IT KEEPS GOING & GOING & . . .
Grades K - 2
This lesson is designed to introduce the concept of patterns
to primary level children. The students will have an opportunity to identify,
create, and extend patterns, through a variety of large group, small group,
and independent activities. The ITV video series Mathica's Mathshop will
be incorporated into the lesson to challenge the students' pattern extending
"Mathica's Mathshop: Sweet Dreams (#5)"
Students will be able to:
- Extend linear and directional patterns.
- Identify patterns in classroom and community environments.
- Create original patterns incorporating the senses of sight and sound.
- Operate video and recording equipment with confidence and accuracy.
- one cup assorted color tiles (approximately 50 / cup)
- record player & record: Rhythm Stick Activity Record or Multicultural
Rhythm Stick Fun
- TV/VCR & Mathica's Mathshop: Sweet Dreams (#5) video tape
recorder & tape
- sentence strips and pocket chart
- math lab posters and manipulatives (bowl of color tiles -- 100 tiles/
play food items/ flannel board and felt pieces
- snack foods--pretzels, marshmallows, and cheerios
- wooden shape pieces
- pennies, nickel, and dimes
- motor mat and toy vehicles
Tell the students: Today in class we will use only our ears to solve
some pattern puzzles. Begin by playing record of simple rhythm stick tapping
pattern. Say: Listen carefully to this sound puzzle pattern. Repeat the
recording if necessary. Ask: Can you play the same pattern on your rhythm
sticks? The group of students will repeat the sound pattern using sets of
rhythm sticks. Continue introducing additional sound patterns from the record
for the students to repeat. Be sure to allow each student or pairs of students
an opportunity to demonstrate a sound pattern. (Any available rhythm instrument
-- wrist bells, tambourine, clappers, or drums may be substituted for this
activity. If rhythm pattern records are not available hand jive patterns
may be demonstrated by the teacher and repeated by the children: clap-clap-snap-clap-clap-snap;
Co-operative learning teams will now be assigned by the teacher with two
students per team -- a 'recorder' and a 'problem solver'. Say: Now it is
your turn to be the Pattern Puzzlers! 'Recorders', you may each tape record
an original sound pattern with your rhythm sticks. Your partner will try
to copy and repeat the sound pattern on the tape. 'Recorder', be sure to
state your name into the microphone before you begin to tape your sound
pattern. Provide a quiet area for the 'recorders' to complete their taping.
A Listening Center in the classroom or a quiet hallway or conference room
may be substituted. When each of the 'recorders' have completed taping,
they are to return to the discussion group. While 'problem solvers' are
waiting for their teammates to complete the sound pattern recordings, continue
the pattern puzzle record with more difficult rhythm patterns to copy and
repeat. The two member teams will alternate the roles of 'recorder' and
Tell students: Using only our ears we could hear sound pattern puzzles.
Now using only your eyes can you see any repeating patterns in our own classroom?
(Examples may include: color arranged building blocks/ geo-board pegs/ peg
board designs/ student desks and chairs/ wall, floor, and ceiling tiles/
locker doors/ windows.) Record student responses onto sentence strip paper.
After identifying several patterns, guide the class in naming the different
categories of patterns: 1) repeating color, 2) repeating shape, or 3) repeating
size. Ask: How can we sort each of our patterns into these three categories
on the pocket chart? Label the categories at the top of the pocket chart.
Older students may choose to record and categorize the examples independently.
The children will be challenged to a battle of wits with the
Wicked Witch in Mathica's Mathshop. Students should be seated with their
co-operative learning group partner on the floor in a semi-circle in front
of the TV/VCR. Say: Today the Mathmagician has some Pattern Puzzles for
the Wicked Witch to solve. Let's see if we can solve them before the Wicked
PLAY tape with the scene of the Mathmagician challenging the Witch to
solve the three riddles; "Care for a game of cards?" The first
board of puzzle cards will be introduced.
PAUSE after board of cards is introduced, "What card comes next?"
Say: Can you and your partner tell the Mathmagician what card comes next
in the puzzle pattern? Allow time for the teams of students to discuss possible
solutions. Identify the answer cards on the television screen as A, B, C,
& D. Have each team report their decisions to the class by a show of
hands. Discuss with the children in which category this pattern belongs.
Review the categories: color, shape, and size on the pocket chart. (Lesson
RESUME to check solution and continue tape to introduction of the
second board of cards.
PAUSE after introduction of puzzle board, "What card comes next
in this pattern?" Say: With your partner, can you select the next card
in this pattern puzzle? As this choice is not a picture pattern but rather
a directional pattern, tell the students: The Mathmagician has a little
clue to assist in your problem solving.
RESUME tape with the Mathmagician's clue, "The pattern is in
the cards themselves."
PAUSE immediately following the clue. Students again team with their
partners to decide upon the next card in the pattern. When students have
come to a decision, again discuss in which category this pattern belongs:
color, shape, or size.
RESUME to confirm students' answers. Continue tape for viewing the
third puzzle; cue: "How many cards will build the next staircase?"
