6/25: Poverty and Children’s Brain Size, Lincoln Center, Still Life Paintings, Martina Arroyo

Neuroscientist and Columbia University assistant professor of pediatrics Kimberly Noble joins anchor Jack Ford to shed light on her recent study, which found a link between poverty and children’s brain size. This week MetroFocus, PBS NewsHour Weekend and NJTV News will all broadcast reports on childhood poverty and brain development as part of the multi-platform public media reporting initiative, Chasing the Dream: Poverty and Opportunity in America.

Former president of Lincoln Center Reynold Levy talks about his time as leader of the cultural institution in his book They Told Me Not to Take That Job: Tumult, Betrayal, Heroics, and the Transformation of Lincoln Center.

Upstate New York-based artist Marc Rubin showcases his still life paintings and the stories he tries to evoke from the everyday objects he paints.

And in an interview with host Rafael Pi Roman, opera singer and Kennedy Center honoree Martina Arroyo discusses her upbringing, her storied career and how she is giving back by teaching the next generation of aspiring opera singers through her Martina Arroyo Foundation.

TRANSCRIPT

> FROM THE WORLD'S LEADING CENTER FOR FINANCE, THE ARTS PUBLISHING, SCIENCE, RESEARCH, MEDIA, INNOVATION AND MUCH MORE, THIS IS METROFOCUS WITH RAFAEL P.

ROMAN.

TONIGHT WITH JACK FORD

WE STARTED ASKING QUESTIONS AS TO WHETHER FAMILY CIRCUMSTANCE WAS RELATED T CHILDREN'S BRAIN STRUCTURE AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT.

LOOKING BACK AT A CAREER AT LINCOLN CENTER

THE PLACE WAS FILLED WITH CONTROVERSY AND THE OPERA WA NOT ONLY ONSTAGE BUT OFF

AND HOW SOPRANO MARTINA ARROYO IS INSPIRING SINGERS.

SAYING THANK YOU IS GIVIN BACK TO THOSE PEOPLE WHO HELPE WHEN I DIDN'T HAVE A CENT.

FUNDING IS PROVIDED BY TH FORD FOUNDATION AND BY THE FOLLOWING -- CORPORATE FUNDING FOR METROFOCUS IS PROVIDED B MUTUAL OF AMERICA.

YOUR RETIREMENT COMPANY.

IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILDHOOD POVERTY AN BRAIN DEVELOPMENT?

A STUDY PUBLISHED IN NATUR NEUROSCIENCE EARLIER THIS YEAR FOUND THAT ON AVERAGE CHILDREN OF POOR FAMILIES HAVE SMALLE BRAINS THAN AFFLUENT CHILDREN.

THE SURFACE OF THEIR CEREBRA CORTEX, THE REGION OF THE BRAI THAT HANDLES LANGUAGE, MEMOR AND REASONING, WAS 6% ON AVERAGE SMALLER.

WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FO EDUCATORS TRYING TO CLOSE TH ACHIEVEMENT GAP BETWEEN RICH AND POOR STUDENTS?

AND WHAT DO RESEARCHERS WANT T KNOW NEXT ABOUT BRAI DEVELOPMENT?

JOINING ME NOW IS DR. KIMBERLY NOBLE, A DEVELOPMENTAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENTIST AS COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY AND CO-AUTHOR OF TH STUDY.

OUR CONVERSATION IS PART OF OU ONGOING REPORTING INITIATIVE CHASING THE DREAM, POVERTY AND OPPORTUNITY IN AMERICA DOCTOR, NICE TO HAVE YOU WIT US

THANK YOU SO MUCH GREAT TO BE HERE

LET'S TALK ABOUT THIS STUDY IT WAS INTERESTING BECAUSE YOU JUST TOLD ME A LITTLE WHILE AG THAT INITIALLY, IT WAS ALL ABOUT TAKING A LOOK AT BRAIN STRUCTURE.

IT WASN'T ABOUT SORT OF IS THERE THIS DISPARITY BETWEEN POOR AN AFFLUENT TELL ME WHAT THE STUDY INITIALLY WAS DOING, HOW IT WAS DOING IT AND WHAT IT WAS HOPEFUL THAT I WOULD DETERMINE.

THE INITIAL STUDY WAS CONNECTED BY A CONSORTIUM OF INVESTIGATORS AT NIN UNIVERSITIES ACROSS THE U.S.

REALLY DESIGNED TO BE SORT O THE DEFINITIVE STUDY LOOKING A BRAIN STRUCTURE ACROSS CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE.

