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THIS LESSON IS A BREEZE, SO DON'T "BLOW" IT!
Grades K-4

Overview

Students will have the opportunity to discover where the wind comes from through exploration of air and its influence on the environment.
Through the processes of scientific inquiry, hands-on activities, and problem solving, students will be able to gain a greater knowledge and appreciation of the relationship of air and the effect it has on the weather cycle. Emphasis on wind will offer students additional experience and understanding of air and its properties.
"Look Up" #19 "The Sun and the Wind" TV Ontario
"Take a Look" #17 "The Wind" TV Ontario
Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
Materials
Classroom Materials

Cooperative Group Materials:
Student Materials:
Post-Viewing Activity Center Materials:
Pinwheel "Fan" Club:
Vocabulary
Pre-Viewing Activities
*Divide students into cooperative groups (five or six students per group).
1. Give each student a balloon and ask them to write their name or an identifiable logo with permanent marker on the outside of the balloon. Then...draw a picture on the top of the first page of their ("Get Wind of This") journal describing what their balloon looks like. (allow only one minute for this assignment.)

2. Explain to the students that in a minute they will receive a signal (bell, whistle, etc.) to blow up their balloons. Before the signal, however, ask each student to draw another picture in their journals of what they predict their balloon will look like after it is blown up.

3. Ask students, "Does your second picture look different than your first picture?"
If the response is "YES" (which it should be) ask students, "Why do you think each of your pictures look different?" Then ask, "What do you think will cause your balloon to look bigger after you blow it up?"

4. Give the students a signal to blow up their balloons...( ***DO NOT LET THEM TIE IT OFF YET!!!***)...and pinch the opening tightly with their finger so no air will escape.


5. Ask students to describe to a partner in their cooperative group what their balloon looks like now that it is blown up.

6. Following a brief description (approximately 30 seconds) allow students to let the air escape out of their balloons. ***(This activity may be noisy, but is still easy to keep under control if structure is emphasized at the beginning of the lesson.)

7. Invite students to discover the many ways they observed air coming out of their balloons. Be sure to incorporate the five senses. ie; smell, touch, sound, sight, (even taste), etc.

8. Ask students to draw two of their observations of air escaping out of the balloons...then discuss these observations with other members in cooperative groups.

9. Mathematics can also play an important role in the study of air and wind.
Involve students in an additional activity by allowing them to play, "Balloon Olympics".

*(This activity is best conducted in a large room with a lot of open space or in an open area of the playground.).
Mark off a "Launching" line with string, chalk, or masking tape.
Ask each student to write their name on a small piece of masking tape and place it on the ground where they predict their deflating balloon will land.
Ask students to blow up their balloon then to pinch off the opening until they hear the signal (bell or whistle).
At the signal, students should release their balloons, then compare/contrast actual measurement with that of the predicted measurement. (Standard of measurement should be consistent).
*(Measurement of height adds extra mathematical challenge and dimension to this previewing activity!).
Focus Viewing
It is important for students to understand that the best learning experiences result when a "focus" or challenge is set for each concept being taught.
Educational video viewing is no exception!
Explain to students that they are about to embark on an exciting adventure as they discover the unique properties of air and how its movements and changing pressure cause wind.
As students begin to view these segments of video, challenge them to identify as many different characteristics of air and wind as they can.
*(students should be encouraged to note these characteristics in their journals by either writing or simply sketching each new idea as it is being presented in
the video segments!).

Viewing Activities
1. BEGIN "Look Up" #19 "Air and Wind" (TV Ontario) video where Imagination asks Robot, "Where does the wind come from?".

Play through until Imagination says, "It's hard to pin down." STOP Video. Ask students "What is wind?" Discuss.
Tell students that the next segment demonstrates additional characteristics of air. Have the students jot in their journals each characteristic as it is presented in the video. (If students are too young to write in journals, pause the video after each characteristic and discuss it.).
RESUME video and play through until Robot says, "There are lots of ways to see it."
Discussion: Elicit from the students some of the properties of air mentioned in the video such as:
Air has temperature.
Air can be moist.
Air effects the weather.
Air is important/essential to life.
You cannot see,smell or taste air.
You can feel and hear air.
Air constantly presses against us.
Although invisible there are ways to see air.

