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This lesson provides students with an understanding that animals procreate their own species through a process of reproduction. Technology, with an emphasis on video is incorporated as the primary instructional technique as concepts of hatching from eggs and being born alive are introduced. Video and center designed hands-on activities serve as catalysts for learning made real and meaningful while students enhance their knowledge of young that hatch from eggs. Interaction, questioning and higher order thinking encourage students to become more creative critical thinkers and enhance demonstration of individuals differences.
ITV Series
Eggs #105

Hatched or Born? #112

Horton Hatches the Egg #111

Chickens Aren't the Only Ones #408
Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
(per class)

(per student)
Pre-Viewing Activities
Initiate interest in animals hatched from eggs by providing an opportunity for students to experience one of the following videos during regularly scheduled story time on day or day before this lesson is presented: STORYTIME, Horton Hatches the Egg #111; READING RAINBOW, Chickens Aren't the Only Ones #408.

Acquire a commercial EGGS poster or pre-prepare one that is teacher-made prior to introducing the lesson. If teacher-made, select several egg laying animals (e.g. emu, eagle, gull, frog, hen, robin, shark, etc.) and arrange pictures of their eggs on the poster. Glue two small sections of velcro about eight inches apart next to each egg picture. Acquire a picture of the animal that lays each egg and prepare a card with its name; attach a section of velcro to the back of each. Introduce the lesson as you display the EGGS POSTER in view of all students. Point to one of the eggs then ask, "Who can tell the animal that lays this egg?" Allow volunteers to tell the animal they believe lays the egg. If several are offered, record each on the chalkboard. Engage students in discussion leading to correct identification. Appoint a student to go to the poster, select the picture of the correctly identified animal, then attach it next to the appropriate egg. Select a second student to choose the name tag, then attach it. Repeat the activity until all eggs have been included. Refer individually to eggs as students interact and tell where each type might be found. Encourage students to share their knowledge about animals displayed on the poster.
Focus Viewing
Inform students they are going to see a video about eggs. To give students a specific responsibility while viewing say, "Watch the video, then be prepared to discuss the animal that produced the egg."

Viewing Activities
Eggs #105

Begin tape immediately following opening credits with audio of boy, "Do you like eggs? I do." PAUSE tape on visual of boy and kate gathering eggs in a basket; audio is, "I love to eat eggs, Kate. It sure is neat to have them fresh from the hens." Allow time for students to identify chicken and share their knowledge of the animal.

Write, then underline gender on the chalkboard. Have students pronounce the term and discuss what they believe it means. Affirm or explain that gender defines an animal as male or female. List male and female under gender. Write the following on chalkboard; rotate around the classroom and have each student complete the sentence: My gender is ___. Point to female on chalkboard, then ask, "What other words do you know that identify someone as the female gender?" Allow students to tell: girl, woman, lady, mother, grandmother, aunt, sister, etc. Point to male on the chalkboard and repeat the process.

Say, "All the words you named to define gender are usually used to identify people (humans)." Write chicken on chalkboard. Ask, "What is a female chicken called?" (hen) Say, "In animals, it is only the female gender that produces eggs." Show a carton of the infertile eggs purchased for the upcoming demonstration. Ask, "Do you believe these eggs have baby chicks inside?" Draw a simple yes/no graph on the chalkboard; use it to record each student's response to the question. After each has responded say, "The correct answer is no because the eggs are infertile. Produce the infertile word card. Say, "Eggs bought at the grocery are in-fertile and will not produce baby chicks." Show the fertile word card. Ask, "Can anyone explain the difference in a fertile and infertile egg?" Allow time for students to offer opinions.

Give students a specific responsibility while viewing as you say, "The next video tells the difference in fertile and infertile eggs. Watch to learn if your opinion is correct." RESUME tape. PAUSE tape on visual of Kate and the boy sitting down with a basket of eggs; audio is, "So if you had a rooster the chicks would grow from eggs, just like the eggs we eat?" Allow students to evaluate their opinions as they discuss the difference between a fertile and infertile egg. (Teacher discretion is advised related to length and depth of presenting this concept.) Say, "Kate said the developing egg inside the hen's body has to be fertilized by a cell from the male chicken. What is the name of a chicken whose gender is male?" Write rooster on the chalkboard. Remind students that Kate does not have a rooster, therefore all eggs laid by her hens are infertile. Refer again to the fertile/infertile word cards. Briefly explain that a fertilized egg can produce an animal. Say, "The hen eggs you purchase at the grocery are infertile, therefore, they are incapable of producing a chick."

