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The Fence (0:39) Excerpt from film "Border Jumpers" July 2005
A large fence is part of the border security between Botswana and Zimbabwe.

Country: Botswana
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    Guiding Questions
    1. Why might Botswana be building an eight foot high electric fence on its border with Zimbabwe?

    2. Can you think of other countries that have used fenced borders as an instrument of policy?

    Background Essay
    A 300-mile electrified fence is part of the security initiative undertaken by Botswanan security forces to combat migration from Zimbabwe, a bordering country in extreme economic and political depression.

    Africa has long been saddled with poor, even malevolent, leadership. Some of the worst examples come from Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Zimbabwe — countries that have been run into the ground despite their abundant natural resources. But these cases are by no means unrepresentative: by some measures, 90 percent of sub-Saharan African nations have experienced despotic rule in the last three decades. Such leaders - whether military autocrats, corrupt embezzlers, or puffed-up posturers - use power as an end in itself, rather than for the public good. These regimes have contributed greatly to the instability of the African subcontinent in recent history.

    Under the stewardship of these leaders, infrastructure in many African countries has fallen into disrepair, currencies have fallen in value, and real prices have inflated dramatically, while job availability, health care, education standards, and life expectancy have declined. Ordinary life has become increasingly difficult: general security has deteriorated, crime and corruption have increased, much-needed public funds have flowed into hidden bank accounts, and officially sanctioned ethnic discrimination — sometimes resulting in civil war — has become prevalent. This has lead to many nationals fleeing to other countries, prosperous countries with good leadership and economic possibilities.

    One of the best examples of good leadership in Africa is Botswana, which neighbors despotic Zimbabwe. Long before diamonds were discovered there, this former desert protectorate demonstrated a knack for participatory democracy, integrity, tolerance, entrepreneurship, and the rule of law. The country has remained democratic in spirit as well as form continuously since its independence from Britain in 1966 — an unmatched record in Africa. It has also defended human rights, encouraged civil liberties, and actively promoted its citizens' social and economic development.

    The sharp contrast between the political and economic situations in Botswana and Zimbabwe has led many Zimbabweans to migrate to Botswana for work or political asylum. The Wide Angle film BORDER JUMPERS illustrates the conflicts that have arisen as a result of this immigration. An influx of migrant workers into any economy leads to uncertainty for domestic workers. These situations are seen throughout the world, and cause great strain on the economy of the thriving nations. BORDER JUMPERS exemplifies the threat and the security efforts taken by Botswana, and many countries throughout the world, to control such immigration.

    Transcript
    NARRATOR
    It runs through farm and pastureland for over 300 miles.

    A fence that stands over eight feet high and is being electrified.

    The country building the fence is Botswana, in southern Africa.

    The country on the other side of the fence is Zimbabwe.

    Related Links
    Border Jumpers on PBS.org
    http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/shows/botswana/

    ATLANTIC MONTHLY "Security Fences: The List"
    http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/prem/200503/cutler

    Official Web site for the Republic of Botswana
    http://www.gov.bw/

    CIA The World Factbook: Botswanna
    https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/
    the-world-factbook/geos/bc.html


    The General Act of February 26, 1885
    http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob45.html

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