IT WAS REALLY VERY PRECISE I TERMS OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS O BRAIN STRUCTURE OUTCOMES THAT IT WAS LOOKING AT SUBSEQUENT TO ALL THE DATA COLLECTION THAT TOOK PLACE OVE A NUMBER OF YEARS AT THESE UNIVERSITIES, OUR LAB STARTE COLLABORATING WITH THE LAB O DR. ELIZABETH POWELL AND W STARTED ASKING QUESTIONS AS TO WHETHER FAMILY CIRCUMSTANCE WA RELATED TO CHILDREN'S BRAI STRUCTURE AND BRAIN DEVELOPMEN IN THE SAMPLE WHICH WAS TH LARGEST SAMPLE TO DATE LOOKING AT BRAIN STRUCTURE IN FACT WE FOUND THAT THE ANSWER WAS YES.

I WOULD SUSPECT AS SCIENTIST AND RESEARCHER, YOU'RE LOOKING AT ALL SORTS OF STUDIE OVER THE COURSE OF YOU PROFESSIONAL LIFE AND ALL OF A SUDDEN YOU WALK INTO ONE WHERE ALL THIS WORK HAS BEEN DONE AN YOU START LOOKING FOR SOMETHIN DIFFERENT AND IN SOME WAYS YOU ACTUALLY FOUND IT.

IT MUST HAVE BEEN SORT O SOMETHING OF AN A-HA MOMENT FO YOU.

TELL US WHAT IT WAS YOU DI FIND

WE FOUND THERE WERE DISTINC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTS' EDUCATION AND CHILDREN'S BRAIN STRUCTURE AS WELL AS FAMIL INCOME AND CHILDREN'S BRAI STRUCTURE.

IN TERMS OF PARENT EDUCATION, WE SAW THAT FOR EACH YEAR OF ADDE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AMONG PARENTS, WE SAW INCREASE SURFACE AREA OF THE BRAINS O THEIR CHILDREN

ACTUALLY VISIBLY THERE ON THE SCANS?

YEAH -- WELL --

YOU CAN MEASURE IT TO SOM EXTENT

YOU CAN MEASURE IT.

I DON'T KNOW IF YOU WOULD SEE IT WITH THE NAKED EYE BUT YOU COULD MEASURE THE SURFACE AREA WAS GREATER AMONG THE CHILDREN O MORE HIGHLY EDUCATED PARENTS SIMILARLY, AMONG MORE AFFLUENT FAMILIES, PARENT INCOME WA RELATED TO CHILDREN'S BRAI STRUCTURE.

SO CHILDREN FROM MOR ECONOMICALLY ADVANTAGED HOME HAD GREATER SURFACE AREA THA CHILDREN FROM MORE DISADVANTAGED FAMILIES THERE, THE RELATIONSHIP WASN'T LINEAR BUT SOMETHING CALLE LOGORHYTHMIC MEANING THE CHANG WAS GREATEST AT THE LOW INCOME OF INCOME DISTRIBUTION SO DOLLAR FOR DOLLAR, ANY INCREASE I FAMILY INCOME WAS ASSOCIATED WITH RELATIVELY MORE SURFACE AREA AMONG THE MOST IMPOVERISHED FAMILIES

LOOKING AT THIS, AND TRYING TO DRAW SOME CONCLUSIONS, WOUL YOU DETERMINE THEN AS CONSEQUENCE FOR THIS THAT THIS IS AN ABSOLUTE, THIS BASICALLY PREDETERMINES HOW A CHILD IS GOING TO DO?

IS THAT TOO DRAMATIC A STATEMENT?

ABSOLUTELY NOT.

WE KNOW THE BRAIN IS VERY VERY MALLEABLE TO EXPERIENCE.

WE THINK THESE DIFFERENCES REFLECT DIFFERENCES IN EXPERIENCES THAT THESE CHILDRE HAVE HAD AND WE HAVE EVERY REASON TO BELIEVE THAT B CHANGING CHILDREN'S EXPERIENCE THAT MAY LEAD TO AMELIORATION OF THESE FINDINGS

FASCINATING FINDINGS.

WHERE DO THEY TAKE US?

ALONG WITH A TEAM OF SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND NEURO SCIENTIST FROM AROUND THE COUNTRY, WE AR CONNECTING THE FIRST CLINICA TRIAL OF POVERTY REDUCTION WHAT WE ARE PROPOSING TO DO IS RECRUIT A LARGE SAMPLE OF LO INCOME MOMS NATIONALLY AT TH TIME THEY GIVE BIRTH TO THEI CHILDREN AND WE WILL BE ACTUALLY RANDOMIZING FAMILIES TO RECEIV EITHER A LARGE MONTHLY PAYMENT OR MODEST MONTHLY PAYMENT EVER MONTH FOR THE FIRST THREE YEAR OF THEIR CHILDREN'S LIVES.