Say, "In the next video, Kate points out different parts of an egg." To give students a specific responsibility while viewing say, "Watch and be prepared to identify the parts when you examine an egg. RESUME tape. PAUSE tape on visual of a large question mark. Ask, "Would you be able to name the parts if you examined an egg?" Allow students to respond. Hold up a carton of one dozen eggs. Say, "This is a carton of one dozen infertile eggs I purchased at the grocery. How many eggs does the carton contain?" Confirm twelve; have a volunteer validate twelve eggs as they count them in-dividually.

Distribute a sheet of tablet paper and a pencil to each student. Say, "I could only buy eggs in a one dozen carton. How many cartons did I buy so every student in the class could have one? How many eggs will be left unused?" Allow time for students to solve the problem. Then say, "Would someone of the female gender volunteer to write their computation on the chalkboard, then explain it?" Re-inforce the gender concept as you ask any boys who volunteered to explain why they should not have volunteered. Confirm correctness of solution to problem the volunteer writes on the chalkboard as classmates check their work for accuracy.

Distribute one egg inside a small plastic bowl and a section of paper towel to each student. Say, "Raise your hand if you've ever helped with preparation of a meal by cracking the eggs." After students have responded, ask, "What were you cautioned not to do before you started cracking the eggs?" (Do not allow pieces of shell to drop inside the bowl and pro-bably, don't break the yolks.) Demon-strate cracking an egg inside a bowl like those distributed to the students. Instruct students to crack the egg and pour its contents into the bowl. Assist as needed; allow time for completion of the task. Encourage students to carefully observe the egg, relating their observation to in-formation Kate provided on the video.

Ask, "How many parts do you see in the egg?" Allow time for responses, then select a volunteer to draw a large picture of an egg on the chalkboard. Label each part on the drawing. Then, instruct students to make their own drawing on the tablet paper previously provided. Allow for completion of the task, then engage students in interaction as they name, label their drawing and define the function of each part of the egg. Say, "The germinal spot on an egg yolk will only develop into a chick if a rooster fertilized the egg. The yolk is made of nutrients. Its function is to provide food for a developing chick. Display the embryo word card and explain it as the correct term used to identify a developing chick inside the shell. Say, "Chalazae is the white stringy substance that suspends the yolk inside the egg like a hammock. The albumen is the white of an egg. It surrounds and protects the yolk."

Ask, "Why wasn't an embryo found in one of your eggs?" Confirm; all eggs were infertile. Encourage students to locate each part of the real egg as illustrated and labeled on their tablet paper and the chalkboard.

To give students a specific responsibility while viewing say, "Watch the next video and check to see if you named the egg parts correctly." RESUME tape. PAUSE tape after the boy has reviewed the main parts of the egg; visual is the TAKE A LOOK logo and picture of a bird. Validate accuracy of student drawings and labeling; compliment students on their work. Collect the bowls of eggs.

Allow time for students to share knowledge as they name animals they know that hatch from eggs. List each on chalkboard as named. To give students a specific responsibility while viewing say, "As you watch the next video, look for animals that come from eggs which we did not list." RESUME tape. PAUSE tape on visual of Kate; audio is, "An egg is a perfect place for growing a chick." Have students tell additional animals that hatch from eggs; add them to the chalkboard list.

Ask, "Do you think an egg is a perfect place for an embryo to develop and grow into a chick? Why?" Allow time for students to share their opinions. Ask, "Do you think a mature embryo which has developed into a chick finds it hard to crack the shell and get out?" Again, allow students to share their beliefs. Explain, there is an experiment which proves how hard a shell really is. To give students a specific responsibility while viewing say, "Watch Kate in the next video and be prepared to name materials needed to conduct the experiment. RESUME tape. PAUSE tape after Kate explains materials needed to conduct the experiment. Allow students to name the items needed: three eggs, some news-paper, plastic wrap and several hardback books. To give students a specific re-sponsibility while viewing say, "Watch the next video so you can explain how to conduct the experiment." RESUME tape; PAUSE tape and allow students to describe the experiment after visual of cracked eggs and audio, "Did you expect they would hold so many?" Show the items to be used in the classroom experiment.

