Bill Baker's Blog

Perspectives on the Media from New York Public Television

Media Blogs

staff | June 29th, 2010

Mediashift is a site covering media developments; readers may post comments online

Public Broadcast Musings
Readers can post comments on developments in public broadcasting

The Romenesko column offers media industry “news, commentary and memos”

Lost Remote
Covers developments in merging of TV and Internet; allows posting of comments on each story

Radio Info
Readers may post comments for 12 TV markets: New York City, New York state, New England, Philadelphia, Chicago, state of Illinios, Atlanta, Texas, Phoenix, Los Angeles, state of California, and Canada

New York Radio Message Board
Readers, including many broadcasting professionals, post comments on
developments in New York area radio and television

Digital Television Blog

You Tube
Readers may upload videos on this site

E Video Share
Readers may upload videos on this site

Broadcasting and Journalism Resources

staff | June 29th, 2010

Official site of the Federal Communications Commission

National Association of Broadcasters, national organization of commercial TV and radio stations

National Association of Black Owned Broadcasters

Spanish Broadcasters Association

Society of Professional Journalists
Official site of the Society of Professional Journalists, a national organization of broadcast and print journslists, which focuses on ethics and other issues

Radio and Television News Directors Association
An organization of TV and radio journalists

Poynter Institute
Focusing on issues of journalism ethics

Pew Research Center
Research in journalism and its affect on the people

New York State Broadcasters Association
NYSBA is an organization of, and represents, the state’s TV and radio stations; site lists job openings and other resources and information

New Jersey Broadcasters Association
Represents New Jersey’s radio and TV stations; site contains multiple resources

Connecticut Broadcasters Association
Connecticut Broadcasters Association represents state’s broadcasters, and has information on job openings and other issues

New York Committee On Open Government
Works on Freedom of Information issues in New York state

Connecticut Foundation for Open Government
CFOG works with the Connecticut Freedom of Information Commission; site is a resource for information on FOI issues in Connecticut

New York Press Club
New York Press Club is the metro area’s broadcast and print journalist organization

Connecticut Press Club
An organization of broadcast and print journalists

Unity Journalists of Color
An organization of minority journalists

National Association of Black Journalists
An organization of black broadcast and print journalists

National Association of Hispanic Journalists
An organization of Hispanic broadcast and print journalists

Native American Journalists Association
Native American broadcast and print journalists

Asian American Journalists Association
Asian American broadcast and print journalists

South Asian Journalists Association
South Asian broadcast and print journalists

National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association
Lesbian and gay broadcast and print journalists

Overseas Press Club
Overseas Press Club is an organization of foreign journalists

Intercollegiate Broadcasting System
Organization of over 1,000 college broadcasting stations

College Broadcasters Inc.
College broadcasters organization

Fair Media Council of Long Island
Until recently known as the Long Island Coalition for Fair Broadcasting, this group monitors media for fairness and presents annual Folio Awards to stations for excellence in fairness

Media Resources

staff | June 29th, 2010

Accu Radio.com

Advertising Age



All Access.com

American Journalism Review

Antenna Web

Ars Technica

Association For Downloadable Media

Association For Maximum Service Television

Association of Alternative Newsweeklies

Asia Media News Daily

Beta News


Black Press USA

Broadcast Engineering


Broadcasting & Cable

Broadcasting Law Blog

Cable FAX Daily

Cable In The Classroom

California First Amendment Coalition

Campaign For A Commercial-Free Childhood

Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission

Canadian Television Fund

Center For Asian American Media

Center For Media

Center For Creative Voices in Media

Center For Democracy And Technology

Center For Digital Democracy

Center For Digital Media Freedom

Center For Media Design

Center For Media And Public Affairs

Classical Webcast

Clear Channel HD Digital Radio

Colorado Media Matters

Columbia Journalism Review

Committee For A 2 Newspaper Town (Seattle)

Committee To Protect Journalists

Common Sense Media

Communications Daily

Community Broadcasters Association

Computer And Communications Industry Association

Computer History Museum

Consumer Coalition For Competition In Satellite Radio

Council For Research Excellence

David Sarnoff Library


Diversity Inc.

