OVERVIEW PROCEDURES FOR TEACHERS
Procedures for Teachers
Introductory Activity: The Basic Beliefs and Practices of Islam
- Explain to your students that they will be learning about some of the basic beliefs and practices of Islam, the religion followed by Muslims. Ask students to begin by brainstorming a list of things that they know about Islam. Have students record their thoughts about Islam privately, without discussing the responses as a class. Ask students to hold on to their responses (or you may collect them). Explain to them that throughout the course of the next activity they will learn more about the basic beliefs and practices of Islam, and that after they complete the activity they will have time to review and revise their responses.
- Explain to students that in this lesson they are going to learn about the basic beliefs of Islam and focus on learning about the core duties of Muslims, the Five Pillars. Divide the class into pairs and direct students to the Council on Islamic Education Web site. Provide them with a Focus for Media Interaction, instructing them to read the sections: "The Major Beliefs of Islam," "The Five Pillars," and "Many Dimensions" and record, on their Student Response Sheet 1, the five major beliefs and the name of each of the Five Pillars and a description of that pillar. After students have recorded this information, review the five major beliefs and the Five Pillars as a whole class, addressing any questions, such as vocabulary and definitions, during the discussion. Record a list of the Five Pillars on the board during the class discussion so students have a clear visual reference to all of the pillars throughout the rest of the lesson.
Learning Activities -- The Five Pillars in Depth
Explain to students that you will be looking at each pillar in detail beginning with the first pillar, which is Shahadah or belief. To begin, go to the BBC Web site www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/customs/shahadah/index.shtml. Have students read about what it means to proclaim faith or belief as a Muslim. Have students, individually, silently read the Shahadah. Ask the students to think about what the Shahadah means. Why do they think that this statement is a significant part of being a Muslim? Record their thoughts on their Student Response Sheet 2, and discuss these questions as a class.
How is this statement of belief similar to other religions? How is it different? Some examples are the Shema Israel and the Thirteen Articles of Faith in Judaism or the Nicene Creed in Christianity.
Next, students will look more closely at the second pillar, which is Salat or prayer. Have students watch the video segment "Muslim Prayer," as well as read the information from the BBC at www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/customs/salat/index.shtml and www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/worship/index.shtml and watch the two streaming clips about prayer preparation and the set of movements for prayer. Provide them with a Focus for Media Interaction, instructing students to view the clip and record answers to the following questions on their Student Response Sheet 2.
- Describe the process that Muslims go through to prepare to pray. Describe the process of praying in Islam. How many times each day, and when, do Muslims pray? What do the prayers sound like? What do the movements look like? In which direction do Muslims pray? Why do they face this way? What are some of the things Muslims say during prayer? Why do Muslims pray? After viewing the clips and the Web sites, discuss, as a large group, the questions from their Students Response Sheet. How is prayer in Islam similar to prayer in other religions? How is it different? Why is prayer important in Islam?
Next, students will examine the third pillar, which is Zakaat or almsgiving. Have students watch the video segment "Zakaat" and read the information about Zakaat at www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/customs/zakat/index.shtml. Provide them with a Focus for Media Interaction, instructing students to view the clip and record answers to the following questions on their Student Response Sheet 2:
After students have viewed the clip and the Web site, discuss what they have learned about Zakaat. What other religions ask believers to donate money? How is this similar to other religions? How is this different.
- What is Zakaat?
- What is emphasized in Zakaat?
- Why do Muslims make donations?
- How much money is a person expected to give to charitable causes?
- What is the relationship between prayer and money?
- How is zakaat different from ordinary charity that Muslims might give?
Next, students will examine the fourth pillar, which is fasting or Sawm. Have students watch the video segment "Islamic Celebrations" and read the information at www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/customs/sawm/index.shtml. Provide them with a Focus for Media Interaction, instructing students to view the clip and record answers to the following questions on their Student Response Sheet 2:
After students have viewed the clip and read the information on the Web site, discuss what they have learned about Sawm. How does fasting from eating and other activities affect people's spiritual state of mind? What other religions include fasting? How is Sawm similar to fasting in other religions? How is it different?
- As part of the Muslim religion, what does it mean to fast?
- Why do Muslims fast?
- What and when is Ramadan?
- What is Eid al-Fitr?
Finally, students will examine the fifth pillar, which is pilgrimage or Hajj. Have students view "Hajj -- Part I" and "Hajj -- Part III" from RELIGION & ETHICS NEWSWEEKLY. Provide them with a Focus for Media Interaction, instructing students to view the clip and record answers to the following questions on their Student Response Sheet 2:
After students have viewed the clips and recorded the information, discuss the questions with the class. What do they think it is like to be a pilgrim in Mecca? Why do they think Hajj is one of the Five Pillars? What is the significance of Abraham to pilgrims? What other religions incorporate the idea of pilgrimage?
- How often must Muslims participate in Hajj?
- Where do Muslims go during Hajj?
- How many Muslims participate in Hajj?
- What is the goal of Hajj?
- What and where is the Ka'bah? Describe this place.
- What does it mean to enter spiritual purity?
- What is the purpose of the special garments?
- How does Mubarek describe his experiences as a pilgrim?
- After students have looked more closely at each of the Five Pillars, divide them into pairs. Instruct each pair to create a poster about the Five Pillars to be displayed in the classroom and around the school to help educate their schoolmates about Islam. Drawing on the information they gathered and recorded on their Student Response Sheet as a resource, each poster must include: a listing of the Five Pillars, a description of each of the practices and how people fulfill these obligations, and illustrations or images that relate to each of the pillars. (For the illustrations and images, it may be helpful for students to view the clips and Web sites again, looking specifically for prevalent visual images and symbols, if they do not remember what they have seen previously. They can also look at the sites below for imagery.) Have students share their completed posters with the class, discussing the information and images used on the posters.
Useful Web sites for Islamic art/architecture images:
- Ask students to take out the list they brainstormed in the introductory activity. Ask them to review and revise the list based on what they've learned in this lesson. How have their conceptions of Islam changed?
World Cultures/ Comparative Religion
Have students research other religions, such as Judaism and Hinduism, and learn about their basic practices and duties. Students will then create a project that illustrates the similarities and differences among these religions, and Islam, in relation to practices and duties.
Sociology/ Culture/ Religion
Leading a religious life and fulfilling religious duties can sometimes seem to conflict with modern life and society. Contact local mosques or community centers and have students speak with Muslims in their community about how they fulfill their duties as outlined in the Five Pillars and how these practices fit into their busy lives with work, school, and family. If students cannot speak with Muslims in their community, use resources such as RELIGION & ETHICS NEWSWEEKLY, the BBC, and NPR, which have features on Muslims and their daily lives and practices.
If possible, have your students meet with Muslims in your community to learn about their religious practices and views. Interview Muslims who have participated in Hajj, and talk to Muslims during the month of Ramadan to learn about fasting and almsgiving. Contact religious leaders or scholars to learn more about prayer and belief.
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