SO IN THAT WAY, WE WILL ACTUALLY BE ABLE TO DETERMINE THE EXTEN TO WHICH POVERTY REDUCTION CAUSES DIFFERENCES IN BRAI FUNCTION AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT.

SO IT WON'T BE THEN A INSTANCE OF THE COINCIDENCE OF THIS APPEARANCE BUT YOU AR ACTUALLY LOOKING FOR A CAUSAL --

EXACTLY BY ACTUALLY RANDOMIZING FAMILIES IN AN EXPERIMENT SIMILAR TO DRUG TRIAL WHERE YOU GIVE SOME PARTICIPANTS A DRUG AND OTHERS A PLACEBO, YOU WILL GIVE A MODES AND LARGE PAYMENT AND SEEING WHAT ARE THE CASCADING EFFECTS ON CHILDREN'S BRAINS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT.

THE NATURAL CONCLUSION IS AFTER THIS NEXT TEST, WHAT WIL THAT ALLOW US TO DO AS A SOCIETY AND PERHAPS BRINGING THE GOVERNMENT AND OTHER RESEARC INSTITUTIONS, WHAT CAN WE SI DOWN AND SAY TO THEM HERE'S OU RESULTS, AND NOW HERE'S WHAT YOU ALL HAVE TO DO

WELL, SO WE KNOW THAT GENEROSITY OF NUMEROUS SOCIA SERVICES AND BENEFITS AR CONSTANTLY UNDER DEBATE ON CAPITOL HILL SO WE ARE HOPIN THAT THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY WILL REALLY SHED LIGHT ON THOS DEBATES BECAUSE EVEN WHEN WE ARE TALKING ABOUT OUR QUOTE UNQUOTE, LARGE MONTHLY PAYMENT, WE AR TALKING ABOUT $4,000 A YEAR.

SO CERTAINLY WITHIN THE RANGE OF EXISTING SOCIAL SERVICES AND POLICIES, SO WHEN DEBATES ABOU THE GENEROSITY OR CUTS TO THOS SERVICES ARE UNDERWAY, WE AR HOPING THAT THIS STUDY COULD INFORM THOSE DEBATES BY SAYING A POLITICALLY TENABLE ANNUAL AMOUNT MIGHT MAKE CASCADIN DIFFERENCES ON CHILDREN' DEVELOPMENTS THAT MIGHT HAVE LONG-TERM EFFECTS IN TERMS O THINGS LIKE SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT GRADUATION, EMPLOYMENT IN TH WORK FORCE

I HOPE WE CAN TALK AGAIN.

DR. NOBLE, IT'S A PLEASURE THANKS SO MUCH FOR TAKING TIME TO TALK WITH US.

THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

> LINCOLN CENTER IS ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST PROMINENT CULTURA INSTITUTIONS AND CERTAINLY THE COUNTRY'S MOST VIBRANT PERFORMING ARTS DESTINATION.

SO WHY DID SO MANY FRIENDS AND COLLEAGUES TELL REYNOLD LEVY H WAS NUTS WHEN HE BECAM PRESIDENT OF THAT VENERABL INSTITUTION IN 2002?

IN HIS BOOK, THEY TOLD ME NOT TO TAKE THAT JOB, TUMULT, BETRAYA HEROICS AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF LINCOLN CENTER.

HE TALKS OF THE 12 YEARS H SPENT GUIDING LINCOLN CENTER THROUGH A MAJOR CAMPUS REDEVELOPMENT AND MORE THAN FEW CONFLICTS, CHALLENGES AN CRISES HE JOINS ME NOW.

THANKS FOR JOINING US AGAIN.

PLEASURE TO BE HERE

NOW, WHY DID PEOPLE WANT YO TO TURN DOWN THE JOB AND WHY DID YOU IGNORE THEM?

WELL, LINCOLN CENTER WAS PLACE OF CONTROVERSY IN 2002 THE RESIDENT ARTISTI ORGANIZATIONS WERE ANGRY WIT ONE ANOTHER.

MARSHALL ROSE, THE DEVELOPER WHO IS THE HEAD OF REDEVELOPMENT SAID THAT HE WAS STABBED IN TH BACK ON THE WAY OUT.

MY PREDECESSOR WAS IN OFFICE FOR ABOUT NINE MONTHS.

THE METROPOLITAN OPERA HAD DECLARED THAT IT WANTED NOTHIN TO DO WITH REDEVELOPMENT SO THE PLACE WAS FILLED WITH CONTROVERSY AND THE OPERA WA NOT ONLY ONSTAGE BUT OFF

HOW DID YOU TURN IT AROUND?