Editor & Publisher

Electronic Frontier Foundation

Fact Check.org

Fact Checker

Fairness And Accuracy In Reporting

Federal Communications Commission news releases

FCC – search AM channels/stations

FCC – search FM channels/stations
FCC – search TV channels/stations


Follow The Media

Free Press

FTV Live

Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD)

Grassroots Radio Coalition

Grassroots Use Of Technology

HDTV Magazine

Hispanic Association For Corporate Responsibility

Hollywood Reporter

Inside Music Media Blogspot

Inside Radio

International Radio Club of America

Internet Corporation For Assigned Names And Numbers

Internet News

Internet Society Of China

Jacobs Media


Library Of Congress Copyright Royalty Board

Lost Remote

Maynard Institute

Media Access Project

Media Alliance

Media And Democracy Coalition

Media Channel

Media Life

Media Matters

Media Post/Media Daily News

Media Rating Council

Media Week

Mentoring Women in Radio

Minority Media And Telecommunications Council


Morality In Media

Museum Of The Moving Image

MultiChannel News

National Black Programming Consortium

National Conference For Media Reform

National Newspaper Association

National Newspaper Publishers Association (Black Press)

National Radio Club

National Religious Broadcasters

Neighborhood Public Radio

News Talk Sports Aircheck

Networked Journalism Summit



News Voyager (daily newspapers)

Non-Stop Radio

Northeast Radio Watch

Ofcom.org (British regulator of broadcasting)

One Hundred Thousand Watts.com


Parents Television Council

PC World

Peter Jennings Project For Journalists And The Constitution

Pew Research Center

Prelinger Archives

Presstime – Newspaper Association Of America

Privacy International

Progress and Freedom Foundation

Project For Excellence In Journalism

Public Knowledge

Radio and Records

Radio Guide

Radio Business Report

Radio Equalizer

Radio Magazine

Radio Online

Radio World Online

Radio And Internet Newsletter

RCR Wireless

Reporters Committee For Freedom

Reporters Without Borders

Sacramento Media Group

Satellite Business News


Shorenstein Center and the Project for Excellence in Journalism

Slanted Screen

Small Market Radio Newsletter

Smart Television Alliance

Stop Big Media

Take Back The Media


Task Force On The Sexualization Of Girls

Tech Notes

Telecommunications News

Television Bureau Of Advertising

Television Quarterly

Think Progress

TV Business Confidential

TV Newsday

TV Newser

TV Technology

TV Week


UnitedChurch Of Christ Office Of Communication


Venture Beat


Women’s Media Center

World TV FM DX Association

Beeline TV (foreign TV)

Link TV (foreign TV)

TV Exe (foreign TV)

Broadcasting History Resources

staff | June 29th, 2010

Museum of Television and Radio
Official site of the Museum of Television and Radio in New York City and in Los Angeles, with detailed information about special presentations on television and radio history

Museum of Broadcast Communication
Official site of the Museum of Broadcast Communications in Chicago, with detailed information on presentations there and archives at the museum

Radio and Television Museum
Official site of the Radio and Television Museum of Bowie, Maryland, including information on materials available

Library of American Broadcasting
Site of the Library of American Broadcasting at the University of Maryland, including information on archives there

Center for the Study of Popular Television
Web site of Syracuse University research center includes information on the archives and collections there

American Museum of Radio
Site of the American Museum of Radio in Bellingham, Washington, including information on presentations there

Northeast Radio Airchecks
Archive of audio clips of historic radio broadcasts from radio stations throughout the northeast U.S. and eastern Canada

Commercial Closet
The world’s largest collection of gay-themed TV ads from 4 decades, with streaming video of the commercials

History of Canadian Broadcasting
Features histories of every single TV and radio station in Canada, and more

CBC Museum
Official site of the history of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, with archives and streaming video of historic news events and programming

History of British TV
History of television in the United Kingdom

Public Broadcasting Resources

staff | June 29th, 2010

Thirteen/WNET New York
The official site of Thirteen/WNET, America’s most-watched public television station, offering extensive information on programs, personalities, and streaming video clips of Thirteen and PBS shows

The official site of WLIW21, offering information on programming and the station’s operations

The official site of the Public Broadcasting Service, including information on PBS programs and podcasts of these programs

The official site of children’s programming on PBS, with detailed information on Barney, Curious George, Sesame Street, Mister Rogers, and the many other children’s shows on PBS

Corporation for Public Broadcasting
Funds local PBS and non-commercial stations

An independent site offering news and information about the latest developments in public broadcasting.