Activity: Whipping Cream
To demonstrate that air is an ingredient in many of the foods that we eat, whip a pint of whipping cream for the students.
Ask students to draw a picture in their journals of what the whipping cream looks like when it is first poured into a bowl. Explain that you are going to use an electric hand mixer to beat the cream. Ask students to predict what will happen after the cream is whipped.
After cream has been whipped, invite students to draw another picture in their journals of what the whipped cream looks like.
Encourage students to discuss what they think happened to make the cream stiffen and fluff up. (air was whipped into the cream).
Ask students to draw a picture of there favorite dessert covered in "heaps" of whipped cream.
Cut up "Twinkies" or similar sponge cakes into small pieces, then spoon a small dollop of whipped cream on the top of each piece. Serve to students and enjoy! Don't forget the napkins and/or paper towels!

Activity: Seeing air bubbles
Give each group of students a clear, plastic paper cup half filled with water. Give each student a straw. Ask them to blow into the water and observe the air bubbles. Encourage students to draw their observations in their journals.
Ask students to discuss their observations in cooperative groups.
Each group should discuss what resulted from blowing air into the straw.
Students should be encouraged to explain why bubbles formed inside the cup of water as more air was directed from the straws into the cup.

2. FAST FORWARD the tape to the activity where two girls are balancing balloons on a ruler.

Discussion: Ask the students if air has weight. Accept all responses. Tell them to watch the video to see if air really does have weight.

PLAY video until balloon popping sequence ends.

Discussion: Ask students to discuss their observations. Ask them why they think one side of the yardstick tilted down after the balloon on the opposite side of the stick was popped.
If time permits, Reinforce this concept (that air has weight) by replicating the balloon activity in the classroom as an extension or follow-up activity.

Activity: Lifting a Student on Bags of Air (Teachers: please view this segment without the students before conducting this activity.)
Hold up six strong plastic bags (bread bags are ideal!) and ask the students if filled with air, could these bags lift you or a classmate up?
Discuss responses.
Choose seven students to help demonstrate this activity to the class.
Put one desk or small table on top of another desk or table of the same size (as shown in the video).
Ask six students to sit around the table with the bags "sandwiched" between tables.
Have seventh student sit on the top table. (Be sure to "spot" for safety!)!
Ask the students to predict what they think will happen to the top table after the plastic bags are filled up with air.
Have the students blow into the bags, then discuss what happens.
Ask students to draw a picture in their journals.

Explain to students that in the next segment of video they will discover how air travels from high-pressure areas to low-pressure areas.

Ask students to determine the paths cool air and warm air travel as they watch this next segment of video.

RESUME the tape. Play through "molecule" segment.

STOP the tape when Imagination says, "I guess people don't like being crowded any more than molecules do!"
*(During activity, FAST FORWARD tape to segment where screen shows the word, "Wind").
STOP Tape.

Activity: "People Glob" *(This is another activity that needs a lot of structure in order to control the noise-level!) Ask students to crowd closely together in one area of the room. Explain to them that they are going to pretend to be glued together in a "People Glob". They will attempt to "squeeze" through the door as a "bonded" group. While students attempt to "pile" through the doorway, throw some wrapped, hardtack candy all around the perimeter of the room. Allow time for students to break away from the "glob" and "disperse" around the room to retrieve the candy.
After an appropriate signal, (bell, whistle, etc.) call students back to discussion area.
Ask students how it felt to be huddled together in such "close" quarters. Inquire as to whether or not they were able to get through the door when they were all bound together.
Explain to students that when they were all "globbed" together, they were creating an area of high Pressure. The minute the candy was tossed out and classmates spread about to search for the dispersed candy, the high pressure zone turned into an area of low pressure.
Explain to the students that air molecules work the same way. An area of high pressure brings about warm, sunny weather. An area of low pressure creates unsettled, stormy weather.
Warm air rises and cool air falls.
The constant movement of warm air and cool air traveling from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure is what causes wind!
Help students to focus on this next segment of video by asking them to draw a small diagram of how they imagine their "microscopic" eyes might see warm air and cool air moving from areas of high pressure to low pressure. *(Allow about three minutes for students to complete their journal diagrams).
Ask students to compare their descriptions with the descriptions shown on this next segment of video.
STOP the video where Imagination says, "...just think about the movement of warm and cold air!".

