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560-661   661-750   751-983   984-1289   1290-1918   1914-2005

1530-2006 (Islam in America)
The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals: 1290-1918

1290 Uthman, a Turkish frontier warrior, proclaims independence from the Seljuks in Anatolia.

1297 The death of the first Muslim leader in Sumatra (Indonesia).

1299 Uthman becomes the first leader of the Ottoman state.

1326 The Chagatai Khanate officially adopts Islam. Orkhan, son of Uthman, captures Bursa (city of Anatolia). It is established as the capital of Ottoman Empire.

1354 The Al-Hambra palace in Spain is completed.

1361 The Ottomans capture Adrianople and establish it as their new capital.

1369 The Turkic-Mongol, Tamburlaine, becomes the ruler of the Changatai Khanate. He conquers parts of the Middle East and Central Asia.

1377 Ibn Khaldun completes the "Muqaddimah," which lays down the foundation for many fields of knowledge, including sociology, historiography and economics.

1382 Tamburlaine captures Moscow.
1389 The Ottomans defeat the Serbians and conquer Kosovo.

1399 Tamburlaine invades and sacks Delhi.

1402 Parameswara establishes the Sultanate of Malacca (Malaysia) and later embraces Islam.

1402- 1413 The Interregum. A period of uncertainty and struggle for the Ottomans.

1413 Sultan Mehmed I restores the Ottoman Empire.

1444 The Battle of Varna. Sultan Murad II defeats Polish and Hungarian armies who are unable to stop the advance of Ottoman armies.

1453 The Byzantine capital of Constantinople falls to Sultan Mehmed II. The Ottomans change its name to Istanbul and rebuild the newly established capital of their empire.

1492 The last Muslim kingdom in Spain, the Kingdom of Granada, is conquered by Ferdinand and Isabella.

1502 Ismail seizes Tabriz and establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia. Shi'ism is established as the state religion.

1514 The Battle of Chaldiran. The Ottomans defeat the Safavids and gain eastern Anatolia, thus allowing Ottoman expansion and halting Safavid advance.

1516- 1517 The Mamluks lose Syria and Egypt to the Ottomans. Although under Ottoman rule, the Mamluks still retain most of their power and influence.

1520- 1566 Reign of Suleiman "the Magnificent." The Ottoman Empire becomes a world power and reaches the height of its grandeur.

1526 First Battle of Paniput. Babur, a descendant of Tamburlaine, defeats the Delhi Sultanate and establishes the Mughal Empire.

1543 Hungary is conquered by the Ottomans.

1550 Construction begins on the Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul. The mosque is commissioned by Sultan Suleiman and designed by the architect Mimar Sinan.

1560 Akbar becomes emperor of the Mughal Empire. His reign is the height of the Mughal Empire. Noted for his tolerance and respect for the Hindu faith, he constructs Hindu temples and supports religious discussion during his rule.

1571 The Ottomans defeat the Venetians and conquer Cyprus.

1588 Abbas becomes Shah of Persia and moves the capital to Isfahan.

1602 The Dutch East India Company is established. The Dutch monopolize trade with India and Indonesia.
Bahrain falls to the Safavids.

1627 Shah Jahan becomes emperor of the Mughal Empire. His reign is the golden age of Mughal art and architecture.

1631 Construction on the Taj Mahal begins. The palace was commissioned by Shah Jahan as a memorial to his wife. Constructed of white marble, it is considered one of the most remarkable architectural monuments in the world.

1656 Mehmed Koprulu becomes grand vizier under Sultan Muhammad IV. He restores order and reforms finances and the military.

1658- 1707 Under emperor Aurengzebe, the Mughal Empire is at its greatest reach. Sikhs and Rajputs revolt against his proposed Islamization of India.

1669 Crete falls to the Ottomans.

1676- 1681 First Russo-Ottoman War. The Ottomans surrender Kiev in a peace treaty with Russia.

1683 The Ottomans recapture Iraq from the Safavids.

1699 The Ottomans cede Hungary to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz. The beginning of Ottoman retreat from Europe.

1722 Isfahan is captured by Afghan rebels.

1723- 1725 The Ottomans and Russia exploit the chaos caused by the Afghan rebellion and seize Persian territories.

