the theory of multiple intelligences (M.I.)?
Howard Gardner claims that all human beings have multiple
intelligences. These multiple intelligences can be nurtured and
strengthened, or ignored and weakened. He believes each individual has
Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence -- well-developed verbal skills and
sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of
Mathematical-Logical Intelligence -- ability to think conceptually
and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical
Musical Intelligence -- ability to produce and appreciate
rhythm, pitch and timber
Visual-Spatial Intelligence -- capacity to think in images
and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence -- ability to control
one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully
Interpersonal Intelligence -- capacity to detect and respond
appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others.
Intrapersonal Intelligence -- capacity to be self-aware
and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking
Naturalist Intelligence -- ability to recognize and categorize
plants, animals and other objects in nature
Existential Intelligence -- sensitivity and capacity to
tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning
of life, why do we die, and how did we get here.
Howard Gardner1 defined the first seven intelligences
in FRAMES OF MIND (1983). He added the last two in INTELLIGENCE
REFRAMED (1999). Gardner is a psychologist and Professor at Harvard
University's Graduate School of Education, as well as Co-Director
of Harvard Project Zero.
Based on his study of many people from many different walks
of life in everyday circumstances and professions, Gardner developed
the theory of multiple intelligences. He performed interviews
with and brain research on hundreds of people, including stroke
victims, prodigies, autistic individuals, and so-called "idiot
According to Gardner,
- All human beings possess all nine
intelligences in varying amounts.
- Each person has a different
- We can improve education by
addressing the multiple intelligences of our students.
- These intelligences are located in
different areas of the brain and can either work
independently or together.
- These intelligences may define the human species.
To help understand how you learn best, take this short Multiple
Intelligences Self-Inventory. There are just a few questions to
answer, which should take approximately five minutes to complete.
Click here to see our Multiple Intelligences animation
Workshop: Tapping Into Multiple Intelligences
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