Say, "Observe the books we'll use with our experiment. Predict how many you believe it will take to crack the eggs." Allow students to make their predictions, then instruct them to record their prediction on their sheet of tablet paper. Solicit assistance from three volunteers to conduct the experiment as other students give step-by-step instructions: place newspaper on a flat surface; position the three eggs close together on top of the newspaper; place a section of plastic wrap (large enough to protect the books) on top of the eggs; and gently position one book at a time on top of the eggs until an egg(s) cracks. Say, "It required "X" books to crack the eggs. Who predicted correctly?" Allow for responses. Engage students in dis-cussion as others tell the number they predicted as "how many more" or "how many less" than the correct amount. Make three headings on the chalkboard which read: predicted correctly, predicted more, predicted less. Say, "Decide which heading your prediction should be recorded under." Allow time for decision making, then say, "With a show of hands, let me know which group your prediction falls under as I point to each heading on the chalkboard." Implement the activity as you write the appropriate total under each heading. Allow time for students to compare results.

Ask, "Which is easier to crack, something hard or something soft?" Allow students to share their beliefs. Distribute a regular size marshmallow to each student. Say, "Strike the marshmallow against the side of your pencil to crack it." Allow students to experiment. Then ask, "Which was easier to crack, the hard shell of the egg you were given earlier or the soft marshmallow?" Affirm the egg shell was easier. Ask, "Who wants to change their opinion about which is easier to crack, something hard or something soft?" Ask students to name things softer than a marshmallow; and things harder than an egg shell.

To prepare a soft-shell egg, submerge it in vinegar for several days.

Pass a soft-shell egg among students for their observation. Say, "In order to soften the shell of this egg, it was necessary to remove the mineral that makes it hard. Do you know the mineral that was removed?" Allow students to guess what was removed from the shell. To give students a specific responsibility while viewing say, "Watch the next video to discover the mineral that was removed and how I removed it." Resume tape. Stop tape after the experiment with vinegar; visual is boy attempting to break the egg with his hand; audio is, "The egg sure is strong ..." Ask, "Which mineral makes egg shells so strong?" Allow students to respond, "calcium." Write calcium on chalkboard. Say, "Your body also needs a well balanced diet that includes calcium. It's especially important for developing which parts of your body?" (teeth and bones) "What is a good source of calcium?" (milk and other dairy products) Say, "Just as calcium makes an egg shell hard and strong, it does the same for your teeth and bones." Ask, "What was used on the video to remove calcium from the egg shell?" (vinegar) Ask two volunteers to assist in setting up the experiment as seen on the video. Provide an 8 ounce measuring cup, one infertile hen egg and 8 ounces of vinegar. Instruct volunteers to place the egg inside the cup, then add enough vinegar to cover it. Say, "Over the next several days, observe what gradually happens to the egg as the vinegar removes calcium from the shell." Refer to the pre-prepared soft-shell egg examined earlier by students. Ask, "How would you describe the texture and feel of the egg?" (wrinkled, soft and rubbery) Say, "After several days, we can remove the egg from its vinegar bath, then compare its texture and feel to the egg you examined today." Place both eggs in the classroom's science center to allow student observation over the next several days. On the appropriate day, remove the egg from the cup of vinegar; encourage students to compare the two eggs and evaluate success of the experiment.

Say, "All animals reproduce their offspring in one of two ways." Encourage students to share their knowledge of ways animals reproduce. To give students a specific responsibility while viewing say, "Watch the next video to see if what you believe about how animals produce their young is correct."

Hatched or Born? #112

Begin tape immediately following opening credits; audio is, "Animals, animals, animals, where do they all come from?" PAUSE tape on visual of a deer; the graphic born/hatched is superimposed on screen. Permit students to confirm their belief and to tell animals are either born alive or hatched from eggs. Write born and hatch on chalkboard. Review: most animals born alive are classified in the animal kingdom as mammals. Most that hatch are classified as reptiles, fish or birds. Allow students to share their knowledge of these groups of animals.

Ask, "Do you think we could hatch baby chicks in our classroom?" Allow for student responses. Ask, "What would be needed for this project?" Elicit dis-cussion leading to conclusion that fertilized eggs and an appropriate en-vironment for the eggs to incubate would be necessary. Review difference in fertile and infertile eggs. Show students the in-cubator. Write incubator on chalkboard as you explain, "An incubator is a substitute for a mother hen. Who can tell why?" Allow students to share their beliefs. Ask, "What is (the natural) nature's way of hatching eggs?" Permit students to share their knowledge of the mother hen sitting on the eggs until the embryos have developed into chicks.

Explain: "If we decide to use the incubator and hatch baby chicks, we must be willing to accept the moral obligation that goes along with the project." Write moral obligation on chalkboard. Allow students to tell what they believe moral obligation means. Lead discussion to con-clusion that it means understanding and doing the right thing under a certain circumstance. Role play with students as you present the following scenario and ask students to tell what moral obligation they would have related to it.

