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1530-2006 (Islam in America)
Life of Muhammad: 560-661

570 "The Year of the Elephant." Birth of the Prophet Muhammad. The Christian king of Yemen, Abraha leads an unsuccessful attack on Mecca. Muhammmad's father, Abdullah, dies before his birth.

576 Death of Amina, Muhammad's mother.

578 The Prophet's grandfather dies. Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle, becomes his guardian. Abu Talib is the head of Banu Hashim, the clan of the tribe of the Quraish.

582 Muhammad and Abu Talib journey to Syria and meet with Bahira, a Christian monk. Bahira notices certain peculiarities about the Prophet, which compels him to inquire further and have him find the "mark of prophets," a mark believed to be carried by all of the prophets of the Abrahimic faiths.

595 Muhammad marries Khadija.

605 Muhammad helps rebuild the Ka'ba.

610 Muhammad is called to prophethood. He receives his first revelation from the Angel Gabriel in cave at the summit of Mt. Hira, outside of Mecca. Khadija is the first to accept Islam.

613 Muhammad begins the public preaching of Islam. This causes confrontation with the tribe of the Quraish.

615 The first emigration of some of the early converts to Ethiopia to escape Meccan persecution.
617 The Quraish proclaim a social boycott of Muhammad and Banu Hashim.

619 Deaths of Khadija and Abu Talib.

620 Muhammad goes to Ta'if (a town near Mecca) to seek protection and followers; he does not succeed. Muhammad goes on al-Isra ("The Night Journey"), from Mecca to Jerusalem. From there Muhammad is taken to heaven, al-Miraj.

621 The first Covenant of Aqabah with twelve men from the tribes of Khazraj and Aws of Yathrib (Medina). They convert to Islam.

622 The second Covenant of Aqabah, the Muslim converts of Yathrib promise loyalty to defend the Prophet.
July: The Hijra -- Muhammad narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by the Meccans and goes to Yathrib, now called Medina from Madinat al-Nabi (City of the Prophet). This marks year one of the Islamic calendar and the establishment of the Islamic ummah, the community of believers.

622 Muhammad establishes the first Islamic State. Constitution of Medina.

624 Battle of Badr, Muslims defeat the Meccans. The direction of prayer is changed from Jerusalem to Mecca.

625 Battle of Uhud, Muslim forces are defeated by the Meccans outside of Medina.

627 Battle of the Trench, an alliance of Meccan tribes and Jews fail to conquer Medina due to a trench created by the Muslims to protect the city.

628 The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah establishes a truce with the Meccans, allowing Muslim pilgrims to enter Mecca. Muhammad sends representatives to neighboring monarchs inviting them to Islam.

629 The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah is broken by the Bedouins (allies of the Quraish).

630 The Conquest of Mecca. Muhammad enters Mecca without challenge and the Meccans accept Islam. The idols of the Ka'ba are destroyed and the interior is declared sacred. "The Year of Deputations," tribal chiefs from all over Arabia come to Medina and swear allegiance to the Prophet.

632 March: "The Farewell Pilgrimage" and "The Last Sermon." While preaching at Arafat, Muhammad receives the final revelation of the Qur'an.
June: Muhammad dies. Abu Bakr is elected as Khalifa (a.k.a. caliph), successor to the Prophet. He is the first of the four "Rightly Guided Khalifas." A handful of supporters of Ali ibn Abi Talib believe he should be the next Khalifa.

633 Southern Mesopotamia (Iraq) is conquered.

634 Muslims defeat the Byzantines at the Battle of Ajnadayn in Palestine.
August: Abu Bakr dies, having selected Umar ibn al-Khattab as his successor.

635 Khalid ibn Walid, an Islamic general, defeats the Byzantines in Marj al-Suffar near Damascus.

636 Khalid leads a contingent in the Battle of Yarmuk. Syria falls to the Muslims and the Byzantines are expelled.

637 Muslims defeat the Persian Sassanids in the Battle of Qadisiyya.

638 Jerusalem is conquered.

Amr ibn al-As, Islamic military commander, leads the conquest of Egypt.

642 Sassanids defeated at Battle of Nihavand. Muslim rule of Mesopotamia and parts of Persia.

644 Khalifa Umar ibn al-Khattab is assassinated by a Persian slave over a personal dispute. Uthman ibn Affan elected as Khalifa.

649 Mu'awiya ibn Abu Sufyan conquers Cyprus.

651 Eastern Persia is conquered.

656 Accused of nepotism and subject to numerous rumors, Khalifa Uthman is assassinated. Ali ibn Abi Talib becomes Khalifa. Some are upset that the murderers of Uthman have not been brought to justice and lead a revolt against Khalifa Ali in "The Battle of the Camel." This is the very beginning of the creation of the two main sects of Islam, Shi'a and Sunni.

657 Mu'awiya contests Ali's election to Khalifa and challenges him in the "Battle of Siffin." Ali accepts negotiations and loses part of his army, the Kharijites.

658 Ali defeats the Kharijites at Battle of Nahrwan.

658-659 The Arbitration of Adhruh, Mu'awiya lays claims to be Khalifa.

661 Khalifa Ali is assassinated by a Kharijite. Hasan, son of Ali, cedes to Mu'awiya.