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Constructivism Resources

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Page-upBooks

Brooks, J.G. and M.G. Brooks. IN SEARCH OF UNDERSTANDING: THE CASE FOR CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOMS. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1993.

Copple, C., L. Sigel, and R. Saunders. EDUCATING THE YOUNG THINKER. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1984.

Darling-Hammond, Linda, et al. EXCELLENCE IN TEACHER EDUCATION: HELPING TEACHERS DEVELOP LEARNER-CENTERED SCHOOL. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association School Restructuring Series, 1992.

Dewey, John. EXPERIENCE AND EDUCATION. New York: Macmillan, 1938. Duckworth, E. "THE HAVING OF WONDERFUL IDEAS" AND OTHER ESSAYS ON TEACHING AND LEARNING. New York: Teachers College Press, 1987.

Duffy, Thomas M., and David H. Jonassen. CONSTRUCTIVISM AND THE TECHNOLOGY OF INSTRUCTION: A CONVERSATION. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Association, 1993.

Forman, G., and F. Hill. CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY: APPLYING PIAGET IN THE PRESCHOOL. Monteray, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1980.

Forman, George E. THE CHILD'S CONSTRUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE: PIAGET FOR TEACHING CHILDREN. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1983.

Fosnot, Catherine Twoomey. CONSTRUCTIVISM: THEORY, PERSPECTIVES, AND PRACTICE. New York: Teachers College Press, 1989.

Fosnot, Catherine Twoomey. ENQUIRING TEACHERS, ENQUIRING LEARNERS: A CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH TO TEACHING. New York: Teachers College Press, 1989.

Kamii, Constance. EARLY LITERACY: A CONSTRUCTIVIST FOUNDATION FOR WHOLE LANGUAGE. Washington D.C.: National Education Association Early Childhood Educational Series, 1991.

Vygotsky, L. S. THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1962.



Page-upArticles

"Constructivist Theory"
http://www.gwu.edu/~tip/bruner.html
In this brief article, constructivism is explained using the theory of learning developed by the developmental psychologist, Jerome Bruner.

Conway, Judith "Education Technology's Effect on Models of Instruction"
http://copland.udel.edu/~jconway/EDST666.htm#cogapp
In this article, Judith Conway gives an overview of how models of instruction, based upon a synthesis of theories on how humans learn, has contributed to the idea of instructional design.

CSCL - A brief overview and interesting links for further study
http://www.uib.no/People/sinia/CSCL/web_struktur-4.htm
The Department of Information Science at the University of Bergen in Norway produces this site on Technology Education. This page features a graphic representation of the idea of constructivism.

E. Hein, George "Constructivist Learning Theory: The Museum and the Needs of the People"
http://www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/constructivistlearning.html
Professor Hein writes about constructivist principles of teaching in relation to the use of the museum as an educational resource.

Overview of Cognitive Constructivism
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/cognitiv.htm
This is a good site to continue with your research on constructivism. It brings you to more links on other theories related to this concept. Review of Jeff Creswell's Creating Worlds, Constructing Meanings: The Scottish

Storyline Method
http://www.asu.edu/educ/edrev/reviews/rev8.htm
Related to how constructivist principles are practiced, the review describes the "story-line method" of a constructivist approach to the teaching of Language Arts, developed at Jordanline Center of Education, Scotland.

What is Constructivism?
http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/lindavr/lindapg1.htm
This is another piece to reinforce our understanding of constructivism. It is part of a minitutorial on theories of computer-assisted education.

von Glasersfeld, E. "A constructivist approach to teaching." In Steffe, L. and Gale, J., ed. CONSTRUCTIVISM IN EDUCATION, (pp. 3-16) NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.



Page-upWeb Sites

 Major Theorists
 Practitioners
 Theorists and Practitioners associated with Behaviorism
 Brief Introduction to Behaviorism
 Constructivist Project Demonstrations
 Lesson plan databases
 Principles of Constructivism Put to Practice
 Bookmarks for Lesson Plans - Shape Shifters
 Bookmarks for Lesson Plans - Interactive Tessellation Sites
 Bookmarks for Lesson Plans - Resources
 Bookmarks for Lesson Plans - Cultural Resources
 Bookmarks for Lesson Plans - Sizing Seismograms

American Memory Project
http://memory.loc.gov/

Constructivism
http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/constructivism.html
Developed by Martin Ryder, University of Colorado at Denver, School of Education, this site offers definitions, readings, corollary websites, and many links to related theories.

