Grades 4 - 5
In this lesson students will learn the definition of geometry
and how geometry relates to the real world through the use of interactive
video. They will extract geometric shapes from images of people, places
and things they see in everyday life. Students will identify congruent geometric
shapes, and then analyze geometric shapes used in simple machines.
"Landscape of Geometry 101: The Shape of Things"
Students will be able to:
- Define the word "geometry"
- Define and identify congruent shapes
- Extract geometric shapes from simple machines
per class group
- · variety of simple machines: Lever (wrench, hammer, bottle opener)
- Wheel and axle(doorknobs, rolling pins, can openers, window cranks)
- Pulleys (window shades,curtain rods)
- Gears (clocks, watches, bicycle parts)
- dry erase markers and dry eraser/paper towel
- Paper and colored pencils
- simple machines
The teacher will have set out on a table an assortment of simple
machines (those listed in the Materials section of this lesson).
Teacher asks, "What do all these items have in common? Feel free to
pick them up and examine them." Allow time for responses. "Today
we are going to learn about how all these items are related to one another
through math, or more specifically, through geometry.
To give students a specific responsibility while viewing, ask
students to listen for the words geometer, geometry and congruent and the
definition of each.
Teacher says, "Now we'll begin a video about geometry.
Watch the introduction and see how many different shapes you can identify.
I'll ask you to name them when I pause the video."
START video at the title, "The Landscape of Geometry...Program
PAUSE when title with narrator's name appears. Ask students, "
What shapes did you see during the opening?" Acknowledge answers. "Now
please listen for the word "geometer." Raise your hand when you
hear it AND when you think you know what it means."
PAUSE the video when students raise hands to ask them what "geometer"
may mean. (A person who studies geometry). [It doesn't matter where the
video is paused at this point, because the word "geometer is repeated
several times.] Validate students answers and allow them time to record
the definition on their worksheet. Teacher asks, "So, what is geometry?
Let's keep watching the video to listen for a definition. Raise your hand
when you have the answer."
PAUSE after "that's geometry, the study of shapes and how they
relate to each other in space." Have students repeat definition and
then record it on the worksheet. While image is on the screen, invite several
students to draw on the TV screen what shapes they see in the person. "Now
let's try to focus on imaginary shapes - ones that are not so easily seen,
but are there just the same. Listen for their names."
PAUSE after "a point so small that it has no size at all."
With the use of their hands, say to students, "Show a line that has
no depth." Ask students, " Make a square with your hands that
has no depth." (They should be drawing in the air.) " Also make
a circle that has no depth." (e.g. what hand signal do we use to indicate
that everything is okay?) Can you identify what shapes make up the body
you are about to see?
RESUME and MUTE video. While the video is playing ask students
to call out shapes they see in the body shape.
PAUSE after " the rough geometry out there in the real world."
Ask students to come to the TV screen and draw over the cliffs what shapes
they can identify in the landscape. "Now I want you to listen and learn
to find out what computers can do with geometry."
STOP at the outline of the house when it is not filled in, after
the third window is drawn. Teacher says, "Now I want you to look at
the drawing of the house on your worksheet. It is the same as the one on
the video. I would like you to look at it and see it through the eyes of
a geometer. Can you please use your colored pencils and decipher the geometric
shapes in the house. Color each geometric shape you see a different color."
Allow time for drawing of shapes on the house. "Let's watch the video
to see if your design matched the computer image."
STOP after the grass around the house is colored in. Check student
understanding for finding shapes in things. Teacher says, "Now you
have a sense of how geometry impacts the real world. As the video continues,
I want you to be looking for patterns you may see. This is another part
of geometry. Be alert, for I will ask you to identify the patterns you see."
PAUSE at "look at the pattern of windows on this building." Teacher
asks students to describe any patterns they see. Acknowledge their comments."While
we watch, raise your hand if your pattern is described." Validate student
responses during the video.
PAUSE after all the windows are filled in with color to verbally
acknowledge how the class did with figuring out the patterns. "Now
listen for a new word. It will help to explain shapes that are the same
PAUSE when "exactly the same size and shape" is repeated
for the second time. Ask students to repeat the word congruent and then
explain what it means. They will then take a moment or two to record it
on their information sheet. Teacher directs, "Now while the video is
playing look for other objects that may be congruent. Raise your hand if
you see some and I'll call on your directly."
RESUME AND MUTE. All the while, acknowledge raised hands and
allow students to identify congruent objects.
STOP video where David is standing in front of the trucks with the
towers on a table.
"We have learned about shapes and congruency through this
video. Now let's put that learning to work to see how well you can relate
your new geometry knowledge to the science of simple machines."
"All the items on the table that you looked at before the video are
called simple machines." [Note: These are the simple machines listed
in the Materials section of this lesson] " What are some of their names?"
Validate answers. "A simple machine is called such because it is an
object which works like a machine, yet is constructed from very simple parts.
I want you to look again at the simple machines in front of you as though
they were constructed of geometric shapes. Choose three or four simple machines
which are intriguing to you. On a blank piece of paper, please draw these
simple machines using only geometric shapes. You are welcome to hold and
examine each item. Remember, you are looking at simple machines as though
you were a geometer, seeing shapes as the main components."
Allow students ample time to analyze, manipulate and draw the geometric
shapes of simple machines on their worksheets. Share results with class.
1. Organize a class trip (have students write a letter asking
for permission) to a local hardware store. Ask the vendor to show students
other simple machines and how they are designed using geometry.
2. Walk through your neighborhood and try to determine congruency in homes.
Would a builder do this for ease of construction and planning?
3. Take a tour of a downtown area and examine the architecture of buildings.
Focus on various shapes and how many examples of congruency can be found.
1. Design a variety of buildings using only cut-out geometric shapes (e.g.
a skyline, a landscape)
2. Try to design a pattern with congruent pieces.
3. Use congruent puzzle pieces to design a pair of earrings.
1. Design a tool using geometric shapes. Write a description of this
tool - what it is called, what its purpose is and how it works.
1. Look for and identify various patterns in nature - flowers, animal skins,
2. Using a set of building blocks, ask students to construct a type of simple
Math Mini Mysteries, by Sandra Markle
The Amazing Book of Shapes, by Lydia Sharman
Patterns, by Ivan Bullock
Insides, Outsides, Loops and Lines, by Herbert Kohl
MASTER TEACHER: Amy Swartz
Click here to view the
worksheet associated with this lesson.
Lesson Plan Database
Thirteen Ed Online