The official site of National Public Radio, with information on programs and personalities, podcasts of broadcasts and streaming audio

WNYC AM 820 and FM 93.9
The official sites of WNYC New York’s NPR station, offering information on WNYC programming, and more

WNYE 91.5 and Public Radio International
The official sites of WNYE-FM 91.5 and the PRI network

WBGO 88.3
The official site of jazz public radio station WBGO 88.3 with information on its programming and an archive of interviews with top American musicians and artists

WBAI 99.5 and Pacifica Radio
The official sites of WBAI 99.5 and Pacifica Radio, including program listings and Pacifica Radio’s history

Association of Public Television Stations
Official site of the organization of Public TV stations

Public Broadcasting Management Association
Site of Public Broadcasting Management Association

Integrated Media
Site covers latest developments in public television and radio

National Association of Educational Broadcasters

Preserving Digital Public Television
Site dedicated to a project to design an archive for long-term preservation of public television programs being produced in a “born-digital” environment.

Classical Music Stations

staff | June 28th, 2010

There are only about 35 all-classical music radio stations left in the United States. Such major cities as Detroit and Philadelphia no longer have classical stations.

In addition to the approximately 35 fulltime stations, there are other stations that offer classical music during certain periods of the day.

Here are the fulltime classical stations, all of which also stream their music on the Internet:

Classical Music Stations Streaming


KBAQ 89.5 Tucson


KUSC 91.5 Los Angeles

KMZT 105.1 HD2 Los Angeles

KXPR 88.9 Sacramento

KDFC 102.1 San Francisco

KDB 93.7 Santa Barbara


KVOD 88.1 Denver


WTMI 1290 Hartford

WMNR 88.1 Monroe and WGRS 91.5 Guilford


WETA-FM 90.9 Washington


WKCP 89.7 Miami


WFMT 98.7 Chicago


WUOL 90.5 Louisville


WBQI 99.3 Kennebunk


WGMS 89.1 Hagerstown


WFCC 107.5 Chatham

WCRB 99.5 Lowell/Boston


Classical Music America (Internet only)


WWFM 89.1 Trenton


WNED-FM 94.5 Buffalo

WQXR 96.3 New York

WRHV 88.7 Poughkeepsie

WXXI-FM 91.5 Rochester

WMHT-FM 89.1 Schenectady

WOXR 90.9 Schuyler Falls


WDAV 89.9 Davidson

WCPE 89.7 Wake Forest


WCLV 104.9 Cleveland

WOSU-FM 89.7 Columbus

WDPR 88.1 Dayton


KCSC 90.1 Edmond


KBPS 89.9 Portland


WQED-FM 89.3 Pittsburgh


WCRI 95.9 Block Island


WRR 101.1 Dallas


WNCH 88.1 Norwich and WVTQ 95.1 Sunderland (Vermont Public Radio)


KING 98.1 Seattle


This is an examination of the increasing concentration of control of the most important AM radio stations in the United States. Now the largest conglomerate owns 16 of the prime 58 high power AM stations in the United States, whereas in pre-consolidation days before the 1990s, the most owned was four stations.

Below is a complete list of clear channel AM stations in the U.S., Canada, Mexico and the Bahamas. There are 87 total, including 58 in the U.S., under international agreement, a treaty that took effect inn March 1941.

A clear channel station – not to be confused with the group station owner Clear Channel Communications – means that the station is almost always 50,000 watts and during hours of darkness has interference-free coverage for about 750 miles around its city of license. Other stations on the same frequency sign off at sunset or go directional to protect the huge service areas of the clear channel stations. The clear channel stations also have wide daytime coverage, sometimes extending 100 miles or more in many directions.

While FM stations sometimes have greater audience in some markets, clear channel stations are usually the top information and talk stations in their markets. They usually carry tremendous influence in their markets, and often are the top billing stations, even though the age of FM dominance spans more than a quarter century now.

