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560-661   661-750   751-983   984-1289   1290-1918   1914-2005

1530-2006 (Islam in America)
The Umayyads: 661-750

661 Mu'awiya becomes the first Umayyad Khalifa.

662 Ziyad ibn Abihi, becomes Umayyad governor of Basra.

670 Foundation of Qayrawan, first Islamic city in North Africa. Uqba ibn Nafi, an Arab general, conquers western Algeria and Morocco.

674- 679 Muslim armies unsuccessfully besiege Constantinople.

680 Yazid ibn Mu'awiya, son of Mu'awiya, succeeds his father as Khalifa.
October: Husayn, son of Ali, is killed in the Battle of Karbala. This event cements the schism between Shi'i and Sunni Muslims. Husayn's martyrdom is commemorated by Shi'i Muslims to this day.

683 The Umayyads sack Medina to subdue uprisings.

683- 692 Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr seizes Mecca and declares himself Khalifa.

684 Mu'awiya II becomes Khalifa after the death of his father, Yazid. Mu'awiya II cedes the title to Marwan ibn al-Hakam after four months rule.

685 Abd al- Malik ibn Marwan becomes Khalifa. Al-Muktar believes that Ali's son, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, is the next Mahdi (divinely guided Imam who establishes justice on earth) and leads a revolt in Iraq.

691 The Al-Aqsa Mosque and The Dome of the Rock are built in Jerusalem.

692 Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, an Umayyad general, captures Mecca. Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr is killed; the end of the dual caliphate.

705 Walid ibn Abd al Malik becomes Khalifa upon his father's death and builds the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus.

705- 715 Qutayba ibn Muslim leads the conquest of Transoxiana (modern day Uzbekistan and Southwest Kazakhstan).

711 Umar II ibn Abd al-Aziz is appointed Khalifa.

719 Narbonne, France is conquered.

720 Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik becomes Khalifa.

724 Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik inherits the caliphate from his brother.

728 Hasan al-Basri, Imam of Basra, dies. Noted for his asceticism and considered one of the earliest Sufis.

732 Frankish leader, Charles Martel, halts the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula in the Battle of Tours.

743 Yazid III ibn al-Walid ibn Abd becomes Khalifa for six months. Ibrahim ibn al-Walid rules for a short time before he abdicates the throne. Marwan II ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan inherits an unstable empire. Discontent with Umayyad rule was prevalent among Shi'is and non-Arabs.

747 Descendants of Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas, make claims to the Caliphate. Abu Muslim, backed by the Abbasids, leads the revolution against the Umayyads.

749 Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah proclaims to be the next Khalifa.

750 Khalifa Marwan II is defeated at the Battle of Zab. The end of Umayyad rule. Abu al-Abbas becomes the first Abbasid Khalifa.

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