WELL, IT WAS REALLY GETTING TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THE CONSTITUENTS NEEDED, WANTED AN HOW TO PROVIDE A SET O INCENTIVES THAT WOULD ATTRAC THEIR COOPERATION.

AND ALSO WORKING WITH THOS CONSTITUENTS WHO WERE READY.

SOME WERE READY, SOME WER NOT?

YEAH.

THERE WERE 11 WORLD CLAS ORGANIZATIONS AT LINCOLN CENTE AND SOME WERE PREPARED TO INVEST IN REDEVELOPMENT IN 2002 AND '03 AND OTHERS CAME ALONG IN '05 AND '06.

SO WE WORKED PROGRESSIVELY WIT THOSE WHO WERE READY

TALK ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINCOLN CENTER AND ITS CONSTITUENT ORGANIZATION IS IT LIKE A LANDLORD AN TENANTS?

PART OF IT IS LANDLORD AN TENANT LINCOLN CENTER CONTROLS ALL OF THE PUBLIC SPACES, IT RUNS A UNDERGROUND PARKING GARAGE, IT RUNS SECURITY FOR THE CAMPUS, IT MAKES ARRANGEMENTS FOR A WHOLE VARIETY OF RESTAURANTS ON TH CAMPUS 5.5 MILLION PEOPLE COME TO LINCOLN CENTER ANNUALLY.

IT'S OPEN 24/7 IT HAS 16 ACRES OF PUBLIC SPACE.

PART OF IT IS RAISING MONEY FO THE CONSTITUENTS FROM TH CORPORATE COMMUNITY AND FOR LIVE FROM LINCOLN CENTER ON CHANNEL 13, AND MOST RECENTLY, IT HA BEEN GUIDING AND HELPING T FINANCE THIS $1.2 BILLION OF REDEVELOPMENT.

THE METROPOLITAN OPERA, PETER GELB, ITS GENERAL MANAGER SAID JUST BEFORE NEGOTIATIONS LAS YEAR THAT IT WAS WITHIN THRE YEARS OF GOING BANKRUPT.

HOW DID THAT HAPPEN?

WELL, I AM A HUGE ADMIRER O PETER GELB I THINK HE'S BROUGHT ENORMOU ENERGY, INTELLIGENCE, VIGOR AN STAMINA TO THE OPERA, AND THINK HE'S TAKEN A STEP WHICH IS VERY DRAMATIC.

WITH THE POSSIBLE EXCEPTION OF SIMULTANEOUS TRANSLATION NOTHING HAS DONE MORE TO EXPOS OPERA TO THE WORLD THAN PUTTIN IT IN MOVIE THEATERS ALL AROUN THE WORLD.

SO PETER HAS TAKEN AN ENORMOUS NUMBER OF POSITIVE STEPS BUT B HIS OWN ADMISSION, THERE'S SOMETHING WRONG WITH THE STRATEGY OF THE OPERA.

IT IS NOT MATCHING ITS EXPENSE WITH ITS REVENUE, EARNED AND CONTRIBUTED AND AS A RESULT, IT'S HAD TO DECANT ITS ENDOWMENT IN ORDER TO BALANCE ITS BUDGETS.

YOU CAN'T CONTINUE TO DO THAT.

ALL RIGHT A LOT HAS BEEN MADE IN THE REVIEWS OF YOUR BOOK, HOW YO CRITICIZE SOME PEOPLE, BUT YOU ARE ALSO PRAISING SOME PEOPLE.

IN FACT, YOU TALK ABOUT SOME PEOPLE FROM WHOM YOU LEARNED A LOT.

GIVE US AN EXAMPLE OF ONE OF THOSE PEOPLE

WELL, ONE OF THE MANY SOURCES OF PRIDE AT LINCOLN CENTER I JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER I DON'T THINK THERE'S AN ARTISTIC ORGANIZATION THAT HAS COME SO FAR SO FAST, LED B WINTON MARSALLIS IT OPERATES THREE SPACES IN TH TIME WARNER CENTER WHICH WE AR FOND OF CALLING LINCOLN CENTER SOUTH AND IT HAS DONE SPECTACULAR JOB FOR AUDIENCES, FOR STUDENTS AND FOR YOUNG PEOPLE THE CHAMBER MUSIC SIDE A LINCOLN CENTER UNDER THE ARTISTIC LEADERSHIP OF DAVID FINKEL HAS INJECTED ENORMOUS ENERGY INTO THAT ART FORM.

ONE OF THE PEOPLE YOU PRAIS IN THE BOOK IS DAVID KOCH.

SOMEBODY SAID EVERY TIME NEW YORKERS PASS BY WHAT USED TO B THE NEW YORK STATE THEATER, NO THE DAVID H.KOCH THEATER IS LIKE A POKE IN THE EYE TO NEW YORKERS WHO DON'T AGREE WITH HIS POLITICS BUT YOU PRAISE IT WHY?