Clear channel stations, once designated as Class I-A and I-B stations, are now designated as Class A AM stations. (There are other 50,000 watt stations but they are not clear channel stations, and are not protected from interference and have no recognized wide area coverage at night. Examples include WRKO 680 Boston, WEEI 850 Boston, WINS 1010 and WEPN 1050 New York, CKLW Windsor, Ontario, KTRH 740 Houston, and KCBS 740 San Francisco, among many others.)

In pre-consolidation days before the 1990s the highest number of clear channel AM stations owned was four: CBS owned WBBM 780, Chicago, WCBS 880 New York, KNX 1070 Los Angeles and KMOX 1120 Saint Louis. NBC owned three: WNBC 660 New York, WMAQ 670 Chicago and KNBR 680 San Francisco. ABC owned three: WABC 770 New York, KGO 810 San Francisco and WLS 890 Chicago.

Now the biggest owner is Clear Channel Communications, which took its name from WOAI 1200 San Antonio, which it acquired in 1975. Clear Channel Communications now has 16 of the 58 clear channel stations. (Clear Channel also had rights to programming and sales and marketing for another, in Tijuana, Mexico, XETRA 690, but in 2006 the FCC notified Clear Channel XETRA would be counted against its total of AM and FM stations in San Diego, so Clear Channel surrendered XETRA.) In all, Clear Channel owns 1,200 of the most powerful and influential AM and FM stations in the nation.

CBS is next with 13 stations.

Also included on this list below are the names of the station owners of stations before consolidation. Many of them were locally owned, and local owners tend to be more sensitive to the local community and its needs, rather than a corporate owner which is looking at the bottom line. A vivid example of this was in West Virginia three years ago. In March 2004 the Daily Mail of Charleston WV reported Clear Channel planned to remove WWVA 1170 from Wheeling, and move it to the Akron/Cleveland market to greatly increase its value, depriving West Virginia of its only 50,000 watt clear channel AM station. The plan was quietly dropped.

When WTIC 1080 Hartford was locally owned by Travelers Insurance, Travelers said it wanted the station to act like a mirror reflecting the community in the region, and WTIC’s service was legend.

Though with deregulation, one company can own up to eight stations in a market, Clear Channel and other companies are seeking an even higher limit. In May 2005 Clear Channel was reported in Inside Media as saying it wished to increase the total number of stations it would own in a single market from up to 8, to 12. A Clear Channel executive said that if satellite radio companies have 50 music channels, Clear Channel deserves to have more local broadcast stations in each market. The FCC is now considering whether to relax the rules on how many radio and TV stations a company can own, and whether to allow further consolidation.

There has also been a relaxation of the ownership rules for TV, and in New York, Fox now owns two of the six VHF television stations, WNYW channel 5 and WWOR channel 9, as well as the daily New York Post and it is now seeking a stake in the giant Long Island daily Newsday.

With consolidation, there has also been a replacement of local programs on AM radio, with nationally syndicated political talk shows, such as Rush Limbaugh, a show owned by Clear Channel Communications. (Clear Channel also owns the Glenn Beck and Dr. Laura Schlesinger shows.)

Here are the tallies for clear channel stations owned by the big conglomerates and station groups:

Clear Channel Communications: 17

CBS: 13

Citadel: 9

Bonneville (Mormon Church): 3

ABC: 2

Buckley: 2

Entercom 2

Bahakel: 1

Bloomberg: 1

Cox: 1

Cumulus: 1

Fisher: 1

Gaylord: 1

Hearst: 1

Hubbard: 1

Jefferson Pilot: 1

Journal: 1

Tribune: 1

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (government-owned public broadcasting system) owns 6 in Canada.

Here are the 87 clear channel stations in the U.S., Canada, Mexico and the Bahamas: For web sites, just click on each set of call letters. (Shapes of night patterns for stations that are directional are shown. Patterns for non-directional stations – which would be a simple circle – are not shown.)

