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Grades K - 2


This lesson is designed to introduce the concept of patterns to primary level children. The students will have an opportunity to identify, create, and extend patterns, through a variety of large group, small group, and independent activities. The ITV video series Mathica's Mathshop will be incorporated into the lesson to challenge the students' pattern extending skills.
ITV Series
"Mathica's Mathshop: Sweet Dreams (#5)"
Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
Per Student
Per Group
Per Class
Pre-Viewing Activities
Day 1

Tell the students: Today in class we will use only our ears to solve some pattern puzzles. Begin by playing record of simple rhythm stick tapping pattern. Say: Listen carefully to this sound puzzle pattern. Repeat the recording if necessary. Ask: Can you play the same pattern on your rhythm sticks? The group of students will repeat the sound pattern using sets of rhythm sticks. Continue introducing additional sound patterns from the record for the students to repeat. Be sure to allow each student or pairs of students an opportunity to demonstrate a sound pattern. (Any available rhythm instrument -- wrist bells, tambourine, clappers, or drums may be substituted for this activity. If rhythm pattern records are not available hand jive patterns may be demonstrated by the teacher and repeated by the children: clap-clap-snap-clap-clap-snap; stomp-clap-stomp-clap.)

Co-operative learning teams will now be assigned by the teacher with two students per team -- a 'recorder' and a 'problem solver'. Say: Now it is your turn to be the Pattern Puzzlers! 'Recorders', you may each tape record an original sound pattern with your rhythm sticks. Your partner will try to copy and repeat the sound pattern on the tape. 'Recorder', be sure to state your name into the microphone before you begin to tape your sound pattern. Provide a quiet area for the 'recorders' to complete their taping. A Listening Center in the classroom or a quiet hallway or conference room may be substituted. When each of the 'recorders' have completed taping, they are to return to the discussion group. While 'problem solvers' are waiting for their teammates to complete the sound pattern recordings, continue the pattern puzzle record with more difficult rhythm patterns to copy and repeat. The two member teams will alternate the roles of 'recorder' and 'problem solver'.

Day 2

Tell students: Using only our ears we could hear sound pattern puzzles. Now using only your eyes can you see any repeating patterns in our own classroom? (Examples may include: color arranged building blocks/ geo-board pegs/ peg board designs/ student desks and chairs/ wall, floor, and ceiling tiles/ locker doors/ windows.) Record student responses onto sentence strip paper. After identifying several patterns, guide the class in naming the different categories of patterns: 1) repeating color, 2) repeating shape, or 3) repeating size. Ask: How can we sort each of our patterns into these three categories on the pocket chart? Label the categories at the top of the pocket chart. Older students may choose to record and categorize the examples independently.
Focus Viewing
The children will be challenged to a battle of wits with the Wicked Witch in Mathica's Mathshop. Students should be seated with their co-operative learning group partner on the floor in a semi-circle in front of the TV/VCR. Say: Today the Mathmagician has some Pattern Puzzles for the Wicked Witch to solve. Let's see if we can solve them before the Wicked Witch does.

Viewing Activities
Day 3

tape with the scene of the Mathmagician challenging the Witch to solve the three riddles; "Care for a game of cards?" The first board of puzzle cards will be introduced.

PAUSE after board of cards is introduced, "What card comes next?" Say: Can you and your partner tell the Mathmagician what card comes next in the puzzle pattern? Allow time for the teams of students to discuss possible solutions. Identify the answer cards on the television screen as A, B, C, & D. Have each team report their decisions to the class by a show of hands. Discuss with the children in which category this pattern belongs. Review the categories: color, shape, and size on the pocket chart. (Lesson 2 Activity)

RESUME to check solution and continue tape to introduction of the second board of cards.

PAUSE after introduction of puzzle board, "What card comes next in this pattern?" Say: With your partner, can you select the next card in this pattern puzzle? As this choice is not a picture pattern but rather a directional pattern, tell the students: The Mathmagician has a little clue to assist in your problem solving.

RESUME tape with the Mathmagician's clue, "The pattern is in the cards themselves."

PAUSE immediately following the clue. Students again team with their partners to decide upon the next card in the pattern. When students have come to a decision, again discuss in which category this pattern belongs: color, shape, or size.