PAUSE upon viewing the complete pattern riddle board. Allow partners
to distribute cups of color tiles to be used as manipulatives in solving
the riddle. Students should copy the pattern from the television screen
using their tiles and proceed with their partner to solve the puzzle. Say:
Now how could this pattern be continued using your color tiles? Have teams
share their results with the class, upon solving the pattern extension.
RESUME to find that the students have outsmarted the Witch! Review
the categories for each riddle pattern (Riddles 1&2 -- shape, and Riddle
3 -- size) and include them each on the class pocket chart. (Lesson 2 Activity)
FAST FORWARD to Mathica and the extended box pattern.
RESUME to introduce extending the pattern in all four directions.
PAUSE when Mathematician says: "How can you extend the pattern?"
Allow students time to experiment with copying and extending similar patterns
using the color tiles.
RESUME to reveal possible extensions of the pattern.
Days 4 & 5
The activities may be completed as large group activities, by supplying
the necessary materials to each student. Math Lab Sessions could also be
implemented allowing teams of students to rotate throughout the lab independently,
completing each math center activity. This method requires greater independence
and organizational skills from the students, as they are responsible for
completing each center, as well as, independently recording data in journals
Student Rotation Schedule
Use the following Student Rotation Schedule for Math Lab Sessions: (Teams
A-G, Centers 1-7)
A B C D E F G
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 3 4 5 6 7 1
3 4 5 6 7 1 2
4 5 6 7 1 2 3
5 6 7 1 2 3 4
6 7 1 2 3 4 5
7 1 2 3 4 5 6
- Center 1 Tiling kitchen floor: supply floor tile pattern (poster);
copy and extend patterning all four directions (materials include color
tiles -- plastic, wood, or even paper)
- Center 2 Burger King orders: supply food order pattern (poster); copy
and extend pattern; make your own pattern (materials include play food or
pictures of food items)
- Center 3 Friendship quilt: supply quilt pattern (poster); copy and
extend pattern in all four directions (materials include flannel board and
- Center 4 After-school snack: supply sample linear patterns (poster);
design an original pattern to fool your partner, trade and solve (materials
include pretzels, marshmallows, and cheerios)
Math Lab Centers
Teachers: Please use your "on hand" classroom supplies, and
manipulatives, as well as your "resourcefulness" to create these
Math Lab Centers. Purchased manipulatives are suggested here, but are not
required. Clip art manipulatives can be substituted. One suggestion: Clip
Art Collection 1 & 2 by Janet Dellosa and Patti Carson. From the "Stick
Out Your Neck" series, published by Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company,
Greensboro North Carolina, 1988.
- Center 5 Bank it: supply sample linear patterns (poster); using pennies,
nickels, and dimes create original linear patterns (materials include assorted
- Center 6 Flower garden: supply several flower patterns (poster); extend
pattern in all directions using assorted wooden shapes (materials include
wooden shape pieces)
- Center 7 Motor mat: supply vinyl motor mat to identify patterns (streets,
buildings, etc.); create traffic patterns with toy vehicles (materials include
toy vehicles and motor mat)
1 Take students on walking tours to observe and record patterns in
their everyday environment:
·Playground: jungle gym, swings, hopscotch board, jump
·Cafeteria: table settings, trays, refrigerator doors
·Office Buildings: doors, windows, elevator doors
·Neighborhood: traffic signals, crossing guard signs
·Grocery Store: scanner, displays of cans and boxes
2 Take students to the school's computer lab to access math software
regarding pattern puzzles. (One suggestion: Math & Me, Davidson.)
3 Patterns at home (kitchen, garage, bedroom): children can illustrate
floor maps or dioramas of each room with examples of 'at home' patterns.
4 Recycling toss-outs: children can construct the Super Hero known
as 'Powerful Pattern Person' using buttons, egg cartons, paper towel cylinders,
etc. (Example: 3 eyes, 3 ears, 3 arms.)
5 Invite an interior designer to the classroom to discuss and demonstrate
1 Poetry rhyming patterns (AABBCC) Alphabet Patterns (capital and lower
case) Tongue Twisters (Peter Piper Picked a Peck)
2 Music: Rhythm instruments -- repetitions Keep the beat --
beat of drum to choral music 3/4 time as compared to 4/4 time signature
Songs Reference Texts: The Everything Book for Teachers of Young Children
by Valerie Indenbaum and Marcia Shapiro; Circle Time Activities for Young
Children by Deya Brashears and Sharron Werlin Krull; Year Round Activities
for Four Year Old Children by Anthony J. Coletta and Kathleen Coletta
3 Math: Calendar (days, months, years), building blocks (extending
patterns in all directions), geo-boards (copying patterns), place value
rods (repeating patterns), symmetry with mirrors and attribute blocks (copy
and extend patterns), peg boards (create linear or extending patterns)
4 Art: Weaving patterns (using paper or fabric) Potato Prints/ Sponge
5 Healthh: Daily patterns (wake/ dress/ eat/ school) chart each day
for five days to find any patterns
6 Social Studies: Personal Time Lines (height and weight growth patterns)
7 Science: Kitchen science patterns -- chart water freezing and melting
times (make your own Koolaid popsicles)
Master Teacher: Diane Pakler
Lesson Plan Database
Thirteen Ed Online