540 CBK

CBK Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada CBC

540 XEWA San Luis Potosi, Mexico

640 KFI

KFI Los Angeles, CLEAR CHANNEL, Talk

640 CBN

CBN Saint Johns, Newfoundland, CBC

650 WSM

WSM Nashville, GAYLORD, Country Music

660 WFAN

WFAN New York, CBS, Sports

670 WSCR

WSCR Chicago, CBS, Sports

680 KNBR

KNBR San Francisco, CUMULUS, Sports


XETRA Tijuana

690 CINF

Directional Antenna – Shape Of XETRA Night Pattern)

CINF Verdun/Montreal, News (French)

Directional Antenna – Shape Of CINF Night Pattern)

700 WLW

WLW Cincinnati, CLEAR CHANNEL, News/Talk

710 WOR

WOR New York, BUCKLEY, Talk

Directional Antenna – Shape Of WOR Night Pattern)

710 KIRO

KIRO Seattle, BONNEVILLE, News/Talk

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of KIRO Night Pattern)


WGN Chicago, TRIBUNE, Talk

730 XEX

XEX Mexico City, Sports (Spanish)

740 CFZM

CFZM Toronto, MOSES ZNAIMER, Standards Music

750 WSB

WSB Atlanta, COX, Talk

760 WJR

WJR Detroit, CITADEL, Talk

770 WABC

WABC New York, CITADEL, Talk

780 WBBM

WBBM Chicago, CBS, News


XEROK Juarez, Mexico

810 WGY

WGY Schenectady, CLEAR CHANNEL, Talk

810 KGO

KGO San Francisco, CITADEL, Talk

Directional Antenna – Shape Of KGO Night And Day Pattern

820 WBAP

WBAP Fort Worth/Dallas, CITADEL, Talk

830 WCCO

WCCO Minneapolis, CBS, News/Talk

840 WHAS

WHAS Louisville, CLEAR CHANNEL, News/Talk

850 KOA

KOA Denver, CLEAR CHANNEL, News/Talk

850 XETQ

XETQ Orizaba, Mexico (Spanish)

<a href=http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/MB/Databases/AM_DA_patterns/308578-32345.pdf< Directional Antenna At Night – Shape of XETQ Night Pattern

860 CJBC

CJBC Toronto, CBC (French)

870 WWL

WWL New Orleans, ENTERCOM, News/Talk

Directional Antenna – Shape Of WWL Night and Day Pattern

880 WCBS

WCBS New York, CBS, News

890 WLS

WLS Chicago, CITADEL, Talk

900 XEW

XEW Mexico City (Spanish)

940 CINW

CINW Montreal, Rock oldies

940 XEQ

Directional Antenna – Shape Of CINW Night Pattern

XEQ Mexico City (Spanish)

990 CBW

CBW Winnipeg, CBC

1000 WMVP

WMVP Chicago, ABC, Sports

Directional Antenna – Shape Of WMVP Night Pattern)

1000 komo

KOMO Seattle, FISHER, News

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of KOMO Night Pattern

1000 XEOY

XEOY Mexico City (Spanish)

1010 CBR

CBR Calgary, Alberta, CBC

Directional Antenna Night And Day

1020 KDKA

KDKA Pittsburgh, CBS, News/Talk

1030 WBZ

WBZ Boston, CBS, News/Talk

Directional Antenna – Shape Of WBZ Night And Day Pattern

1040 WHO


1050 XEG

XEG Monterey, Mexico (Spanish)

1060 KYW

KYW Philadelphia, CBS, News

Directional Antenna – Shape Of KYW
Night And Day Pattern)

1060 XEEP

XEEP Mexico City, Radio Education (Spanish)

1070 KNX

KNX Los Angeles, CBS, News

1070 CBA

CBA Moncton, New Brunswick, CBC

1080 WTIC

WTIC Hartford, CBS, Talk

Directional Antenna Starting at Sunset in Dallas, Texas – Shape Of WTIC Night Pattern)

1080 KRLD

KRLD Dallas, CBS, News/Talk

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of KRLD Night Pattern

1090 WBAL

WBAL Baltimore, HEARST, News/Talk

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of WBAL Night Pattern

1090 KAAY

KAAY Little Rock, CITADEL, Religion

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of KAAY Night Pattern)