BECAUSE LINCOLN CENTER IS NOT A POLITICAL INSTITUTION.

BECAUSE POLITICS STOPS AT TH BORDER WITH LINCOLN CENTER AND AT THE DONOR ROOM.

MANY PEOPLE MAY DISAGREE WIT DAVID KOCH'S POLITICS.

I HAPPEN TO BE ONE OF THEM BUT WHEN IT COMES TO PHILANTHROPY, I HAVE FOUR WORD FOR HIM.

THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

DO YOU HAVE ANY REGRETS ABOUT SOMETHING YOU DID OR DIDN'T DO WHILE YOU WERE PRESIDENT O LINCOLN CENTER

I WISH WE HAD BEEN ABLE T INCORPORATE FISHER HALL, A LARGE AS THE REDEVELOPMENT O LINCOLN CENTER IS, $1.2 BILLIO OF EFFORT AFFECTING MANY, MANY VENUES, ARTISTIC VENUES, PUBLI SPACES, PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, WHILE THAT SEEMS LARGE TO MANY PEOPLE, I WOULD HAVE LIKED IT TO BE JUST A BIT LARGER AND TO HAVE INCORPORATED AVERY FISHER HALL IN THOSE PLANS THAT IS FOR MY SUCCESSOR TO DO

YOU DEDICATE A WHOLE CHAPTE INTO LESSONS LEARNED GIVE US THE ONE BIG LESSON YOU TOOK AWAY FROM YOUR TENURE A LINCOLN CENTER

WHEN YOU ARE AT THE TOP OF VERY LARGE ORGANIZATION, IT IS EASY TO GET EMBROILED IN ITS INTERNAL WORK.

LINCOLN CENTER NEEDS TO BE AUDIENCE-FOCUSED AND STUDENT-FOCUSED.

UNIVERSITIES NEED TO B STUDENT-CENTERED HOSPITALS NEED TO BE PATIENT-CENTERED PUBLIC TELEVISION NEEDS TO B VIEWER-CENTERED.

SO RUNNING AN INSTITUTION, IT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT TO KEEP IN MIND YOU NEED TO DO SO FROM TH OUTSIDE IN, NOT FROM THE INSID OUT.

REMIND YOURSELF OF WHAT YOUR MISSION IS AND STICK TO IT

ALL RIGHT, MR. LEVY THANK YOU SO MUCH.

IT'S BEEN A PLEASURE

THANK YOU

> THE ACT OF PAINTING STIL LIVES WHETHER FLOWERS OR EVERYDAY OBJECTS REQUIRES AN ARTIST TO USE LIGHT AND SHADIN TO TELL A STORY.

WSKG INTRODUCES US NOW TO MARC RUBIN AN UPSTATE NEW YOR PAINTER WITH A PASSION FOR THI CLASSIC ART FORM SNOEDZ

I'M A REPRESENTATIONA PAINTER.

I PAINT FROM LIFE, NOT FRO PHOTOGRAPHS.

I TYPICALLY PAINT ONE TO ONE WHICH IS LITERALLY ONE TO ON SCALE.

BUT THE SIZE YOU SEE ON TH PAINTING IS THE SIZE OF TH OBJECT I'M PAINTING.

IT'S THESE LITTLE MAGICAL POOL OF LIGHT YOU WALK BY SOMETHING, I STRIKES YOU, THE HIGHLIGHTS AR KIND OF REMBRANDT STUFF THAT GETS ME EXCITED.

WHEN I SEE SOMETHING THA CATCHES MY ATTENTION IN THAT MOMENT I TRY TO BRING IT BACK TO THE STUDIO AND RECREATE THAT FEELING, THEN PAINT IT I PAINT WITH OIL TYPICALLY MASONITE I DO USE SOME CANVAS BUT I LIK THE HARDNESS AND PUSH-BACK WIT THE BRUSH ON MASONITE.

I PAINT FROM LIFE.

PAINTING FROM LIFE, YOU SEE TH THREE DIMENSIONS THEY ARE NOT FLATTENED OUT BY PHOTOGRAPH IT'S NOT FAKE.

THE SHADOWS HAVE DEPTH AND COLOR.

I PAINT FROM THE NORTH LIGHT AND THE SHADOWS ARE TYPICALLY RED ON THE WARM SIDE, THE HIGHLIGHT ARE BLUE, REFLECTING THE SKY I STUDIED WITH TOM BEAKNER FOR TEN YEARS.

HE'S BEEN MY MENTOR, FRIEND.

HE TAUGHT ME MORE THAN JUS PAINTING HE TAUGHT ME THE LOVE OF CLASSICAL MUSIC, THE LOVE OF OPERA.

