Key
Principles
Three
Constructivist Design Models
Stepbystep
Lesson Planning with Prompts and Tips
Three
Constructivist Design Models
.
The Learning Cycle is a threestep design that can be used as
a general framework for many kinds of constructivist activities.
The Learning Cycle is a timehonored model of the learning process
that was first used in science education. The process begins with
the "discovery" phase. In it, the teacher encourages students
to generate questions and hypotheses from working with various
materials. Next, the teacher provides "concept introduction" lessons.
Here the teacher focuses the students' questions and helps them
create hypotheses and design experiments. In the third step, "concept
application," students work on new problems that reconsider
the concepts studied in the first two steps. You may find this
cycle repeating many times throughout a lesson or unit.
.
Another constructivist learning design was developed by George
W. Gagnon. Jr., and Michelle Collay.
In this model, teachers implement a number of steps in their teaching
structure. They:
 develop a situation
for students to explain
 select a process for groupings
of materials and students
 build a bridge between
what students already know and what the teachers want them
to learn
 anticipate questions
to ask and answer without giving away an explanation
 encourage students to exhibit
a record of their thinking by sharing it with others, and
 solicit students' reflections
about their learning.
.
Robert O. McClintock^{
1} and John B. Black^{
2}
of Columbia University Teachers College derived yet another design
model from several computer technologysupported learning environments
at the Dalton School in New York.
The Information Construction (ICON) model contains seven stages:

 . Observation:
Students make observations of primary source materials embedded
in their natural context or simulations thereof.
 . Interpretation
Construction: Students interpret their observations and
explain their reasoning.
 . Contextualization:
Students construct contexts for their explanations.
 . Cognitive
Apprenticeship: Teachers help student apprentices master
observation, interpretation, and contextualization.
 . Collaboration:
Students collaborate in observation, interpretation, and contextualization.
 . Multiple
Interpretations: Students gain cognitive flexibility by
being exposed to multiple interpretations from other students
and from expert examples.
 . Multiple
Manifestations: Students gain transferability by seeing
multiple manifestations of the same interpretations.
1.
2.
Workshop: Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning
Explanation  Demonstration  Exploration  Implementation
Concept to Classroom  About the Series  Resources  Sitemap  Credits
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