Constructivism and the Five E's
http://www.miamisci.org/ph/lpintro5e.html
Developed by the Miami Museum of Science, this site describes a framework developed by Roger Bybee and his colleagues on the Biological Science Curriculum Study (BSCS) team. This site links to models for classroom use.

Constructivism: From Philosophy to Practice
http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle.html
Developed by Elizabeth Murphy of Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, this site opens by describing Socrates and his connection to constructivism. It links to a bibliography and classroom connections.

Constructivism - Elementary
http://www.indiana.edu/%7Eeric_rec/ieo/bibs/cons-ele.html
Maintained by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English and Communication at Indiana University, this site lists ERIC documents on constructivism in elementary education. Some of the articles are applicable across the grade levels.

Epistemological Constructivism
http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/construc.html
Developed by Francis Heylighen, this site describes epistemology, cybernetics, and systems theory with links to important thinkers in the fields, social constructivism, physical constructivism, and a discussion forum.

Essays on Constructivism and Education
http://www.towson.edu/csme/mctp/Essays.html
Developed by Tom O'Haver at the Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation, this site provides a list of highly relevant and diverse articles that can be accessed right away.

Radical Constructivism
http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/
Developed by Alex Riegler, this site opens with a discussion of the philosophical roots of constructivism and includes a wide range of links to conferences, education-related articles, examples of specific school-based programs, controversial issues, and a discussion forum.


Page-up Major Theorists

Ernst von Glasersfeld
http://www.oikos.org/vonen.htm

Jean Piaget
http://www.piaget.org

Jerome Bruner
http://www.psych.nyu.edu/people/faculty/bruner/index.html

John Dewey
http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-dewey.htm


Page-up Practitioners

Robert McClintock
http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/text_version/ilt/staff/rom.html

Roger Schank
http://www.cognitivearts.com/html/roger.htm

Seymour Papert
http://www.papert.org


Page-up Theorists and Practitioners associated with Behaviorism

B.F. Skinner
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhskin.html

Behaviorism
http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/b/behavior.htm


Page-up Brief Introduction to Behaviorism

Behaviorists Theorists
http://tiger.coe. oves ri.edu/~t377/btheorists.html

Beyond Freedom and Dignity
http://www.bfskinner.org/BookDetail.asp?sku=4
A review of one of Skinner's books, BEYOND FREEDOM AND DIGNITY.

E.L. Thorndike
http://www.ittheory.com/thornd.htm

Ivan Pavlov
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhpavl.html

Robert Gagne
http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Gagne.htm/


Page-up Constructivist Project Demonstrations

CoVis Project
http://www. oves.nwu.edu/info/what-is-covis.html
The CoVis Project, based at the Institute of Learning Sciences at Northwestern University, is one which attempts to show constructivist principles of learning. Its focus is to provide students with a range of collaboration and communication tools so that they may create collaborative and inquiry-based projects. A great site to see how participation works at the global level, too.

GLOBE
http://www.globe.gov
Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is a worldwide network of students, teachers, and scientists working together to study and understand the global environment. Students and teachers from over 7,000 schools in more than eighty countries work with research scientists on a variety of collaborative projects using real-time data to learn more about our planet.

Project Construct
http://www.projectconstruct.org/
"Project Construct" promotes the concept of constructivism. This is a good start for information on how the idea is promoted to schools.

USENET Model of Constructivist Learning
http://www.cudenver.edu/~mryder/aect_95.html
This document describes a model of constructivist and collaborative interchange through the Internet.

ThinkQuest
http://www.thinkquest.org
ThinkQuest offers an online contest designed to encourage the use of the Internet for teaching and learning in K-12 classrooms.Student teams from all over the world compete for scholarships by building Web sites. Visit http://www.thinkquest.org/library/ to access over 1000 educational Web sites created by students.

Xpeditions
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/
Resources developed by National Geographic of online geography projects classrooms can join. See their "Resources" for a list of projects grouped by the national geography standards they support.


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Lesson plan Databases

Classroom Connect
http://www.classroom.net/
Visit Classroom Connect for searchable a lesson database and a wide variety of resources for the K-12 teacher. There is also a Teacher Contact Database where you can search for colleagues who share your interests and a free newsletter for teachers to subscribe to.

