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Over 1400 years of Islamic history at your fingertips

560-661   661-750   751-983   984-1289   1290-1918   1914-2005

1530-2006 (Islam in America)
The Seljuks and Fatimids: 984-1289

990 The Seljuks, nomads from Turkmenistan, convert to Sunni Islam. Having developed a highly effective cavalry of nomads, they soon enter Uzbekistan, Khazakstan and Kwarazm.

999 Mahmoud of Ghazna gains control of Khorasan and Afghanistan. Establishes Ghazni as his capital and transforms it into one the leading cultural centers in Asia.

1010 Central power of the Spanish Caliphate weakens. The Persian poet Firdawsi (935-1020) completes the national epic poem "Shahnameh" (Book of Kings). Considered to be one of the most influential and celebrated poets of Persia.

1031- 1075 Al-Qa'im becomes Khalifa. He appoints political science and sociologist al-Mawardi (b.972-1058) as ambassador. The author of the DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY, his contributions in political science include the books, THE BOOK OF THE RULES OF GOVERNANCE and LAWS REGARDING THE MINISTERS.

c.1036 Al-Biruni, mathematician, astronomer, and physicist completes a treatise on astronomy called, "The Masudi Canon," which includes astronomical tables and geographical coordinates of significant locations throughout the world. Centuries before Galileo, al-Biruni discussed the notion that the earth rotated on its own axis. He is known as one of the leading scientists of the Middle Ages and one of greatest of all time due to his significant contributions in mathematic, physics, botany, geography, and astronomy.

1040 Western Iran falls to the Seljuks. The Great Seljuk Empire is established.

1055 Seljuk ruler, Toghrul Beg enters Baghdad. He was given the title of Sultan by Abbasid Khalifa al-Qa'im

1063 Alp Arslan becomes second Sultan of Seljuk Empire.

1065 Sultan Arslan conquers Armenia and Georgia.
1071 Battle of Manzikert. Sultan Arslan defeats the Byzantines. Most of Asia Minor is conquered by the Seljuks. The beginning of the decline of the Byzantine Empire.

1077 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Suleyman ibn Kutalmish declares himself Sultan. Establishes Nicaea as his capital.

1085 The Reconquista. The Christian armies of Castilian King Alfonso VI seize Toledo.

1086 Spanish emirs appeal for help. Almoravid leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Alfonso VI.

1090 Yusuf ibn Tashifin dethrones the King of Granada.

1092 Nizam al-Mulk is assassinated. Founder of the Nizamiyyah schools, prestigious educational institutions that are the predecessors and prototypes of the universities to be established in Europe.

1094 Promising riches and women, Alexius Comnenus I, emperor of Byzantine, calls for aid against the threat of the Seljuks to his empire.

1095 Pope Urban II preaches to Christians that their faith is being attacked and they must fight Islam and capture the Holy City. He summons the First Crusade.

1098 Antioch is conquered by the Crusaders.

1099 Jerusalem is seized by the Crusaders. They massacre all Muslims, Jews and Christians of the city.

1118 The Seljuk empire is separated into smaller, independent states due to internal disputes over the inheritance of the Sultanate after the death of Sultan Malik Shah I.

1127 The Zangid Dynasty. Imad al-Din Zangi establishes himself as governor in Mosul and in Aleppo (in northern Syria).

1130 The rise of the Almohads in North Africa. Abd al-Mamun becomes the first Khalifa of the Sunni-Berber dynasty.

1144 The Siege of Edessa. The Zangids reconquer one of four established Crusader states, the County of Edessa.

1147 The Second Crusade, led by Roman Emperor Conrad III and Louis VII of France. Their armies are defeated by the Seljuks and fail at an attempt to seize Damascus.

1154 Nur ad Din Mahmud, song of Zangi, captures Damascus. The cartographer, geographer and botanist al-Idrisi (b.1099-1166) creates a world map and accompanying book, GEOGRAPHY. King Roger II of Sicily invites him to create maps at his court. At the service of Roger II, he creates a map that is one the most detailed maps to be made in the Middle Ages.

1169 Shirkuh, Kurdish general under Nur-ad Din, enters Egypt.

1171 Nephew of Shirkuh, Salah ad-Din (a legendary Kurdish general in Islam and the West) deposes the last Fatimid Khalifa in Egypt.

1174 Salah ad-Din captures Syria. He unifies Egypt and Syria and establishes the Abbuyid Dynasty.

1187 The Battle of Hattin. Salah ad-Din defeats the Crusaders and recaptures Jerusalem.

1192 Second Battle of Tarain. Muhammad of Ghor, governor of Ghazni, defeats the armies of the Rajput Chauhan dynasty of North India. Delhi is open to Muslim armies.

1193 The death of Salah ad-Din and the division of the Ayyubid Empire.

1197 Muhammad of Ghor conquers the Indian state of Gujarat.

1200- 1220 The height of the Turkish Khwarazmshahs. Their empire includes Turkestan and Persia.

1206 Former slave, Qutb-ud-din Aybek, captures India from the Ghorids and establishes the Slave Dynasty of the Sultanate of Delhi.
Genghis Khan becomes the leader of the united Mongol tribes at an assembly in Qaraqorum.

1218 Mongol merchants arrive at the Khwarazm city of Otrar. Suspicious of the traders, the governor of Otrar has them killed.

1220 The Mongols raid and conquer the Khwarazmshahs.

1225 Genghis Khan divides his empire among his sons.

1227 The death of Genghis Khan.

1228 The Almohad rulers of Tunisia establish the Hafsid dynasty.

1231 The Second Mongol Raids. Muslim cities are demolished.

1236- 1255 Batu Khan, grandson of Genghis, becomes the ruler of the Kipchak Khanate. He conquers Moscow, Hungary and Poland.

1250 The Mamluks, slave-soldiers, rise to power in Egypt.

1256 The grandson of Genghis, Hulegu rules the Il Khanate. Its seat is in Persia.

1258 Berke replaces his brother, Batu Khan as the ruler of the Kipchak Khanate. He converts to Islam.

1260 Battle of Ain Jalut. The Mamluks stop the advance of the Mongols in Palestine.

1265 The death of Hulegu. His successors include both Buddhists and Muslims.