HE INTRODUCED ME TO MANY MAN BOOKS AND ARTIST IS WASN'T AWARE OF HIS PROCESS IS A RENAISSANCE PROCESS, PASSED ALONG FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION THE DUTCH PAINTERS, REMBRANDT, MANY, MANY OTHERS OF THAT ER THAT I FEEL I'M CONNECTED TO THAT THAT'S PART OF THE RESPONSIBILITY I FEEL AS A ARTIST AND AS ACCOMPLISHED AS AM TO GO BACK AND PASS THA ALONG, KEEP THAT LINEAGE GOING I AM IN FIVE DIFFERENT GALLERIES AROUND THE EAST COAST.

A COUPLE MAJOR ONES ARE THE FA GALLERY IN PHILADELPHIA, THE ZENITH GALLERY IN WASHINGTON D.C. AND THE SOUTH STREE GALLERY ON LONG ISLAND IT'S REALLY ABOUT SEEING AND CONTINUALLY GOING FOR THE MORE REPRESENTATIONAL AND THE TRUMP LOIL, TO GIVE YOU THE ILLUSION THINGS ARE COMING AT YOU USUALLY A SHADOW OR EDGE THA BRINGS THINGS MORE FORWARD I LIKE THE THREE DIMENSIONALIT OF THINGS.

I LIKE OLD THINGS.

I LIKE THINGS THAT HAVE HISTORY.

THERE'S A NARRATIVE USUALLY TO THE WORK I DO, LIKE THE TOMATOES ON THE FLOOR BEHIND ME I WALKED INTO A LOCAL GROCER STORE AND THEY WERE KIND O LEANING THERE.

THEY LOOKED LIKE FRIENDS, LIKE THEY KNEW EACH OTHER FOR A LON TIME SO I TRIED TO CREATE THA FEELING THAT I HAD WHEN I WALKED THROUGH THAT SUPERMARKET AND RECREATED THAT FEELING THROUGH THAT LITTLE MOMENT THAT I WA INTERPRETING THE BRUSH IS SUCH AN AMAZING TOOL, WHEN YOU HAVE ALL TH TECHNOLOGY OF TODAY, THE BASIC LITTLE BRUSH THAT THE CAVE GUY USED ON THE WALLS, IT'S PRETTY AMAZING.

♪♪

> EARLY IN HER OPERATI CAREER, THE 'NEW YORK TIMES' PRAISED MARTINA ARROYO AS QUOTE, ONE OF THE MOST GORGEOUS VOICE BEFORE THE PUBLIC.

SHE BECAME A STAR AT THE METROPOLITAN OPERA AND PERFORMED IN ALL THE GREAT OPERA HOUSES TF WORLD FOR OVER 30 YEARS.

AFTER SHE RETIRED FROM THE STAGE, MISS ARROYO BEGAN A SECOND CAREER AS AN EDUCATOR FIRST IN UNIVERSITIES AND THEN BEGINNING IN 2003, THROUGH THE MARTINA ARROYO FOUNDATION, WHOSE CHIEF TASK HAS BEEN TO HEL TALENTED YOUNG SINGERS DEVELOP ALL THEIR PROFESSIONAL SKILLS.

JOINING ME NOW TO TALK ABOUT HER LIFE, HER WORK AND HOW SHE'S GIVING BACK THROUGH HE FOUNDATION IS MARTINA ARROYO MARTINA, WHAT AN HONOR THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US TODAY.

IT'S MY PLEASURE.

I'M HAPPY TO SEE YOU AGAIN

THANK YOU SO MUCH SO MARTINA, YOU GREW UP IN HARLEM IN A HOME WHERE YOU PARENTS WANTED TO EXPOSE YOU AND YOUR OLDER BROTHER TO ART AN CULTURE.

WAS OPERA PART OF THAT

NOT REALLY.

FIRST OF ALL, MY OLDER BROTHER WAS 16 1/2 YEARS OLDER SO WE WEREN'T REALLY DOING THING TOGETHER HE WAS ALREADY IN THE ARMY AND HAVING HIS OWN LIFE.

DAUGHTER TOOK ME TO ANYTHING THEY HAD NEVER BEEN TO THEY TOOK ME TO MUSEUMS THEY HAD NEVER VISITED.

MY MOTHER LEARNED MORE ABOUT ART AND HISTORY THAN I DID AND A THE SAME TIME EXPOSED ME TO MANY THINGS I MIGHT NOT HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO HAD SHE NOT CARED THAT MUCH ABOUT EDUCATION.

TO CUT TO 1965, THE YEAR OF YOUR BIG BREAK, WHAT HAPPENED ON THAT FATEFUL NIGHT THAT CHANGE YOUR LIFE?

