHOOL OF THE FUTURE, DR. PAM A LA CANTOR.

THANK YOU, FOR JOINING US.

THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.

THIS FILM EXPLORES A LOT OF COMPLEX IDEAS ABOUT, YOU KNOW, EDUCATION AND LEARNING, ET CETERA, AND WE'VE ALREADY BEGUN TO -- OR IT MIGHT SEEM LIKE WE'VE BEGUN TO IMPLEMENT SOME CHANGES TO OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, AN EASY EXAMPLE IS COMMON CORE.

IS THAT A STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION AND IF IT IS HOW MUCH FURTHER DO WE NEED TO GO?

IT IS A STEP.

I THINK THAT'S A REALLY GOOD WAY TO CHARACTERIZE IT.

IT'S REALLY IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND WHAT YOUR ULTIMATE DESTINATION IS FOR ALL KIDS.

BUT AFTER YOU SET THAT DESTINATION YOU HAVE TO ASK THE NEXT QUESTION, WHAT WILL IT TAKE?

BECAUSE CHILDREN DON'T ALL HAVE THE SAME BEGINNINGS FROM A LEARNING PERSPECTIVE.

THERE ARE MANY THINGS THAT WE HAVE TO FACTOR IN TO HOW KIDS LEARN TO ENSURE THAT OUR KIDS ARE READY TO LEARN AND ARE THEN IN ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH THEY CAN ATTAIN THOSE STANDARDS.

WE HAVEN'T DONE ALL THE THINGS WE NEED TO DO TO GET THERE.

SO FIRST OF ALL JUST TO GIVE PEOPLE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING HOW DOES STRESS AND ADVERSITY, POVERTY, HOW DOES THAT AFFECT A CHILD'S ABILITY TO LEARN?

THAT'S ONE OF THE ISSUES BEING DEALT WITH THIS IN FILM.

IT'S A VERY, VERY IMPORTANT THING TO START WITH THE PREMISE THAT ADVERSITY DOESN'T JUST HAPPEN TO CHILDREN, IT HAPPENS INSIDE THEIR BRAINS AND BODIES THROUGH THE BIOLOGIC MECHANISM OF STRESS.

SO BAD STUFF DOESN'T JUST HAPPEN TO KIDS.

THAT BIOLOGIC MECHANISM OF STRESS CAUSES A SYSTEM IN THE BODY, THE HPA SYSTEM TO FIRE, A CHEMICAL IS RELEASED CALLED CORTISOL AND CORTISOL HAS UNIQUE AFFECTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEARNING CENTERS OF THE BRAIN.

SO WE HAVE THE LEARNING CENTERS CALLED THE LIMBIC SYSTEM, THREE MAIN STRUCTURES, PRE FRONTAL CORTEX, HIPAA CAMPUS, A ANYTHING DA LA, THEY ARE SENSITIVE TO THE CHEMICAL CORTISOL AND THEY ARE CROSS WIRED.

SO THE ATTENTION, CONCENTRATION, WORKING MEMORY THAT WE NEED TO BE ENGAGED LEARNER'S CAN BE SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTED BY STRESS.

IS THAT ALMOST ASKING TOO MUCH OF SCHOOLS TO BE ABLE TO -- BECAUSE, I MEAN, THAT'S JUST SUCH A COMPLEX ISSUE TO HAVE TO DEAL WITH FOR A TEACHER WHO MIGHT JUST BE STANDING IN FRONT OF A CLASSROOM WHO IS JUST TRYING TO TEACH WHATEVER THE LESSON PLAN IS FOR THE DAY.

HERE IS THE INTERESTING THING, ONE OF THE THINGS WE KNOW OF FROM THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE ON STRESS IS THAT THE MOST POWERFUL THING THAT CAN PREVENT THE DAMAGING AFFECTS OF STRESS IS A RELATIONSHIP, IS THE BUFFERING OF A HUMAN RELATIONSHIP.

IT CAN LITERALLY RELEASE ANOTHER HORMONE, OXYTOCIN, WHICH CAN OPPOSE THE AFFECTS THAT CORTISOL HAS ON THE BRAIN.