******* EJECT "Look Up" video and INSERT "Take a Look" #17 ("Wind") video into the machine.***********

During the video transition, explain to the students that they will have the opportunity to view a segment from another video showing more ideas about the wind.
Set a focus for this segment of video by asking students to predict what they think might be a good "instrument" to indicate which direction the wind is moving.
Discuss ideas, then explain to the class that in this segment of the new video, they will learn a fun, easy way to make a weather vane.

START "Take a Look" # 17 video at the beginning where the word "Wind" appears on the screen.
PLAY through until the lady says, "Oh, what a good idea!!! I'll suggest that to the boys and girls reading my weather book!"
STOP the video.

Activity: Ask each cooperative group to take their weather vane kits (cardboard, clay, spool, pencil, straw, straight pin, compass, etc.) and construct a weather vane similar to the vane shown in the video.
Allow five minutes for construction, and a few minutes following, for students to experiment with their new creations!

Explain to the students that in this next segment of video they will see some wonderful examples showing how the constant movement and changes of temperature in the air creates wind.
Students should focus on this next section of video, by being prepared to discuss one of their favorite examples of "wind" they have just viewed.

RESUME video and play through until the lady says, "...that movement results in wind!".

PAUSE video and allow a minute of discussion in cooperative groups about the experiments that were shown in the previous segment.
During the cooperative group discussions...

*****(FAST FORWARD video to segment where a seeded dandelion is pictured on the screen).

Encourage students to focus on this next segment of video by asking students to take out their journals. On a blank page have them divide it into two columns. Label the first column "Wind is good because...." Label the second column "Wind is harmful because...." Explain to them that while they view the next segment write down in the appropriate the different aspects wind. They could also make small drawings. PLAY through to the end of the tornado sequence. Review and discuss with the students what they put in each column and why. Have them brainstorm any other good or bad aspects of wind. This concludes the viewing portion of the lesson.

Optional Viewing Activity
INSERT the "Windows on Science", Primary Science Vol. 2,Weather Unit into the laservideo player. Go through the still pictures and video in the "Uses of wind" section. Encourage students to focus on this next segment of video by asking students to take out their journals. On a blank page have them divide it into two columns. Label the first column "Wind is good because...." Label the second column "Wind is harmful because...." Explain to them that while they view the next segment of pictures and video, write down in the appropriate columns the different aspects of wind. They could also make small drawings.Upon completion of the pictures and video, review/discuss with students what they put in each column and why.
Post-Viewing Activities
After viewing the video segments, explain to students that they are going to experience some positive effects of wind.
Demonstrate these three activities.
*(Arrange for extra supervision if you choose to set these activities up as learning centers!).

Activity #1: Pinwheel "Fan " Club (Pinwheels)
Provide a three-speed table fan, a pattern for a windmill (approximately 6x6), along with colorful wrapping or butcher paper (6x6), glue, a strong, cardboard straw, and a small brad for each student.
Instruct students to make a simple pinwheel by folding the four right corners into the center of the paper, then loosely fastening the newly-formed to a sturdy cardboard strip or a dowel.
*Review fan safety with students, to insure no injuries, then ...Assign a group leader to control the fan and turn it onto low speed.
Allow students to hold their pinwheels in front of the fan and see how fast each pinwheel will twirl around. After a few seconds, ask the leader to turn up the fan to the medium speed. Again, have the students hold their pinwheels in front of the fan.
Invite them to discuss and compare the difference in rotation between the two fan speeds.
After a few seconds of experimenting with the fan on medium speed, have the group leader turn the fan to the highest speed.
Encourage students to compare how the various speeds of the fan, changed the rotation of the student's pinwheels.


Activity #2: "My 'Air'ry-Go-Round! (Angel Chimes)
*(This activity should be closly supervised!!!)
Provide an angel chime (these are usually sold with Christmas decorations).
Ask students to predict what they think might happen when the candles are lit on the base of the angel chime. Students should draw pictures of their predictions in their journals and explain their predictions to the rest of the group.
Encourage students to carefully observe what is taking place, then to explain why they think the chimes are moving. Have students predict what they think might happen when the candles are blown out, and why!!!