Scenario: "You find a dollar bill on the floor, below the coat rack in the class-room. You pick the money up and place it in your pocket; you tell no one at this time. Later, a classmate reports they lost a dollar bill. What are your moral obligations under these circumstances?" Elicit student responses. Guide discussion to an understanding that first, you are morally obligated to tell the teacher you found the dollar in the classroom. The second moral obligation is to return the money to the rightful owner. Expand the moral concept of right/wrong as students are asked to react to the following situations: "Which is right; which is wrong?" You failed to complete your homework. (a) You admit why the homework isn't completed. (b) You tell you lost the homework on the way to school.

You become angry with a classmate and say something hurtful to them. The class-mate reports you to the teacher. (a) You deny having made the hurtful comment. (b) You admit your action was in-appropriate and apologize to the classmate.

Ask, "Do we have a moral obligation to the chicks if we decide to incubate them as a classroom project? What is our obligation?" Encourage students to internalize that the class must identify someone who has a suitable environment for the chicks to live and grow in and that the individual agrees to take the chicks and care for them whenever they can no longer be cared for in the classroom. After students have accepted their moral obligation to the chicks, agree to imple-menting the project.

Say, "Now that we have agreed to accept our obligation to the chicks and because we don't have a mother hen to sit on the eggs ..." To give students a specific responsibility while viewing say, "...watch the next video and be prepared to explain why the words hen, embryo and incubator all apply to our project." RESUME tape. PAUSE tape on visual of an egg with a small hole and chick trying to break the shell; audio is, "Now it's time for them to begin hatching one by one." Show the word card incubator and ask students to tell why it is important to their project. Continue with word cards for embryo and hen as students tell why they are important words. (Confirm a hen is a female chicken; only females can develop eggs.)

Explain that in the absence of a hen, the incubator is needed to keep the fertile eggs moist and warm in order for the embryo to grow and mature inside. Ask, "What temperature does the incubator need to maintain for the eggs to hatch?" (99 degrees Fahrenheit) Ask a volunteer to show 99 degrees Fahrenheit on the classroom thermometer. Ask, "As you watched the video, how many days did you learn the eggs must remain in the incubator?" (18 of the 21 days) Re-inforce that embryo is the developing and growing period inside an egg.

To give students a specific responsibility while viewing say, "Watch the next video and be prepared to describe the fully matured chick break out of its shell." RESUME tape; STOP tape on visual of chick which has just emerged from the shell; audio is, "Aren't they cute?" Review periods in the chick's life cycle when it is referred to as an embryo and when it becomes known as a chick. Conduct a brief interactive session as you encourage students to share any new knowledge they acquired about eggs during the lesson.
Post-Viewing Activities

Place eggs in incubator and begin the incubation period. Explain the im-portance to observe but not disturb the incubator during period of incubation.

Have students research and develop a plan of caring for/feeding the chicks after they have hatched. Estimate a date when chicks can no longer be properly cared for in the classroom and coordinate with whomever has agreed to take the chicks, to come for them.
Action Plan
Invite the individual who agreed to take the chicks, to visit your classroom. Ask them to discuss how they plan to care for them and to describe where the chicks will live and grow to mature chickens. Find out later how many were hens and how many were roosters.

Plan a field trip to visit the property or farm where the chicks will be raised.

If there is a wildlife sanctuary near your community, plan a field trip to learn how birds and other wildlife are protected and cared for in this special area. OR visit a zoo and identify animals that were hatched from eggs and those that were born.
Divide the class into four cooperative groups. Have each group extend their study of animals that hatch from eggs and those that are born by researching and planning a presentation to the class. GROUP A: Prepare a slide presentation using KID PIX COMPANION. GROUP B: Create an appropriate big book. GROUP C: Create a poster or a display unit. GROUP D: Use a tape recorder or a camcorder to create an audio or video tape presentation.

Have students read and present a report to the class based on GREEN EGGS AND HAM by Dr. Seuss.

Have students write creative poems or stories based on "What My Life Was Like While I Was An Embryo."

Survey to find out each student's favorite style of eggs as prepared for breakfast. Design a graph to show results. Display the graph in your classroom.

Place plastic eggs in two baskets. Have students count the eggs and record the numbers. Discuss which basket contains the greatest/least amount.

Create egg shell mosaics. Crush clean egg shells into a variety of sizes, then glue them to heavy paper creating a picture. Provide tempera to paint the pictures. Display pictures on the wall outside your classroom.

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