SO THINGS THAT MIGHT BE THOUGHT OF AS NICE TO DO FOR KIDS, LIKE FORM BIG STRONG CONNECTED RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEM ACTUALLY ARE NOT NICE TO DO OR NICE TO HAVE.

THOSE ARE THINGS THAT ARE ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY AND ALSO HAVE A BIOLOGIC CORRELATE IN THEIR BRAINS AND BODIES.

WELL, TO BE FRANK, IT LOOKS VERY EXPENSIVE AND LOOKS LIKE SOMETHING THAT'S INCREDIBLY DIFFICULT FOR THE AVERAGE SCHOOL DISTRICT TO GO INN TO IMPLEMENT, ESPECIALLY ONES IN POORER AREAS.

DO YOU THINK THERE IS THE WILL, THE CAPITAL, TO BE ABLE TO START MAKING THAT SHIFT IN OUR EDUCATION SYSTEM?

I THINK YOU'RE TALKING ACTUALLY ABOUT TWO PROBLEMS, NOT ONE.

ONE IS THAT THERE IS OBVIOUSLY MONEY IN THE SYSTEM THAT IS RUNNING THE SYSTEM EVERY DAY.

IS THAT MONEY BEING SPENT ON THE THINGS THAT ARE GOING TO GET TO THE GOALS WE HAVE FOR A 21st CENTURY EDUCATION?

NOT REALLY.

OKAY.

BECAUSE OUR CURRENT SYSTEM WASN'T DESIGNED AROUND THE EXPECTATIONS THAT WE HAVE FOR CHILDREN TODAY.

SO WE HAVE TO LOOK AT HOW EXISTING MONEY IS ALLOCATED.

BUT ANOTHER THING I WOULD TELL YOU IS THAT SINCE MY FIELD IS MEDICINE, WHEN THE WORLD WANTS TO GET A CURE FOR A DISEASE BECAUSE IT IS AFFECTING MILLIONS OF PEOPLE, THE R & D THAT GOES BEHIND THAT TO GET TO THE ANSWER IS VERY, VERY, VERY STRONG AND PROFOUND AND WE HAVE THE POLITICAL WILL TO DO THAT.

SO IT'S TRUE WHERE MEDICINE IS CONCERNED, IT'S TRUE WHERE DEFENSE IS CONCERNED, IT HAS NEVER BEEN TRUE WHERE EDUCATION IS CONCERNED.

WE HAVE NEVER INVESTED THE LEVEL OF R & D IN ANSWERING EDUCATION QUESTIONS AS WE HAVE IN THESE OTHER FIELDS.

AND IT'S NOT ONLY ABOUT WHAT TO DO, IT'S ABOUT WHAT WILL CREATE THE POLITICAL WILL FOR ADOPTION AND WHAT WILL IT TAKE TO GET TO SCALE.

IN MEDICINE WE DO ALL THREE.

IN DEFENSE WE DO ALL THREE.

WE HAVE TO DO ALL THREE --

IN EDUCATION.

IN EDUCATION.

DR. PAMELA CANTOR THANK YOU FOR JOINING US.

NOVA SCHOOL OF THE FUTURE PREMIERES TONIGHT AT 9:00 RIGHT HERE ON PBS.

VISIT US ONLINE AT METROFOCUS.ORG FOR MORE INFORMATION OR CHECK YOUR LOCAL LISTINGS.

♪ ♪

> IT'S THAT TIME OF THE YEAR WHEN HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS GET READY TO APPLY TO THE COLLEGE OF THEIR DREAMS.

MANY OF THEM HAVE STUFFED THEIR RESUMES WITH ACTIVITIES, STRESSED OVER GRADES AND ENDURED HOURS OF TUTORING FOR THEIR SATs AND ACTs YET AFTER ALL THAT THE PAYOFF HAS INCREASINGLY BEEN A REJECTION LETTER FROM SOME OF THE MOST ELITE SCHOOLS IN THE WORLD.

IT'S A HARD LOW FOR MANY OF THESE KIDS AN THEIR PARENTS BUT WHEN ALL IS SAID AND DONE DOES THE COLLEGE YOU ATTEND DETERMINE YOUR FUTURE SUCCESS?