WELL, I WAS CALLED IN A COUPLE DAYS BEFORE AND SAID MR BING IS MAKING IT VERY CLEAR THAT HE WILL GIVE ME THE CHANC BUT IF IT DIDN'T WORK, THAT WA PRETTY MUCH GOING TO BE IT SO I WENT ONSTAGE AND I THINK, I'M NOT LYING TO YOU, THAT YOU COULD HEAR BACK IN HARLEM TH GROANS FROM THE METROPOLITAN OPERA.

WHEN IT WAS ANNOUNCED -

WHEN IT WAS ANNOUNCED NIELSEN WAS NOT SINGING.

NOT SO MUCH THAT I WAS REPLACING HER BUT THAT SHE WASN'T SINGING.

EVEN MY FRIENDS WERE DISAPPOINTED

THAT'S BEFORE YOU SANG.

BEFORE THE SINGING.

BUT BY THE END OF THE OPERA, I WAS KIND OF WONDERFUL.

YOU'RE KIND OF UNDERSTATING IT YOU GOT AN INCREDIBLE STANDING OVATION.

YES

INCREDIBLE WRITE-UPS IN THE 'NEW YORK TIMES.

AND A CONTRACT FOR THE METROPOLITAN OPERA AM I WRONG

YOU'RE NOT WRONG, BUT I ALWAYS BELIEVE AND I HAVE SAID IT OVER AND OVER AGAIN TO TH YOUNG PEOPLE, THE AUDIENCE WIL NOT LET YOU DOWN IF YOU DO WHA YOU'RE SUPPOSED TO DO, ESPECIALLY A NEW YORK AUDIENCE I THINK THE NEW YORK AUDIENCE IS ONE OF THE BEST IN THE WORLD

YOU QUIT THE STAGE IN 1989.

RIGHT?

PRETTY MUCH

AND BEGAN TO TEACH.

I HAD BEGUN TO TEACH SOONER THAN THAT.

I THINK WHEN YOU START TEACHIN YOU HAVE TO -- IT'S NOT A DEAT KNELL IN ANY WAY BUT IT STARTS MAKING PEOPLE THINK OH, THEY DON'T WANT TO PERFORM ANYMORE, THEY'RE OUT THERE TEACHING THE FANS FOLLOW YOUR LIFE.

THEY KNOW WHEN YOU'RE TEACHING I STARTED TEACHING IN '85 SIMPLY BECAUSE I HAD BEEN ASKED TO AN I WANTED -- I LOVE YOUNG PEOPL SO THE TEACHING STARTED AND THEN I THOUGHT WELL, I CAN'T RUN AL OVER THE WORLD AND KEE EVERYTHING AT A PARTICULAR LEVEL AND AS THE TEACHING BECAME MOR AND MORE IMPORTANT, AND MY CONTRACTS BECAME FEWER AND FEWER, TO BE PERFECTLY HONEST, THE TEACHING JUST TOOK OVER.

AND WE FINALLY DECIDED AFTER SOME YEARS THAT IT WAS NOT JUS A MATTER OF TEACHING, IT WAS NOT TEACHING VOICE I WAS PARTICULARLY INTERESTED IN TEACHING CHARACTER AND WORKING IN THE LANGUAGES SO I WANTED TO WORK IN THA AREA THAT'S WHAT OUR PROGRAM IS ABOUT.

YOUR PROGRAM YOU ARE TALKIN ABOUT THE MARTINA ARROYO FOUNDATION

WHICH HAS THE PRELUDE T PERFORMANCE.

LET'S TALK ABOUT TH FOUNDATION TALK ABOUT THE FOUNDATION.

WHAT EXACTLY IS IT AND HOW DID IT LEAD TO PRELUDE T PERFORMANCE?

IT STARTED OUT WITH A ROL CLASS.

A ROLE CLASS OF 10 OR 12 YOUNG PEOPLE THAT EACH STUDIED A ROLE, TALKING ABOUT THE LANGUAGE TALKING ABOUT THE CHARACTER, ACTING IT OUT ON OUR OWN, AN THEN WE REALIZED THAT THAT HAD TO BE ORGANIZED SO THE FOUNDATION WAS FORMED BECAUSE OF THAT ROLE CLASS IN A WAY AFTER WE -- THE FOUNDATION WAS REALIZED AND THE ROLE CLASS WA DOING WELL, WE THOUGHT WELL, WHY NOT PUT ON AN OPERA.

SO THAT'S PRELUDE T PERFORMANCE.

THAT'S PRELUDE TO PERFORMANCE.

THE ROLE CLASS STILL EXISTS.