The Global Schoolhouse
http://www.gsh.org
Go there for educational resources including a lesson database or get involved in Global SchoolNet projects and educational LISTSERVs.

Thirteen Ed Online
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/
See Thirteen Ed Online's "Educators" section for original lesson plans developed by their Master Teachers. The lessons use the rich resources of PBS affiliates, Thirteen/WNET New York, and the Internet.


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Principles of Constructivism Put to Practice

CASE-BASED INSTRUCTIONS
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/case.htm

Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism: Anchored Instruction
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/ai.htm

CONSTRUCTION KITS/SIMULATIONS
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/conkits.htm

CONSTRUCTIVIST INFORMATION BANKS
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/infobank.htm

GAMES
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/congames.htm

ON COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/collab.htm

ON MICROWORLDS
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/microw.htm

ON SITUATED LEARNING
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/situ.htm

PROBLEM SOLVING
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/problems.htm

SYMBOL PADS
http://www.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/symbolp.htm

Glossary
http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~ostwald/glossaries/kc-glossary.html
This site offers definition of additional terms related to constructivism.


Page-up Bookmarks for Lesson Plans - Shape Shifters

The World of Escher - Artwork Gallery
http://www.WorldOfEscher.com/gallery/
A place for browsing and becoming more familiar with some of Escher's best artworks.

NGA - M.C. Escher - Life and Work
http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/ggescher/ggescher-main1.html
The National Gallery of Art's Escher Web site. Examples of tessellations can be found in all rooms.

Computer Art Inspired by M.C. Escher and Victor Vasarely
http://web.inter.nl.net/hcc/Hans.Kuiper/
This is a site about tessellations (tiles, tessels or regular patterns), optical art and illusions, Islamic art, auto stereograms, company logos, quilt patterns, and palindromes. The site features many animations.

Hop's Escher Tessellation Tiles
http://www.tabletoptelephone.com/~hopspage/HopsTiles.html
This site is a gallery of tessellations influenced by Escher's work.


Page-up Bookmarks for Lesson Plans - Interactive Tessellation Sites

The Seventeen Wallpaper Tilings
http://www.ScienceU.com/geometry/articles/tiling/wallpaper.html
Explanations of how each of the seventeen wallpaper tilings are built. Provides an introduction to creating them using the program, Kali. A link is provided to the interactive Java Kali site.

Triangle Tilings and Polyhedra
http://www.ScienceU.com/geometry/articles/tritile/
This site contains information on making patterns and 3D shapes from colored triangular tiles and the importance of the tiles' shapes. The site includes a link to the program Interactive Triangle Tiling Maker.

Interactive Triangle Tiling Maker
http://www.ScienceU.com/geometry/handson/trigrp/trigrp.cgi?group5=on
Triangle Tiling is the process of taking many copies of a single triangle and laying them next to each other to fill an area. With the different patterns you can create flat tiles, or see how to make polyhedra out of bent triangles.


Page-up Bookmarks for Lesson Plans - Resources

Math Forum Suzanne Alejandre: Tessellations
http://mathforum.org/sum95/suzanne/tess.intro.html
Tutorials for creating tessellations using ClarisWorks, Geometers Sketchpad, HyperCard, HyperStudio, PC Paintbrush, or Paint.

Geometry and Spatial Sense
http://garnet.acns.fsu.edu/~jflake/math/GeomSp/GeomSp.html
Definitions and lesson plan resources.

Middle Level Mathematics: M.C. Escher: The Poet of the Impossible
http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/midlmath/escher.html
Hands-on computer activities.

Introduction to Tilings
http://www.scienceu.com/geometry/articles/tiling/
In this article, you can read about many different kinds of tiling, the math behind them, how to make them, and how to classify them.


Page-up Bookmarks for Lesson Plans - Cultural Resources

Native American Geometry Designs
http://www.earthmeasure.com/Designs/index.html
This site links Native American and historic American designs to specific polygons. Explore the design variations that a particular polygon family can generate.


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Sizing Seismograms

Earthquakes: Eyewitness accounts
http://www.zephryus.demon.co.uk/education/geog/tectonics/witness/eye.html
Five eyewitness accounts of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in San Francisco. The first three are the best, prticularly the first. Anniversary: The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 http://www.disasterrelief.org/Disasters/010326alaskaquake1964/ Describes earthquake and tsunami damage by the second largest earthquake ever recorded. Also describes the physical changes left in its wake. Earthquake

Hazards
http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/hazards.html
A good discussion of the hazards of earthquakes from ground displacement to tsunamis. Written by the University of Michigan on their UPSeis homepage.