'NEW YORK TIMES' OP-ED COLUMNIST FRANK BRUNI ARS IT DOES NOT AND HOPES TO DISPEL THE ADMISSIONS MANIA IN THE EXPANDED EDITION OF HIS BOOK 'WHERE YOU GO IS NOT WHO YOU WILL BE' FRANK BRUNI JOINS US NOW.

WELCOME.

NICE SO SEE YOU.

I SHOULD ALSO SAY THAT THE HARD COVER VERSION OF THE BOOK WAS A 'NEW YORK TIMES' BEST SELLER.

VERY FORTUNATE, YES.

WHAT MOTIVATED YOU TO WRITE THIS BOOK?

I HAVE A BUNCH OF NIECES AND NEPHEWS, MANY FRIENDS WHOSE KIDS ARE THE AGES WHERE THEY ARE GOING THROUGH COLLEGE, GOING THROUGH COLLEGE AND THE FRENZY, OBSESSIVENESS, COMPULSION TO GET INTO THE MOST SELECTIVE SCHOOL POSSIBLE IS THE OFF THE CHARTS.

WHEN I LOOK AROUND ME, I'M A JOURNALIST, I HAVE INTERVIEWED HUNDREDS OF PEOPLE IN SCORES OF PROFESSIONS AND WHEN I THINK ABOUT WHAT MADE THEM SUCCESSFUL THERE IS NOT A COMMON LINK OF HAVING GONE TO A CONVENTIONALLY ELITE SELECTIVE SCHOOL.

SO THIS BELIEF THAT YOUR FUTURE CAN BE MADE SIMPLY BY GOING TO A SELECTIVE SCHOOL OR UNMADE BY BEING REJECTED IS TO INCONSISTENT WITH REAL LIFE I FELT SOMEONE NEEDED TO SHOUT THAT OUT AND GIVE EVERYBODY A REALITY CHECK.

THAT'S WHAT YOU CALL THE MANIA.

IT IS THE EXAGGERATED VERSION OF THINKING THAT IT MATTERS SO MUCH.

WHO IS CAUGHT UP IN THIS MANIA?

IT'S LARGELY AFFLUENT KIDS AND THEIR PARENTS BUT IT FANS OUT TO ALL OF SOCIETY.

IT'S PEOPLE WHO ARE ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTED, AMBITION AND THINK THAT THE ONLY WAY THEY ARE GOING TO ATTAIN THEIR DREAMS AND THE ONLY WAY THEY WILL REACH THE PINNACLE OF SUCCESS IS IF THEY GET INTO ONE OF THESE SCHOOLS THAT HAS AN ACCEPTANCE RATE OF 10%, 7% OR IN THE CASE OF STANFORD NOW 5%. WITH EN YOU THINK ABOUT IT IF YOU ARE HITCHING YOUR DREAMS AND YOURSELF-WORTH TO A 5% ACCEPTANCE RATE YOU ARE SIMPLY SETTING YOURSELF UP FOR FAILURE AND I WANTED TO SAY, DO YOU KNOW WHAT, YOU CAN GET WHERE YOU'RE GOING WITHOUT STANFORD.

HOW DO YOU RESPOND TO THE MANY TEAM WHO WILL TELL YOU THIS MANIA IS JUSTIFIED.

FOR EXAMPLE, THE LAST FOUR PRESIDENTS WERE IVY LEAGUERS, IS THAT JUST A COINCIDENCE?

NO IT'S NOT JUST A COINCIDENCE, BUT I'M REALLY GLAD YOU ASKED THAT.

TWO OF THOSE PRESIDENTS WERE BUSHES, THEIR FORBEARERS WENT TO YALE WHICH IS WHERE THEY WENT.

DID YALE MAKE THEM PRESIDENTS OR DID THEY END UP AT YALE BECAUSE OF A BLOODLINE AND A TRAJECTORY THAT WAS GOING TO LEAD TO THE WHITE HOUSE AND YALE WAS JUST A STOP ALONG THE WAY?

WE SAY, OH, ALL THE PRESIDENTS HAVE GONE TO IVY LEAGUE SCHOOLS AS IF THE IVY LEAGUE SCHOOLS MADE THE PRESIDENTS.

I DON'T THINK SO.