PRELUDE TO PERFORMANCE, HOW DOES IT WORK

THERE'S NO LONGER A TUITION WE USED TO HAVE A TUITION.

NOW IT'S FREE

NOW IT'S FREE THIS YEAR FOR THE FIRST TIME W WILL HAVE STIPENDS

NOT ONLY IS IT FREE, YO ACTUALLY PAY THE STUDENTS --

YOU DON'T WANT TO CALL IT PAY.

IT'S A STIPEND IT HELPS

THE SINGERS COME FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD AND ALL OVER THE UNITED STATES

SO YOU PICK ABOUT 30 OUT OF HUNDREDS

WE TRY TO HAVE ONE OPERA WITH DIALOGUE SO PEOPLE GET TO WORK ON THAT.

VERY VERY OFTEN THE TEAM IS NO GIVEN THE AMOUNT OF TIME THAT IT NEEDS IN THE SCHOOLS WE ARE A PROGRAM, NOT A COMPANY.

YOU HAVE SAID THE FOUNDATIO HAS BEEN YOUR MEANS OF GIVIN BACK WHY DO YOU FEEL THE NEED TO GIVE BACK WEREN'T YOU GIVING BACK EVER TIME YOU SANG?

EVERY TIME I SANG I WAS RECEIVING.

I WAS RECEIVING THE PRAISES AN LOVE OF THE PEOPLE I EVEN RECEIVED SOME MONEY EVERY ONCE IN AWHILE BUT GIVING BACK MEANS SAYING THANK YOU TO THOSE PEOPLE THAT HELPED WHEN I DIDN'T HAVE CENT WHEN MY PARENTS COULDN'T AFFOR TO SEND ME TO A LOT OF VOICE TEACHERS, THERE WERE THOSE FEW PEOPLE THAT GAVE MONEY FOR THAT, THAT FOLLOWED ME THROUGH M CAREER, AND WERE MY FAMILY, MY PROFESSIONAL FAMILY, AND I CANNOT PAY THEM BACK MOST OF THEM ARE GONE.

BUT THIS WAY YOU PAY BACK AN EVERY ONE OF THESE ARTISTS THA WORKS IN OUR PROGRAMS KNOWS THAT PAYING BACK, REACHING YOUR HAN OUT AND SAYING COME ALONG, I THE WAY WE HAVE TO DO IT WE HAVE NO BOOKS THAT TELL YOU HOW TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL PERFORMER.

NOT ONLY OPERA SINGER BU PERFORMER.

SO IT'S MOST IMPORTANT THAT WE GIVE BACK.

IN 2013, YOU BECAME A KENNEDY CENTER HONOREE PROBABLY THE GREATEST HONOR AN ARTIST CAN RECEIVE IN THIS COUNTRY.

IN ANY COUNTRY.

IS THERE ANY PART OF THAT EXPERIENCE THAT PARTICULARLY STICKS OUT FOR YOU

WELL, WHEN I REALIZED THA ONE OF THE FIRST TIMES M HUSBAND AND MY MOTHER WERE NOT THERE, AND THEY MEANT A LOT TO ME THEY MEANT EVERYTHING TO M GROWTH AND SUCCESS AND THE WEREN'T THERE TO SHARE IT.

I WOULD HAVE GIVEN ANYTHING TO LOOK AROUND AND SEE THEM ANYTHING BUT THEN THE STUDENTS WERE THERE AND THEY WERE AS CRAZY AND HAPPY AS I WAS I DON'T KNOW IF YOU COUL IMAGINE WHAT WAS GOING ON WHEN I REALIZED THAT THEY WERE THER AND THEY WERE LOOKING --

I SAW THE CLOSEUPS.

IT WAS JUST WOW IT WON'T EVER HAPPEN AGAIN LIK THAT

MARTINA, I CAN'T TELL YOU HOW MUCH OF AN HONOR THIS HAS BEEN

IT'S BEEN MY HONOR AN PLEASURE

THANK YOU SO MUCH

SEE YOU AGAIN

THAT'S IT FOR THIS EDITION.

JOIN US AGAIN NEXT WEEK FO NEWS, CONVERSATIONS AND IN-DEPTH REPORTING FROM NEW YORK AND NE JERSEY PUBLIC TELEVISION I'M JACK FORD.

THANKS FOR WATCHING.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WA PROVIDED BY THE J.P.B.

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Funders

MetroFocus is made possible by Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III, the Sylvia A. and Simon B. Poyta Programming Endowment to Fight Anti-Semitism, Bernard and Denise Schwartz, Barbara Hope Zuckerberg, Janet Prindle Seidler, Jody and John Arnhold, the Cheryl and Philip Milstein Family, Judy and Josh Weston and the Dr. Robert C. and Tina Sohn Foundation.

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