...Alkalinity...

Chase and Kanoe 

Alkalinity is a condition in water that develops over time from hydrogen carbonates and hydroxides from minerals and rocks, for example Limestone. Alkalinity is a buffer that gives water the ability to neutralize acids. If water cannot neutralize acids the pH level will rise above normal causing harm to aquatic life. pH is a the measurement of the acidity of liquids. As a result, high alkalinity levels are actually good for aquatic life. Unlike most other measurements, high alkalinity is good and low alkalinity is bad. High alkalinity shows that the liquid has a the capability to neutralize high amounts of acid as a result the pH level remains safely between 7 and 8. Low alkalinity shows that the liquid has problems neutralizing acids and because of this the pH level can drop below 7. This can cause harm to animal life and the water cycle.

The Water Cycle

The water cycle is earths primary trail of water. The cycle plays a very big part in our planets eco system. If one part of the water cycle is contaminated all of water cycle is polluted and they will run off into the surrounding environment. Alkalinity is thankfully most concentrated in the ground, so any water that travels in the ground will be neutralized. If there are danger use pollutants in the air they will bond with the oxygen molecules and fall to earth in precipitation after condensation in the clouds. Then, Acid Rain falls into rivers and lakes.

The Normal amounts of Alkalinity:

River Water is between 100 and 250 mg/l.
Fresh water amounts range from 20-200 mg/l.
Seawater amounts on average are 100-125 mg/l. 

Testing Our Water!

The goal of our tests wear to identify the ppm (parts per million levels) of filtered and unfiltered upper Hudson River water along with tap water and well water.

Methods.

First we took a 5-ml sample of all the waters that we were testing.

Note: ALL OF THE SAMPLES ARE SAME!, PROCEDURE APPLIES TO ALL!

To each sample we added a Bromcresol Green-Methyl Red Indicator Tablet. (BCG-MR).

Place a cap over the tube and shake the tube so that the pill completely dissolves.

When the pill completely dissolves it will indicate if there is a Alkalinity level.

If the sample turns pink it is a indication that the water has no Alkalinity level, If the sample turns blue it indicates that there is a alkalinity level.

To measure PPM or parts per million of alkalinity fill a direct reading tube with Alkalinity Titration Reagent B, or Sulfuric Acid 30%. Fill the tube until the acid reaches Zero 0.

To record the PPM level inject the acid into the blue sample with lightly shaking.

When the sample turns pink it is indicating that the Alkalinity level has been neutralized. record how much of the acid you injected into the sample, that number is your PPM level.

Test Results.

Hudson Water
80 ppm
Purified Hudson Water
60 ppm
School of the Future Water (4th floor)
60 ppm
Well Water
220 ppm

Conclusion

All of our tests came back with positive results confirming that the alkalinity levels are within normal standards. This means that all our water should be safe and capable of neutralizing low pH  levels, which are harmful to animal life and destroy the water cycle. It is good to know that all of the water we drink is capable of staying clean.

Sources

 

- www.ozreef.org
- www.rainsoft.com