I THINK IN MANY OF THOSE MEN'S SITUATIONS AND HOPEFULLY SOME DAY WE WILL SAY WOMEN, TOO, THEY WERE BOUND FOR THAT SORT OF FUTURE AND HAPPENED TO GO THROUGH THE IVY LEAGUE.

WE HAVE TO BE CAREFUL ABOUT CAUSATION VERSUS CORRELATION.

YOU LOOKED AT TOP TEN FORTUNE 500 COMPANY CEOS HAD WHAT DID YOU FIND.

OF THE TEN TOP CEOs ONLY ONE WENT TO A SCHOOL THAT YOU OR I WOULD CONSIDER CONVENTIONALLY ELITE, THE REST WENT TO STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOLS.

WHEN YOU LOOK AT SUCCESSFUL PEOPLE IT'S VERY RELEVANT WHAT THEY PUT INTO THEIR COLLEGE EDUCATION, HOW THEY SPENT THAT TIME.

MUCH LESS RELEVANT WHERE THAT SCHOOL WAS OR WHETHER IT'S NAME MADE YOUR HEARTBEAT FASTER.

WHAT DOES MAKE FOR FUTURE SUCCESS?

THERE HAVE BEEN SOME STUDIES AND THIS IS A WONDERFUL ONGOING PROJECT THAT I READ ABOUT, PEOPLE WHO GET DEEPLY INVOLVED IN AN ORGANIZATION IN COLLEGE, THEY TEND TO DO BETTER LATER ON.

PEOPLE WHO DEVELOPED A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH A PROFESSOR WHO IS A MENTOR, THEY TEND TO DO BETTER.

IF YOU GO THROUGH ALL OF THOSE THINGS THAT SEEM TO AUGER BETTER SUCCESS, THEY ARE ALL MEASURES OF ENGAGEMENT.

PEOPLE WHO GET FULLY ENGAGED IN WHAT THEY'RE DOING AND COMMIT TO IT AND ARE PASSIONATE ABOUT IT, THOSE ARE THE PEOPLE WHO ARE SUCCESSFUL WHETHER THEY WENT TO THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS OR MICHIGAN I.T.

HOW DO WE HEAL THIS MANIA BESIDES WRITING BOOKS LIKE THIS.

WE BUY BOOKS.

RIGHT.

WE TELL THE WHOLE STORY.

WE TALK IN A MUCH, MUCH MORE HONEST FULL WAY ABOUT HOW PEOPLE GET WHERE THEY'RE GETTING IN LIFE.

AND THE ANSWER TO THAT IS IT HAS TO DO WITH THINGS THIS HE DID IN HIGH SCHOOL, AFTER COLLEGE.

IT'S SO STRANGE TO ME THAT WE ATTRIBUTE THIS IMAGE TALL POWER TO THESE FOUR YEARS OF COLLEGE OR FOR SOME PEOPLE FIVE OR SIX AS IF THEY ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT YEARS IN LIFE.

THEY ARE IMPORTANT YEARS BUT SO ARE THE YEARS THAT CAME BEFORE AND YEARS THAT COME AFTER AND WE HAVE TO STOP GIVING KIDS THE MESSAGE THAT THIS ONE JUNCTURE WILL DETERMINE THEIR ENTIRE FUTURE.

AN ANTIDOTE TO THE COLLEGE ADMISSIONS MANIA, IT'S A GREAT BOOK AND REALLY DISPELS THE DELUSION THAT IT HRTS US ALL.

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.

♪ ♪

> DID YOU EVER WONDER WHAT MAKES THE WORLD ROUND, THE SKY BLUE OR GIVES EVERY SNOWFLAKE IT'S UNIQUE SHAPE?

WHO HASN'T?

THE ANSWER TO THOSE QUESTIONS ARE NOW HERE IN A WAY THAT ONLY PBS CAN DO.

A NEW PROGRAM FORCES OF NATURE IS A FOUR-PART SERIES THAT EXPLORES HOW WE EXPERIENCE THE NATURAL FORCES THAT SHAPE OUR WORLD AND TAKES A LOOK AT THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS GOVERNING LIFE AND ALL MATTER ON PLANET EARTH.

LET'S TAKE A LOOK.

♪ ♪ ♪

> AND JOINING ME NOW TO DISCUSS THIS SERIES AND MORE IS PBS VICE PRESIDENT OF PROGRAMMING BILL GARDNER.

