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Grades K - 2


This lesson will help students understand what a bar graph is and how it can help solve problems. The students will also practice prediction and estimation.
ITV Series
It Figures #16: Bar Graphs
Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
Per class:

Per student:

Materials needed for POST-VIEWING Activities:
Per class:

Per student:

Pre-Viewing Activities
Teacher reading from scroll:

"Hear Ye! Hear Ye! Calling all queens, kings and jacks. By royal proclamation,
you are invited to our castle for a royal celebration!"

Recite Nursery Rhyme

"The Queen of Hearts"
The Queen of Hearts
She made some tarts,
All on a summer's day;
The Knave of Hearts
He stole the tarts,
And took them clean away.
The King of Hearts
Called for the tarts,
And beat the knave full sore;
The Knave of Hearts
Brought back the tarts,
And vowed he'd steal no more.

Teacher: "What was this nursery rhyme about?" Allow time for students'
responses. Teacher may wish to discuss alternatives forms of punishment for the
Focus Viewing
Teacher: "Today, you will be Kings and Queens and you will have a job to do. First, I have a story to show you about a Queen who has a problem. Your job is to find out what her problem is and how she can solve it. Everyone gets a crown and when you hear what the Queen's problem is, put on your crown and I will pause the video and let you tell me what you have discovered."

Viewing Activities
START video at the point approximately 1 minute and 10 seconds into the video with the words "The Queen of Hearts."

PAUSE video when first student puts on a crown. If no one puts on their crown, PAUSE video after the Queen says to King, "I think someone has been stealing my tarts!"

Teacher: "The Queen is running out of tarts before the end of the week and she thinks someone is stealing them. Now, I want you to take off your crowns and listen for how the Queen found out who was stealing her tarts. When you know the answer, put your crown back on and I will pause the video for the answer."

RESUME video.

video when the first crown goes on and discuss answer or STOP video when the King eats the tarts with Knave and discuss.

Teacher: "So, we discovered that the Queen used a graph to solve her problem of who was stealing her tarts and on what day of the week. Did this story sound familiar to you?" Allow time for students' responses.

Teacher: "Where have we heard this story before?" Allow time for students' responses. Allow student's to continue to wear their crowns.
Post-Viewing Activities
Teacher: "Now, you are going to get a chance to practice graphing. Every King and Queen will get their own box of conversation hearts." Pass out boxes of candy hearts.

Teacher: "Before we open our boxes, I will tell you the colors of the hearts in your box. You have purple, pink, white, orange, yellow and green hearts in your box." On a large piece of butcher block paper, the teacher will tape up a construction paper heart for each color mentioned. Pass out a worksheet to each student.

Teacher: "Here is a paper that has six hearts on it. Read the color word and color each heart the correct color." Allow time for coloring.

When class is ready to go on,

Teacher: "Now, I want you to guess, or predict, how many hearts of each color will be in your box and write that number on the top line next to the colored heart. You may do that now." Allow time for prediction. Circulate around class to individualize help as needed.

Teacher: "Now, you can open your boxes and sort the hearts onto your colored heart paper. When you are finished, you can write the correct number of hearts on the bottom line next to that color."

Teacher will again circulate for assistance. When majority of class is through, continue lesson.

Pass out graphing worksheet.

Teacher: "Now, I want you to graph each group of colored candy hearts on your paper. Watch me do one on the overhead. My paper looks just like yours. Look at the first heart at the bottom of the graphing worksheet. What color does it say?" (pink)

Teacher: "That's right, pink. So, I will find my pink hearts and see how many I have." Put pink hearts on top of overhead.

Teacher: "How many pink hearts do I have?" (numbers will vary by box)

Teacher: "So, I will color on my graph that many squares pink. Then, I will continue for all the rest of my hearts. This is called a bar graph, just like the King made for the Queen in our video. Now remember, everyone has their own box and everyone's bar graph may look different. You may begin your bar graph now."

Allow time for graphing and circulate around for assistance and to check for accuracy and understanding.

Teacher to individual students: "Which group has more, less, the same, etc."

Teacher to class: "Once I have checked your paper, you may eat some of your hearts. Try at least one of every color. Decide which one is your favorite and make a construction paper heart of that color and write your name on the front of the heart. When you are finished, tape your colored heart on my large paper under the correct colored heart.

When everyone has had a chance to do this, direct students' attention to large butcher paper.

Teacher: "Now we have made another graph. What have we graphed?" (favorite flavors of candy hearts)

Teacher: "What does our graph show us?" (answers will vary)

Teacher will repeat answers and discuss which color has more, less, same, etc. This lesson can be broken down into sections as needed for age appropriateness.
Action Plan
Have students add or subtract groups of candy hearts. Weigh candy hearts to see if weight matches weight on box label. Weigh each color to see if they all weigh the same. Set up a pretend post office and have students weigh valentines, sell pretend stamps, weigh parcels, etc. Count beats of human heart while resting in a 15 second time period. Exercise and have student re-count heart beats in another 15 second time period.

Creative Writing:
Have students make up their own conversation hearts or have story starter conversation hearts that may say, "You broke my heart because..." or "I want you for my friend because..."

Reading Center can contain Valentine stories, stories about the heart, love, or friendship. Examples: Arthur's Valentine, I Love You Forever or The Giving Tree.