Activity #3: "Sock-it-to-Me!" (Windsocks)
Provide a variety of materials...ie; plastic bags, nylon stockings , old (clean) socks, tissue paper, thin material, sacks, etc...for each cooperative group, which can be designed into a windsock.
Allow groups to construct their windsocks so that both ends are equal in diameter, and securely closed off one end by gluing, fusing, pinning, or sewing. String or ribbon may be attached to the open end of each windsock then secured to a dowel or ruler.
Invite students to hang their windsocks around the classroom, or if the situation permits, allow students to display them around the schoolgrounds.
*(A fan or air conditioner should fulfill the purpose of simulating wind, if it is impossible to post windsocks out-of-doors).
Instruct the students in designing a simple graph which will record the direction of wind or air movement on a daily basis for one week.
Encourage students to compare and discuss their findings with the other cooperative groups in the class.
Action Plan
Students will become more appreciative of air pressure and wind if they are able to taken field trips and listen to classroom visitors who are experts in this field of science.

A fun classroom excursion might be to arrange a visit to a local weather station where a meteorologist could demonstrate instruments that help predict and monitor the weather.

*(In some states, news stations are now setting up weather stations at various school locations ("Weather Net") where students and teaching staff can actually take part in forecasting the weather in their area!!!).

Another fun field trip might be to take the students to a cathedral, tabernacle, or church where there is a pipe organ.
Arrange to meet an organist or an expert who knows the mechanics of the organ. Request that your "guide" explain the history of the organ, how the pipes are made, and how air pressure plays an important role in the sound the organ pipes produce.
Extensions
Language Arts:
- Ask students to write a brief description to an alien from an "Airless" planet explaining what "air is"!!!
- Review Eric Carle's book, "Brown Bear", then explain to the students that they are going to write a classroom book entitled, "Blustery Wind".
It may be a good idea to practice the format orally before sending the students back to their desks to write pages of the story on their own!

Example:
Blustery Wind, Blustery Wind,
What do you blow?
I blow a clothesline filled with clothes,
And toss them to and fro!

Bustery Wind, Blustery Wind,
What do you blow?
I blow a lady's red hat off,
And toss it to and fro!

Blustery Wind, Blustery Wind,
What do you blow?
I blow the leaves down off the trees,
And toss them to and fro!

Blustery Wind, Blustery Wind,
What do you blow?
I blow a "prickly" tumbleweed,
And toss it to and fro!

Art:
Provide a 9x12 sheet of art paper, one straw, and a baby food jar of brightly colored tempera paint for each child.
Explain to the students that they will make "windy art prints" by pouring a small amount of the paint on their sheet of art paper, and then blowing through their straws to create a unique, visual effect!

Math:

Provide each student with three blacklined (ready-to-fill-in) calendar pages for three months in a row.
Supply a "sample" calendar to each cooperative group, then ask the students to keep an accurate record of the days (and force) the wind blows, even if it is a light breeze.
Encourage students to "log" their data every day at the very same time for three months in a row. (When students have a definite time and place for an assignment, it soon becomes habit!!)
At the end of each month, ask students to transfer their information on a graph of occurrence and force. [Students should write correlating dates of the month at the bottom of the graph (horizontally) and a scale of force beginning with zero at the bottom and working up to 20 for the most severe gale winds (left-hand side of the paper, vertically)].
Ask students to make a graph at the end of each month for the next three months.
After the three months have been recorded on the calendar pages, ask students to compile their data and to graph it onto a "composite" graph for the entire class.
Have students join their three graphs together in consecutive order, then proudly display these graphs around the room.
Compare, contrast, share, and discuss!

Music/P.E./Drama/Dance:
Divide the class into groups of four to six.
Explain to them that the movement of air and/or wind has always been very fascinating to watch!
Ask each group to choreograph a dance or to compose a song or rap about the wind!
Encourage students to include a lot of rhythm and movement into their performance.
Allow a little time (about 10-15 minutes) for the groups to rehearse.
Invite another class in for a dance/music recital all about the wind!

Master Teachers: Carol Weibell and Rick Gaisford

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