WELCOME TO THE SHOW.

THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

THIS IS A REALLY INTENSE REALLY THOROUGH SERIES THAT WE'VE GOT HERE.

FIRST OF ALL, TELL ME ABOUT HOW DID YOU GUYS EVEN COME TO SETTLE ON GOING DEEPER INTO THE ISSUE OF SHAPE OR COLOR OR ANYTHING ELSE LIKE THAT?

WELL, ONE OF THE THINGS WE REALLY LOOK FOR IN OUR PROGRAMMING IS WHAT'S DIFFERENTIATED BETWEEN SOMETHING YOU CAN SEE ON PBS.

WE LIKE TO THINK ABOUT THAT AS WAYS TO GO DEEPER.

AS WE LOOK AROUND AT THE THINGS THAT GIVE US WONDER IN THE WORLD THESE ARE THE QUESTIONS THAT COME UP EVEN IF YOU TALK TO A CHILD, WHERE ARE THINGS SHAPED THE WAY THEY ARE, WHAT COLOR THIS, WHAT COLOR IS THAT, IS IT POSSIBLE THAT THE SKY ON ANOTHER PLANET IS VIOLET OR ORANGE.

THAT GAVE US A LOT OF JUMPING OFF POINTS TO EXPLORE THE PLANET AND WE KNEW WE COULD FIND DYNAMIC AND AMAZING STORIES THAT COULD HELP ANSWER SOME OF THESE BIG QUESTIONS IN A SMALL WAY.

GIVEN THE FACT THAT YOU WERE ABLE TO TRAVERSE THE ENTIRE PLANET TO LOOK FOR A LOT OF THESE STORIES CAN YOU TELL ME ABOUT SOME OF THE ONES THAT WERE THE MOST EYE OPENING TO YOU AND YOUR TEAM?

WELL, I THINK THE ONES THAT REALLY ILLUSTRATED THAT THERE IS ALMOST LIKE A SECRET CODE OR A SECRET LANGUAGE OF THE WORLD, THE UNIVERSE, IF YOU WILL, THAT IF YOU JUST KNOW WHERE TO LOOK YOU CAN SEE THESE CLUES.

IT ALLOWS THE AUDIENCE TO HAVE ALMOST LIKE AN EXPERIENCE BY SEEING HOW THINGS WORK.

FOR ME, FOR EXAMPLE, LOOK AT THE WITH A I THAT SHAPE IS ENCODED IN SO MANY OF THE THINGS THAT ARE ALL AROUND US THAT HUMAN TOWER SEQUENCE WHERE THESE CHILDREN CLIMB TO THE TOP OF THIS TOWER THAT'S SUPPORTED BY OLDER MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNITY AND THEY'RE FORMING BEAUTIFUL GEOMETRIC WAYS TO DISSIPATE FORCE AND TRY TO DEFY GRAVITY.

IT'S INTRINSIC THAT THOSE ARE THE SHAPES THAT COME ABOUT.

OR THE DEGREE TO WHICH THESE MOUNTAIN GOATS ARE CLIMBING THAT DAMN FACE SEARCHING FOR ELEMENTS THAT ARE CARRIED BY THE WATER BEHIND THE DAM THAT SEEKS THROUGH IT.

THAT'S DEATH DEFYING CLIMBING.

WHAT COMPELS THEM TO DO THOSE SORTS OF THINGS?

IT'S ALL THOSE DEEP QUESTIONS THAT HAVE ANSWERS ALL OF A SUDDEN THAT EXCITED US AND WE THOUGHT THE AUDIENCE WOULD RESPOND TO.

THERE SEEMS LIKE THERE WAS ALMOST A COMMON THREAD, THOUGH, THAT SEEMED TO CONNECT ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT FORCES OF NATURE, FOR LACK OF A BETTER DESCRIPTION, TOGETHER.

WAS THAT THE INTENDED OUTCOME OR DID THAT JUST SORT OF -- YOU GUYS JUST STUMBLED UPON THAT?