Before, During, and After
http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/bda.html
How to prepare for and survive an earthquake. An interesting list of dos and don'ts. Written by the University of Michigan on their UPSeis homepage.

Earthquakes: The Richter Scale
http://www.zephryus.demon.co.uk/education/geog/tectonics/richt.html
Examines both the Richter and Mercalli scales and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. Describes the upward force exerted on objects by earthquakes and gives a table of acceleration.

Savage Earth online
http://web-cr05.pbs.org/wnet/savageearth/index.html
Good explanations with animations on plate tectonics, earthquake causes and seismic motion, volcanoes, and tsunamis. Requires the Flash plug-in.

Electronic Desktop Project: Virtual Earthquake
http://vcourseware.sonoma.edu/
Produced by California State University, this excellent site asks a student to choose a location for an earthquake and then produces actual seismograms of past earthquakes in the chosen area. Students use the seismograms to practice measuring seismic amplitude and time in order to calculate the magnitude and epicenter of the earthquake. The site encourages students to be accurate and gives opportunities to correct their calculations. The site awards students with a printable personal certificate when the exercises are completed.

Live Internet Seismic Server
http://aslwww.cr.usgs.gov/Seismic_Data/heli.htm
This site gives 24-hour real-time seismic data from around the world. Useful to obtain enough data for triangulating epicenter location.

Make Your Own Seismogram!
http://quake.geo.berkeley.edu/bdsn/make_seismogram.html
Real-time seismic data from sixteen locations in central and northern California. You specify the time and date. Also gives twenty-four-hour reports. You can also adjust the distance between the lines by raising the pixel number.

PNSN Webicorder Display
http://www.geophys.washington.edu/SEIS/PNSN/WEBICORDER/welcome.html
Seismic data from seven sites in the northwest recorded for one week by the University of Washington.

The Java Helicorder
http://www.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/ichinose/JavaWorm/WormWavesApplet.html
Students may find it interesting to view a live seismometer at work. With luck, they may see an earthquake as it happens. This site uses Java code. Some browsers freeze when running Java. Check yours before using.

Outline Maps
http://www.eduplace.com/ss/ssmaps
Black and white outline maps with scales produced by the Houghton Mifflin Co. Useful for finding epicenters.

USGS: Ask A Geologist
http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/ask-a-geologist/
Ask questions about earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, rocks, maps, ground water, lakes, or rivers.

Build Your Own Seismometer
http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/lessons/indiv/davis/hs/Seismograph.html
Can be made out of ordinary items found at home or the corner store. Written by U.C. Berkeley.

Seismic Monitor Recent Earthquakes
http://www.iris.edu/seismon/last30days.phtml
A list of global seismic events for the past thirty days by IRIS.

IRIS: WILBER II
http://www.iris.washington.edu/cgi-bin/wilberII_page1.pl
An archive of global seismograms from 1990 by IRIS, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology.



Page-upVideos

Video on Jean Piaget
http://www.davidsonfilms.com/piaget.htm
Documentary on the work of this major psychologist who laid the foundation for modern constructivist thinking in the area of intellectual development of the individual.

Video on Lev Vygotsky
http://www.davidsonfilms.com/vygotsky.htm
Documentary on another major theorist on constructivism. Lev Vygotsky's life and contribution to the social and collaborative aspects of constructivism is presented.

Video on Giants Psychology
http://www.davidsonfilms.com/giants.htm
This video series introduces important theorists in constructivism. The life, work, times, and contribution of some of the big names in psychology. Using What We Know: Applying Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development to

Primary Classrooms
http://www.davidsonfilms.com/using.htm
This video demonstrates how Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development is used in the classroom. Three teachers are featured in this video narrated by Professor David Elkinds of Tufts University.

TeacherNet: Inquiry into Sharks, a production of Thirteen/WNET Educational Resources Center. 1999.



Page-upMaterials

HyperStudio
http://www.hyperstudio.com/

Inspiration Software
http://www.inspiration.com

The Great Solar System Rescue
http://www.tomsnyder.com/products/productdetail.asp?PS=GREGSD



Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning
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