RESUME to confirm students' answers. Continue tape for viewing the third puzzle; cue: "How many cards will build the next staircase?"

PAUSE upon viewing the complete pattern riddle board. Allow partners to distribute cups of color tiles to be used as manipulatives in solving the riddle. Students should copy the pattern from the television screen using their tiles and proceed with their partner to solve the puzzle. Say: Now how could this pattern be continued using your color tiles? Have teams share their results with the class, upon solving the pattern extension.

RESUME to find that the students have outsmarted the Witch! Review the categories for each riddle pattern (Riddles 1&2 -- shape, and Riddle 3 -- size) and include them each on the class pocket chart. (Lesson 2 Activity)

FAST FORWARD to Mathica and the extended box pattern.

RESUME to introduce extending the pattern in all four directions.

PAUSE when Mathematician says: "How can you extend the pattern?" Allow students time to experiment with copying and extending similar patterns using the color tiles.

RESUME to reveal possible extensions of the pattern.
Post-Viewing Activities
Days 4 & 5

The activities may be completed as large group activities, by supplying the necessary materials to each student. Math Lab Sessions could also be implemented allowing teams of students to rotate throughout the lab independently, completing each math center activity. This method requires greater independence and organizational skills from the students, as they are responsible for completing each center, as well as, independently recording data in journals or portfolios.

Student Rotation Schedule
Use the following Student Rotation Schedule for Math Lab Sessions: (Teams A-G, Centers 1-7)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 3 4 5 6 7 1
3 4 5 6 7 1 2
4 5 6 7 1 2 3
5 6 7 1 2 3 4
6 7 1 2 3 4 5
7 1 2 3 4 5 6

Math Lab Centers
Teachers: Please use your "on hand" classroom supplies, and manipulatives, as well as your "resourcefulness" to create these Math Lab Centers. Purchased manipulatives are suggested here, but are not required. Clip art manipulatives can be substituted. One suggestion: Clip Art Collection 1 & 2 by Janet Dellosa and Patti Carson. From the "Stick Out Your Neck" series, published by Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company, Greensboro North Carolina, 1988.

Action Plan

1 Take students on walking tours to observe and record patterns in their everyday environment:
·Playground: jungle gym, swings, hopscotch board, jump rope
·Cafeteria: table settings, trays, refrigerator doors
·Office Buildings: doors, windows, elevator doors
·Neighborhood: traffic signals, crossing guard signs
·Grocery Store: scanner, displays of cans and boxes

2 Take students to the school's computer lab to access math software regarding pattern puzzles. (One suggestion: Math & Me, Davidson.)

3 Patterns at home (kitchen, garage, bedroom): children can illustrate floor maps or dioramas of each room with examples of 'at home' patterns.

4 Recycling toss-outs: children can construct the Super Hero known as 'Powerful Pattern Person' using buttons, egg cartons, paper towel cylinders, etc. (Example: 3 eyes, 3 ears, 3 arms.)

5 Invite an interior designer to the classroom to discuss and demonstrate design patterns.

Language Arts:
Poetry rhyming patterns (AABBCC) Alphabet Patterns (capital and lower case) Tongue Twisters (Peter Piper Picked a Peck)

2 Music: Rhythm instruments -- repetitions Keep the beat -- beat of drum to choral music 3/4 time as compared to 4/4 time signature Songs Reference Texts: The Everything Book for Teachers of Young Children by Valerie Indenbaum and Marcia Shapiro; Circle Time Activities for Young Children by Deya Brashears and Sharron Werlin Krull; Year Round Activities for Four Year Old Children by Anthony J. Coletta and Kathleen Coletta

3 Math: Calendar (days, months, years), building blocks (extending patterns in all directions), geo-boards (copying patterns), place value rods (repeating patterns), symmetry with mirrors and attribute blocks (copy and extend patterns), peg boards (create linear or extending patterns)

4 Art: Weaving patterns (using paper or fabric) Potato Prints/ Sponge Prints/ Stencils

5 Healthh: Daily patterns (wake/ dress/ eat/ school) chart each day for five days to find any patterns

6 Social Studies: Personal Time Lines (height and weight growth patterns)

7 Science: Kitchen science patterns -- chart water freezing and melting times (make your own Koolaid popsicles)

Master Teacher: Diane Pakler

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