On Valentine's Day Sung to: "Bingo". On Valentine's Day, a special day, I give each friend a heart. H-E-A-R-T, H-E-A-R-T, H-E-A-R-T, I give each friend a heart.

Susan A. Miller
"Be My Valentine" Sung to: "Jingle Bells"

Have a heart, have a heart,
Be my valentine
I like you, yes I do
Be my valentine

Poetry and Fingerplays
One little valentine said, "I love you." (Hold up one finger for each number or use real valentines) Tommy made another; then there were two. Two little valentines, one for me; Mary made another; then there were three. Three little valentines said, "We need one more." Johnny made another; then there were four. Four little valentines, one more to arrive; Susan made another; then there were five. Five little valentines all ready to say, "Be my valentine on this happy day."

Vicki Claybrook
I'm a Little Valentine Sung to: "I'm a Little Teapot"

I'm a little valentine,
Red and white,
With ribbons and lace
I'm a beautiful sight.
I can say I love you
On Valentine's Day
Just put me in an envelope
And give me away!

Valentines are happy,
Never, never sad.
Valentines are funny,
They can make you glad.
Valentines are pretty,
Lacy, red and white.
Valentines are friendly,
Send me one tonight.

Five Little Valentines
Five Little Valentines were have a race.
The first Little Valentine was frilly with lace;
The second Little valentine had a funny face;
The third Little Valentine said, "I Love You."
The fourth Little Valentine said, "I do, too."
The fifth Little Valentine was sly as a fox,
He ran the fastest to your Valentine box!

Students can make their own Valentines using assorted materials such as glitter, sequins, doilies, construction paper, paint, etc. Students may also make Valentine crowns for the lesson.

Student can make Valentine Cherry Tarts

Cream flour/shortening. Add water and salt. Mix will. Roll into small balls and press down into muffin tins with your thumb. Bake 8-10 minutes at 350 degrees. Cool and fill with cherry pie filling or cherry preserves.

Physical Education:
Throne Game--
Place red construction paper tarts on the floor. One student is the Queen of Hearts. Students may take turns at being the Queen. The rest of the students are the royal court. Each student stands on a tart. The Queen calls out "all change places". One student, who is the knave, steals one of the tarts while the royal court is running around. The student who does not have a tart to stand on is the new knave. You may want to do this in a small group too.

Valentine, Valentine,
Red and Blue
Valentine, Valentine
I love you.

Pass the Valentine--
Similar to Hot Potato. Play music while students pass a valentine around the circle. When the music stops, the student holding the valentine has to wish somebody Happy Valentine's Day.

Heart Relay--
Divide class into two teams. Each half of the team stands facing each other about 50 yards apart. One member from each team runs to the other end caring a heart. When they reach their team mate, they recite this poem. "This heart is a sign, come rain or sunshine, I want you to be my valentine." the player hands his or her team mate the heart and the race continues until all of the students have had a turn.

Study the human heart, heartbeats, arteries and veins, the pulse, how to tell if your heart is healthy, nutrition, exercise and rest.

Show students a red paper heart. Ask them to describe what they see. Ask them if it is a real heart. Have the students describe what a real heart is and what it does for our body. Tell the students that their heart is the size of their fist. Use a stethoscope to allow the students to hear their heart beat. Discuss that the heart is a muscle and we must keep it healthy. Show the students that the heart has four chambers or rooms and valves control the flow of blood through the heart. Demonstrate this fact by showing students a picture of a real heart. (Contact your local chapter of the American Heart Association for any resources that may be available.) Count the rooms in the heart. (4) Each chamber has a special name and a special job. Each top chamber is called an "atrium." Next, the bottom chambers are called the "ventricles." The atrium and ventricle on each side are connected by openings called "valves." The valves open and close as our heart pumps blood. (Demonstrate by opening and closing four fingers against thumb.) The top chambers fill with blood, then the heart squeezes or pumps the valves open and the blood goes down into the lower chambers or ventricles.

The first activity demonstrates how the heart pumps blood by squeezing and contracting. Use a bulb syringe or squeeze bottle and red colored water to illustrate how the heart pumps. Allow students to squeeze it. Explain that the heart squeezes similarly each time it beats. Demonstrate how to fill the syringe with water. Squeeze air out, put the tip into water, and release tension on bulb so water is drawn in. Squeeze bulb again so that water squirts out of tip. Explain that as the heart squeezes, blood is pumped or pushed out of the heart.

The second activity demonstrates what is happening to our blood and blood vessels while we feel the throbbing, or pushing, at places on our bodies. Ask children to feel their pulses. Help locate a pulse that can be easily felt at a pulse point. Fill syringes with water and attach deflated balloon over tip. Gently squeeze bulb until balloon fills with water. Then gently "pump" bulb so that balloon expands and contracts with each squeeze. Ask each child to place fingers around balloon and feel it expand and contract. Explain that the balloon it likes our blood vessels. When the heart beats, it pushes or pumps blood through our vessels and the vessels get bigger (expand). We feel the blood pulsing. Then, after each beat, the vessels get smaller (contract).

Social Studies:
Research the history of St. Valentine's Day.

Master Teacher: Lisa Johns

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