## Sweet or Sour, Like or Different Grades K-2

In this lesson students will observe, compare and contrast differences in objects. Comparisons of differences among people and lemons will be made, to help students understand that differences make individuals unique. They will use math skills to calculate and evaluate differences and graph their findings. They will use different objects to create repeating patterns and respond to the essential question: Are patterns alike or different?
Mathica's Workshop #2: The King Comes Calling

TV Ontario
(919) 380-0747
Students will be able to:
• Recognize, describe, extend, and create a wide variety of patterns.
• Graph collected data to relate physical materials to mathematical ideas.
• Determine ways objects that are alike and different can be used to create patterns.
• Compare and contrast in a variety of ways.
Per class:
• Pencil
• Paper
• Lemons (one per student or per group)
• Sugar
• Water
• My Lemon is Unique worksheet
• 4" x 24" colored paper strips
• 5-6 die-cut shapes (fifty of each shape)
Vocabulary:
• Different
• Same
• Pattern
Time Required:
• Two 1-hour class periods

Make two columns on the chalkboard. Write "Like" over the first column and "Different" over the second. As a group, brainstorm examples such as: Like: young/baby, Different: black/white. Let students work with a partner, and time them for 5 minutes while they brainstorm a list. Afterwards, share examples. Give sour lemon candies to the partners that have the largest list.
It is important that students have something specific to look for when viewing the tape. Students will view three short segments of the video. Ask students the following question for the first segment: "Who is Mathica, and what is her job?" This segment helps introduce students to the video series. During the next segment ask students to look for different ways to sort items. For the last segment have students brainstorm how students in the class are alike and different.
START the video at the beginning for a brief explanation of Mathica and the workshop.
PAUSE the video after the song about Mathica. Ask students, "Who is Mathica and what is she doing?" Have a class discussion.

For the second segment of the video push PLAY and view ways the kings are alike and different.
PAUSE after the sign appears that says "How many ways can you sort the king's pictures?" Have students list different ways they would sort the cards.

After the discussion push PLAY and view the third segment until the voice says, "Gee, who would of thought there would be so many ways to sort things."
Next, students will play the game "Like/Different." Divide the classroom in half. Designate one side of the room for things that are alike, the other side for things that are different. Two students will come to the front of the class and pick a way to sort the students. If students have something in common with the choice they are to stand in the area of the room classified "Like." Those who do not have anything in common will go to the area designated "Different." Allow several students to choose the classifications. Examples for sorting might include: color of an item of clothing, loose tooth, long hair/short hair, places they have traveled to, favorite food, etc.

Assign a couple of students to be scribes. Have them write down the various classifications and the number of students in each category of like/different. After the activity have students make bar graphs of their findings.

Ask students how they felt during the game "Like/Different." Ask if they felt comfortable when they were the only one who was different or when they were different from their friends. Explain that sometimes when a person feels different from others they feel left out and alone. The next exercise demonstrates that everyone has differences, but that is what makes each individual unique and special.

Give a lemon to each student (if purchasing a lemon for each student is cost-prohibitive, ask students to donate one, or group students into teams with one lemon per team.) Have students study their lemon closely and fill out the My Lemon is Unique worksheet.

Ask for volunteers to introduce their lemon to the class. Afterward, allow 5-10 minutes for the rest of the students to circulate around the room, introducing their lemon to the other lemons in the class.

Collect all of the lemons in a basket, and place them in the front of the room. Draw a Venn diagram on the blackboard.

(Figure 1: Venn diagram)

Explain that, just like people, no two lemons are alike, though they may have characteristics that are similar and different. Take two lemons from the basket. On the chalkboard, generate a list of characteristics about both lemons, using a Venn diagram. Write the characteristics of the first lemon in the first circle and the characteristics of the second lemon in the second circle. Items that both have in common should be written in the overlapping segment of the circles.

After completing this exercise, challenge students to find their lemon. Have students share the various ways they identified their lemon. Compare ways the lemons were alike and different. (They will use blemishes, shape, etc., to identify their lemon.) Point out that all of the lemons were from the same fruit species, but blemishes and growth patterns made them different. People are a lot like lemons. All people belong to the human species, but people, like lemons, have features, abilities, likes, and dislikes that make each individual different and unique. Discuss differences that are visible on the surface, such as size, skin color, physical impairments, where a person lives, etc. Also talk about inner differences that make individuals feel different, e.g., some people are good at reading, doing math, jumping the rope, playing soccer, etc.

Explain to the students that people sometimes think differences are imperfections or blemishes, and they become sour toward that individual. Remind them that a lemon has a different, very sour taste, but it makes yummy, thirst-quenching lemonade when sugar is added. Sugar is acceptance of differences. Encourage students to accept the differences in their classmates so no one will feel alone or left out.

Make lemonade from the mix. Incorporate math measurement skills as lemonade is made and shared with the class.

Place the students' names in a jar. Have students pass the jar around the room and take a name from the jar. If students pull out a name that is a close friend's, have them choose again. The students will write a gratitude letter to this chosen classmate. The letter should include a list of admired inner and outer qualities. Have the students give the letters to their classmates.
Math:
Group students. Cut colored butcher paper in 4" x 24" strips. Die-cut 5-6 different shapes, such as various fruits, animals, geometric figures, etc. You will need a stack of each shape. Have students glue shapes in various patterns on the butcher paper. Then they will pass their pattern to the next group, and that group must describe the pattern and predict the next element of the pattern.

Social Studies:
Have students decorate and dress a lemon. They are to care for the lemon as if it were their child. After the activity, talk about the responsibilities they assumed, qualities a parent should have, different ways to give good care, etc.

P.E.:
In this game of follow the leader, players must find the leader. Players form a large circle. A player is chosen to be IT, who leaves the room. A leader is chosen from those who remain. The leader begins to perform actions, and the group follows. (Explain to players that they are trying to fool IT, and not to be obvious when they watch the leader.) Call IT back into the room. The leader continues performing different actions, with the rest of the group mimicking. IT may need prompting, such as, "Who are the players watching? Who is doing the actions first? etc." Give IT three guesses to find the leader. If IT guesses correctly, IT becomes the leader, and someone else leaves the room.

Music:
Have students listen to music that has a repeating phrase. Have them repeat the phrase. They could write additional verses to the song. Write the phrase on cards, hold up the card, and have them sing along with the song. Examples of songs could be: "What a Wonderful World," "Where Have All The Flowers Gone," or "She'll Be Coming 'Round The Mountain."
Click here to view the worksheet associated with this lesson.

### Master Teacher: Terri Denney

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