WE DO THINK THAT THERE ARE SYSTEMS THAT ARE OUT THERE IN A LOT OF THINGS THAT WE DO ESPECIALLY IN THE SCIENCE SPACE, IT'S UNDERSTANDING HOW SYSTEMS WORK TOGETHER GIVES YOU A LARGER APPRECIATION BOTH FOR THE PARTS BUT IN THE WHOLE ITSELF.

PHYSICS AND THE EARTH ALL WORK TOGETHER AND I THINK THE MOTION SHOW IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF THAT.

AS THE EARTH IS ROTATING IT'S ALSO HURLING THROUGH THE UNIVERSE AND THAT ACTION IMPACTS THE WAY THAT WE LIVE OUR LIVES AND LIFE AS EVOLVED ON THE PLANET.

EVERYTHING FITS IN TOGETHER IN THIS WAY AND BREAKING THEM ALL DOWN MAKES THE UNDERSTANDING THAT MUCH STRONGER AND THAT MUCH MORE EMOTIONAL BECAUSE YOU FEEL THAT YOU ARE A PART OF IT AND IT'S QUITE AN EXPERIENCE TO WATCH THEM ALL TOGETHER.

AND WITH ALL OF THOSE FORCES WORKING TOGETHER I THINK ONE OF THE THINGS THAT AT LEAST I CAME AWAY WITH WAS A GREATER APPRECIATION FOR THE NATURAL WORLD AROUND ME.

AND I'M WONDERING IF THAT WAS ONE OF THE INTENDED TAKE A WAYS AND FOR PBS IS THERE EVER AN INTENT FOR THE AUDIENCE TO CALL TO ACTION ON THAT OR IS THAT JUST SOMETHING FOR US TO JUST KNOW AND APPRECIATE THAT WE MIGHT NOT HAVE KNOWN BEFORE?

WELL, YOU KNOW, IN TERMS OF IT BEING A CALL TO KS A I WOULDN'T SAY THAT SO MUCH IT'S JUST IN TERMS OF WE ARE OF THE EARTH AND WE ARE OF THE UNIVERSE AND ALL THOSE THINGS ABOUT APPRECIATION FOR NATURE AND PHYSICAL UNIVERSE IT'S NATURAL FOR US TO APPRECIATE IT BECAUSE IT'S US, WE ARE OF IT.

AND IN MANY WAYS I THINK WE DON'T ALWAYS KNOW HOW AND THIS IS AN EFFORT THROUGH THIS SERIES TO SHOW YOU SOME OF THOSE SECRET CODES AND THOSE SECRET LANGUAGE.

COLOR, FOR EXAMPLE, IS A PHYSICAL TANGIBLE THING, DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS GET ABSORB WITH THE ENERGY THEY HOLD AND THAT'S WHY DIFFERENT COLORS DISAPPEAR THE DEEPER YOU GO INTO WATER.

ALL OF THESE THINGS COMING TOGETHER IT'S JUST HOW THE UNIVERSE WORKS AND IN DEEPER APPRECIATION OF HOW IT WORKS I THINK, SURE, YOU ARE GOING TO NATURALLY WANT TO CARE FOR THE EARTH MORE PERHAPS THAN WE HAVE IN RECENT TIMES, BUT IT'S NOT SO MUCH THAT WE'RE TRYING TO ADVOCATE ANY POSITIONS IT'S JUST APPRECIATING WHO WE ARE AND WHAT WE ARE.

WELL, A LOT OF THE SUBJECT THAT THAT WERE BROUGHT UP IN THIS ALSO SEEMED TO BE -- THEY SEEM TO TOUCH ON TOP PICKS THAT YOU DIDN'T KNOW THAT YOU HAD WONDERED OR PERHAPS YOU HAD FORGOT YOU HAD WONDERED ABOUT, YOU FORGOT TO ASK OR MIGHT HAVE BEEN TOO FRIGHTENED TO.

THAT SEEMS TO AS TO THE EYE OPENING EXPERIENCE OF THE SERIES.

I THINK SO.

THE BEST TELEVISION AFFECTS YOU EMOTIONALLY AS WELL AS INTELLECTUALLY AND WITHIN THE SCIENCE SPACE WE WANT TO DO BOTH OF THOSE THINGS.