1726- 1736 Military leader Nadir Khan defeats the Afghans in a series of battles.

1730- 1735 The Afghans are driven out of Persia. Nadir Khan ends the Safavid dynasty and becomes Shah of Persia. He restores the territories lost to Russian and the Ottomans.

1739 Nadir Khan raids Delhi. The break up of the Mughal Empire.

1748 Nadir Khan is assassinated. His family is unable to continue his dynasty.

1760 Karim Khan establishes the Zand dynasty in Persia.

1763 Britain exploits the fragmentation of India and begins to absorb Mughal territories.

1774 Ottoman war with Russia ends in the Treaty of Kuchuk Kaynarja. The Ottomans cede the Crimea.

1798- 1801 Egypt is conquered by Napoleon.

1803- 1811 Followers of the puritanical Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the Wahhabis, occupy Mecca and Medina.

1805 Governor of Egypt, Muhammad Ali, institutes reform and begins the modernization of Egypt.

1812 Islamic teacher Usumanu dan Fodio establishes the Sokoto Caliphate in Nigeria.

1813 The Russo-Persian War ends with the Treaty of Gulistan. Persia cedes Azerbaijan to Russia.

1817 The Ottomans allow Serbians limited self-government after revolt.

1818 Ibrahim Pasha, son of Muhammad Ali, leads campaign against Wahhabis.

1821- 1830 The Greek War of Independence. Greece, France and Britain from alliance against Turkey. The Ottomans are defeated and Greece gains full independence.

1830 Algeria is occupied by France.

1831- 1841 Ottoman Syria is conquered by Muhammad Ali.

1835 Abd al-Qadir revolts against French occupation and defeats them at Macta River in Algeria.

1839- 1842 The Afghans defeat the British in the first Anglo-Afghan War.

1839 The port city of Aden, Yemen is occupied by the British.

1839- 1861 Sultan Abdulhamid reforms and modernizes the institutions of the Ottoman Empire.

1853- 1856 The Crimean War. European powers fear Russian expansion. The allied forces of England, France, the Ottomans and Sardinia defeat Russia.

1859- 1869 The Suez Canal, connecting the Mediterranean and Red Sea, is constructed in Egypt.

1857 The first railroad in Africa, the Alexandria-Cairo railroad, is completed.

1857- 1858 Indian Mutiny. The harsh policies of British rule lead to Indian revolt. The British crush the rebellion and the last Mughal emperor is exiled.

1860- 1861 Civil war between the Christians and Druze in Lebanon. Lebanon becomes autonomous province governed by France.

1861- 1867 The rule of Sultan Abdul-Aziz. He depletes the finances of the Ottoman Empire and contracts foreign loans. The Empire is then under European control due to bankruptcy.

1871- 1879 The political activist al-Afghani establishes a group of Egyptian reformers while residing in Egypt.

1873 The Dutch invasion of the Muslim kingdom of Aceh in northern Sumatra.

1875 The sale of the Suez Canal to the British, resulting in the foreign control over the finances of Egypt.

1876 Abdul Hamid II becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He institutes major reforms and improvements, including the proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution, but it is later deferred.

1878- 1879 The Second Anglo Afghan War. Afghanistan's foreign affairs are under the authority of the British.

1879 Ismail Pasha, governor of Egypt, is deposed by France and Britain.

1881 The invasion and occupation of Tunisia by France.

1882 The British occupation of Egypt.
Eastern-European Jewish immigrants begin to arrive in Palestine.

1889 The British occupation of Sudan.

1897 The first World Zionist Conference at Basel. Its main objective is to create a Jewish state in Palestine.

1901 The British are granted the rights to drill for oil in Persia.
Abdul-Aziz al-Saud captures Riyadh.

1904- 1914 The second wave of Jewish immigrants, Zionists aspiring to establish a Jewish state, arrive in Palestine.

1906 The Muslim League, a political party representing the minority of Muslims in India, is established.

1908 The nationalist group, the Young Turks, revolt. Sultan Abdul Hamid II is forced to reinstate the Ottoman Constitution of 1876.