1090 XEPRS

XEPRS Tijuana, Sports

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of XEPRS Night Pattern

1100 WTAM


1110 WBT

WBT Charlotte, JEFFERSON PILOT, News/Talk

Directional Pattern At Night – Shape Of WBT Night Pattern

1110 KFAB


Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of KFAB Night Pattern

1120 KMOX

KMOX Saint Louis, CBS, News/Talk

1130 WBBR

WBBR New York, BLOOMBERG, Business News

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of WBBR Night Pattern

1130 KWKH

KWKH Shreveport, Louisiana, CLEAR CHANNEL, Country and Western music

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of KWKH Night Pattern

1130 CKWX

CKWX Vancouver, British Columbia, News

Directional Antenna – Shape Of CKWX Pattern At Night

1140 WRVA

WRVA Richmond, Virginia, CLEAR CHANNEL, News/Talk

Directional – Shape of Night And Day WRVA Pattern

1140 XEMR

XEMR Monterey, Mexico (Spanish)

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape of XEMR Night Pattern

1160 KSL

KSL Salt Lake City BONNEVILLE, News/Talk

1170 WWVA

WWVA Wheeling, West Virginia, CLEAR CHANNEL, Talk; Religion Evenings

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of WWVA Night Pattern)

1170 KFAQ

KFAQ Tulsa, Oklahoma, JOURNAL, Talk

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of KFAQ Night Pattern

1180 WHAM

WHAM Rochester, New York, CLEAR CHANNEL

1190 KEX

KEX Portland, Oregon, CLEAR CHANNEL, News/Talk

Directional At Night – Shape Of KEX Night Pattern

1190 XEWK

XEWK Guadalajara, Mexico (Spanish)

1200 WOAI

WOAI San Antonio, CLEAR CHANNEL, News/Talk

1210 WPHT

WPHT Philadelphia, CBS, Talk

1220 XEB

XEB Mexico City, Nostalgia music (Spanish)

1500 WFED

WFED Washington, BONNEVILLE, Federal news

Directional Antenna – Shape Of WFED Night Pattern

1500 KSTP

KSTP Saint Paul, HUBBARD, Talk

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape of KSTP Night Pattern

1510 WLAC

WLAC Nashville, CLEAR CHANNEL, News/Talk

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of WLAC Night Pattern

1510 KGA

KGA Spokane, Washington, CITADEL, Sports

Directional Antenna – Shape Of KGA Night Pattern

1520 WWKB

WWKB Buffalo, ENTERCOM, Progressive talk

Directional Antenna – Shape Of WWKB Night And Day Pattern

1520 KOKC

KOKC Oklahoma City, RENDA, Talk

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of KOKC Night Pattern

1530 WCKY

WCKY Cincinnati, CLEAR CHANNEL, Sports

Directional Antenna Starting At Sunset In Sacramento When WCKY Switches To Night Directional Pattern – Shape Of WCKY Night Pattern

1530 KFBK

KFBK Sacramento, CLEAR CHANNEL, News/Talk

Directional Antenna – Shape of KFBK Night Pattern

1540 KXEL

KXEL Waterloo, Iowa BAHAKEL, News/Talk

Directional Antenna At Night – Shape Of KXEL Night Pattern

1540 ZNS-1

ZNS-1 Nassau, the Bahamas, News/Talk

Directional Antenna – Shape Of ZNS-1 Night And Day Pattern

1550 CBE

CBE Windsor, Ontario, CBC

Directional Antenna – Shape Of CBE Night And Day Pattern

1550 XERUV

XERUV Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, Educational (Spanish)

1560 WQEW

WQEW New York, ABC, Radio Disney (children’s format)

Directional Antenna – Does Not Change To Night Directional Pattern Until Sunset At Bakersfield – Shape Of WQEW Night Pattern

1560 KNZR

KNZR Bakersfield, BUCKLEY, News/Talk

Directional At Night – Shape Of KNZR Night Pattern

1570 XERF

XERF Ciudad Acuna, Coahuila, Mexico (Spanish)

1580 CKDO

CKDO Oshawa, Ontario, Rock oldies

Directional Antenna – Shape Of CKDO Night Pattern

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