IT'S GOING TO STICK WITH YOU AND YOU WILL TALK ABOUT IT MORE AND SHARE IT WITH YOUR FRIENDS AND HAVE THAT DEEPER EXPERIENCE YOURSELF IF IT HAS THAT EMOTIONAL COMPONENT.

AND THE STORIES THAT WE TOLD SHOULD ALL HAVE THAT.

MANY OF THEM GO THROUGH HUMAN STORIES OF WHETHER IT'S A FAMILY THAT'S GOING UP IN THIS VOLCANO TO HARVEST SULFUR AND YOU SEE THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THEM.

THAT'S THE WORLD THAT THEY LIVE IN, AT THE SAME TIME YOU'RE GETTING THIS REALLY DEEP EMOTIONAL REACTION TO WHAT THE PEOPLE ARE DOING YOU'RE GETTING REAL SCIENCE IDEAS AND CONTENT THAT GOES NATURALLY THROUGH THAT.

I THINK THAT THAT'S ALL PART OF HAVING THAT EXPERIENCE AND, AGAIN, IT GOES WITH WHAT WE SAID EARLIER ABOUT EVERYTHING BEING A SYSTEM AND WORKING TOGETHER.

WHEN YOU REALIZE YOU ARE A PART OF SOMETHING IT'S THAT MUCH MORE MEANINGFUL.

SO EVEN THOUGH THERE ISN'T A CALL TO ACTION IS THERE ANYTHING THAT YOU WOULD WANT PBS AUDIENCE TOSS TAKE AWAY FROM HAVING SEEN THIS SEVEREES.

FIRST OF ALL, IS THIS IMPORTANT TO SEE THE ENTIRE SERIES OR CAN YOU TAKE ONE CHUNK AT A TIME?

THEY ARE STAND-ALONE EPISODES, TAKEN AS A WHOLE THEY ARE STRONGER THAN THEY ARE SEPARATELY BUT YOU COULD WATCH THEM ALL INDIVIDUALLY.

THE WORLD IS REALLY INTERESTING AND THERE IS A THIRST FOR KNOWLEDGE AND THERE ARE AMAZING AND INTERESTING THINGS ALL AROUND YOU.

WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO IN LARGE MEASURE WITH A LOT OF OUR SCIENCE AND NATURE PROGRAMMING IS PBS IS ISN'T JUST ABOUT EATING YOUR VEGETABLES, THERE ARE A LOT OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES YOU CAN HAVE HERE, TOO, THAT'S WHAT THE WORLD IS LIKE.

IT'S AN AMAZING WONDERFUL PLACE, AS MUCH AS WE CAN TRANSMIT IT TO APPRECIATE IT THEN ALL THE BETTER.

LISTEN, BILL GARDNER, THANK YOU FOR JOINING US AND THANK YOU FOR PRODUCING THIS SERIES.

MY PLEASURE.

THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

AND FORCES OF NATURE PREMIERES WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14th RIGHT HERE ON PBS.

VISIT US ONLINE FOR MORE INFORMATION OR CHECK YOUR LOCAL LISTINGS.

> THIS ENTIRE EPISODE AND OTHER ORIGINAL CONTENT IS NOW AVAILABLE ONLINE AT METROFOCUS.ORG OR ON THE THIRTEEN EXPLORE iPAD OR iPHONE APP AVAILABLE IN iTUNES.

WHILE YOU ARE ON OUR WEBSITE CATCH THE LATEST NEWS, TRAFFIC AND WEATHER REPORT OR TELL US WHAT YOU THINK.

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UNTIL THEN, REMEMBER TO FOLLOW US ON FACEBOOK OR TWITTER FOR UP TO THE MINUTE INFORMATION IMPACTING YOUR COMMUNITY.

WE WILL SEE YOU AGAIN NEXT TIME.

> FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY -- ♪ ♪ METROFOCUS.ORG.

♪♪

Funders

MetroFocus is made possible by James and Merryl Tisch, Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III, the Sylvia A. and Simon B. Poyta Programming Endowment to Fight Anti-Semitism, Bernard and Irene Schwartz, Rosalind P. Walter, Barbara Hope Zuckerberg, Jody and John Arnhold, the Cheryl and Philip Milstein Family, Janet Prindle Seidler, Judy and Josh Weston and the Dr. Robert C. and Tina Sohn Foundation.

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