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Earth & Space Science: Let It Flow
Grades 5-8


The Earth's surface is constantly changing. Forces like wind, glaciers, and water erode the surface. Forces like earthquakes and volcanoes raise the surface of Earth and form mountains or new land. In this lesson, volcanoes will be explored and examined.
ITV Series
3-2-1 Classroom Contact #13 "Too Hot to Handle"
Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
For each student, group, or teacher demonstration: (Pre-Viewing Activities)
For each group: (Post-Viewing Activity)
For classroom research:
Vocabulary: NOTE: Students will need to understand "ratios" and "scale" to successfully complete this lesson.

Pre-Viewing Activities
TEACHER: What is the Earth made of? (Sand, dirt, mountains, rocks, etc.)

What do you think the center of the Earth is made of? (Answers may vary.) Deep down under the Earth's surface, there is hot, melted rock called magma. OBJECTIVE 5. The magma is always under pressure, and sometimes escapes, which changes the Earth's surface. Let's imagine that a tube of toothpaste is the Earth's surface. The toothpaste inside represents magma that is under the ground. (Let students press the toothpaste evenly around the tube.) Now make a tiny pinhole near the bottom of the tube. Press down near the cap to put pressure on the toothpaste.

What happens? (Toothpaste squirts out of the opening.) This illustrates pressure being applied to a fluid.

What happens when the magma underground is under a tremendous amount of pressure? (It builds up and eventually comes out somewhere.)

What do we call these openings in the Earth's surface that allow magma to spill out? (Volcanoes.)

Predict what becomes of the toothpaste/magma as it oozes to the outside of the tube/Earth's surface. (It hardens.)
Focus Viewing
It is important to give the students a specific responsibility while viewing. Knowing what they are expected to learn allows them to focus on specific information and concepts while watching video.

TEACHER: When you watch the video, I want you to focus on the term used to describe materials that come out of volcanoes. Also be able to tell me the name and location of the world's largest active volcano.
Viewing Activities
VIDEO: 3-2-1 Classroom Contact #13 "Too Hot to Handle"

START the video at the beginning.
PAUSE after the helicopter lands.

TEACHER: What is the term to describe the material that comes out of a volcano? (Ejecta.) OBJECTIVE 5. Name the volcano that is being studied? (Mauna Loa in Hawaii.) In this next part of the video, focus on the reason geologists take samples of lava.

RESUME the video.
PAUSE when the helicopter is taking off.

TEACHER: Why do geologists want samples of lava? (To check from how deep the magma came and its composition.)

What tools and equipment are needed? (Shield, gloves, can, hammer, and canteen for water.)

What do you feel as the red interior is exposed? (Tremendous heat is given off.)

Now focus on what happens to the ejecta after it reaches the Earth's surface.

RESUME the video.
PAUSE on the two students.

TEACHER: What happens to the lava and other materials reaching the Earth's surface? (Cool and form new land.) OBJECTIVE 1. How long has this been happening at this particular volcano? (Scientists estimate about 3,000 yrs.) How large is this volcano? (Over 30,000 ft. tall and 15 miles wide.)

TEACHER: Think about the amount of material that comes out of an erupting volcano. How is this measured? (Accept all answers.)

In our next segment, focus on the amount of ejecta from the two volcanoes. Also be able to explain a cubic meter.

RESUME the video.
PAUSE as the girl readies to pop the second batch of popcorn.

TEACHER: Someone explain a cubic meter. (M x M x M.) How many cubic meters of lava came out of Mauna Loa in a month? (220 million.)

What type of ejecta came out of Mt. St. Helens? (Ash.)

How much? (1 billion cubic meters!)

Next, focus on how the surface of Mt. St. Helens changed after the eruption.

RESUME the video.
PAUSE after students put the last batch of popcorn in the box.

TEACHER: How did the eruption change the surface around the volcano? (Developed a moon-like surface.) Describe the change in the volcano. (A huge crater formed.) Now focus on how much ash was ejected from the volcano.

RESUME the video.
PAUSE after the amount is given.

TEACHER: How much ash did scientists determine came out of Mt. St. Helens? (1 billion cubic meters.) What was this equal to? (Enough to go around the world 20 times.)

TEACHER: Scientists classify volcanoes into three main types: cinder cones, shield volcanoes, and stratovolcanoes, which are "composite" volcanoes. Let's take a look at examples of these three different kinds of volcanoes. Be able to give us information about each of the three types of volcanoes we visit.

LASERDISC: Windows on Science; Earth Science, Vol. 1, "Hitting the Hot Spots"

Teacher INSERTS the laserdisc, locates Frame 23660 and STARTS.

"Cinder cones are the smallest type of volcano and are formed by the piling up of ash, cinders, and rocks, all of which are called pyroclastic material. The material forms a symmetrical, steep-sided cone around the vent of the volcano. An example of a cinder cone is Sunset Crater, near Flagstaff, Arizona." Teacher checks information from the students.

Teacher locates Frame 23625 and STARTS.

"Shield volcanoes are built by the accumulation of very fluid lava flows that spread out to produce a mountain with broad, gentle slopes. These are the largest of all volcanoes. Mauna Loa in Hawaii is an example of an active shield volcano." Teacher checks information from the students.

Teacher locates Frame 23622 and STARTS.

"A stratovolcano or composite volcano is the most common type of volcano on Earth. It is (frame 23669) built up of lava flows interlayered with pyroclastic material to form a steep-sided and symmetrical cone shape. There are several in North America; Mount Saint Helens, Mount Ranier and Mount Shasta are a few examples." OBJECTIVE 4. Teacher checks information from the students.

TEACHER: We're going to find where these volcanoes appear. Here is a list of volcanoes with their latitude and longitude measurements.

(The teacher tapes a plain transparency on the monitor and labels longitude and latitude markings of the world.) Someone should come up to the monitor (Frame 18404) and plot the location of one of the volcanoes by longitude and latitude. (Students take turns locating on the transparency as many volcanoes as possible.) Now let's check our answers. (Frame 18406 gives the answers.)

What is the "ring of fire"? (Accept all answers.)

Teacher locates and plays Frame 17994 to show the "ring of fire" in comparison with the Earth's major geological plates.

TEACHER: Let's theorize why volcanoes occur where they do. (Accept all logical theories.) OBJECTIVES 3 & 6. To better understand the composition and activity of volcanoes, we're going to build one and see what develops.
Post-Viewing Activities
The teacher may choose groups or have students choose their own groups. A variety of materials must be available to the students. The common eruption material will be the vinegar and soda.

TEACHER: Each group will choose a paticular volcano to model. Find a volcano to model on the computer using the New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia CD. Gather information about your choice of volcano, such as the size, location, and any other needed information for your project. Build your models to scale. For example: Mauna Loa in Hawaii is about 13,680 ft. high, 75 miles long, and 65 miles wide. You are to build a model with the ratio of 2 in.: 1,000 ft. OBJECTIVE 2.

TEACHER: The materials you may choose are papier-mache, sand and dirt, paper, or any other material. Be sure to check with me beforehand to get materials and the OK to begin. I will need to see your information and the ratios you will use.

Assessment: When the models are completed, the students are to plan and present a demonstration for the class giving brief information on their volcano.
Action Plan

Master Teacher: Devon Huston

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