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Nature (Season 31) – What Plants Talk About
Air date: 04/03/2013

THIRTEEN’s Nature Eavesdrops on What Plants Talk About Airing April 3, 2013 on PBS

 

Discoveries reveal that plants may be more intelligent and more like us than we ever imagined

 

When we think about plants, we don’t often associate a term like “behavior” with them, but experimental plant ecologist JC Cahill is trying to correct that perception. The University of Alberta professor maintains that plants do behave and lead anything but solitary and sedentary lives. He builds the case that plants eavesdrop on each other, talk to their enemies, call in insect allies to fight those enemies, recognize their relatives, and nurture their young.

We may never look at flowers, seedlings or trees in the same way again when Nature shatters the myth of a passive plant world and uncovers their real secret realm in What Plants Talk About airing Wednesday, April 3, 2013 at 8 p.m. on PBS (check local listings). After the broadcast, the program will stream at pbs.org/nature.

Plants have been counted and classified, yet we still know very little about them. Incredibly diverse, they are among the world’s oldest and most successful organisms. We have depended on

them for life’s necessities from food, clothing, and shelter to life-saving medicine, but who knew that plants are so busy, responsive, and complex. “They’re actively engaging with the environment in which they live,” Cahill insists. “They actively communicate. They actively respond to the nutrients, and the predators, and the herbivores that are around them. It’s a really dynamic system.”

To prove his point, Cahill demonstrates not only his own work in What Plants Talk About, but joins several of his scientific colleagues to document how their experiments and findings support the new discoveries in plant behavior.

Take the case of the wild tobacco plant in the Utah desert which has to invent a different response to being attacked depending on which part of the plant is under siege. Ian Baldwin, of the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, discovered that as soon as an herbivore attacks, the wild tobacco plant deploys a toxin, nicotine, that poisons some bugs, but not others. So when an unaffected hornworm caterpillar starts to chew on its leaves, the plant’s got another move up its stalk: releasing an SOS-chemical message alerting the caterpillar’s enemies that it needs help. When these signals are emitted, other plants can eavesdrop on the wild tobacco plant’s chemical calls for assistance and ramp up their own defenses.  These are just a few of the many tactics this one plant employs for survival.

Cahill documents the behavior of plant roots through the use of time-lapse photography, and high-tech cameras. He demonstrates that the growth rate of a root suddenly increases as it homes in on a nutrient patch, but once it finds food, it abruptly slows down and eats its fill. It’s a behavior more animal-like than we might imagine.

What Plants Talk About also highlights the work of Suzanne Simard, professor of Forest Ecology at the University of British Columbia, which is changing the way we think about how majestic Douglas fir trees relate to each other and to other organisms in the temperate rain forests. Simard has found that the forest operates as a resource-sharing community. Douglas fir trees provide carbon-based food, for example, to young fir seedlings and to fungi through massive underground fungal networks, and the fungi, in turn, supply the trees with nutrients. They are not competing for food and light, but rather providing for one another.

So plants may not have eyes, ears or a brain, but they find food, nurture their young, communicate with their friends and foes, recognize their kin and even wage war. How they do it is still a mystery, but it would seem that plants are smarter than we ever thought.

Nature is a production of THIRTEEN in association with WNET for PBS.  For Nature, Fred Kaufman is executive producer. What Plants Talk About is a Merit Motion Pictures Production.

Nature pioneered a television genre that is now widely emulated in the broadcast industry.  Throughout its history, Nature has brought the natural world to millions of viewers.  The series has been consistently among the most-watched primetime series on public television.

Nature has won almost 700 honors from the television industry, the international wildlife film communities, and environmental organizations, including 11 Emmys, three Peabodys and the first award given to a television program by the Sierra Club.  The series received two of the wildlife film industry’s highest honors: the Christopher Parsons Outstanding Achievement Award given by the Wildscreen Festival and the Grand Teton Award given by the Jackson Hole Wildlife Film Festival.  Recently, Nature’s executive producer, Fred Kaufman, received the Lifetime Achievement Award for Media by the 2012 International Wildlife Film Festival.

PBS.org/nature is the award-winning web companion to Nature featuring streaming episodes, filmmaker interviews, teacher’s guides, and more.

Major corporate support for the original public television broadcast of this NATURE program was provided by Canon U.S.A., Inc.  Additional support was provided by the Arnhold Family in memory of Clarisse Arnhold, the Lillian Goldman Charitable Trust, the Arlene and Milton D. Berkman Philanthropic Fund, the Filomen M. D’Agostino Foundation, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and by the nation’s public television stations.

 

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About WNET
In 2013, WNET is celebrating the 50th Anniversary of THIRTEEN, New York’s flagship public media provider. As the parent company of THIRTEEN and WLIW21 and operator of NJTV, WNET brings quality arts, education and public affairs programming to over 5 million viewers each week. WNET produces and presents such acclaimed PBS series as Nature, Great Performances, American Masters, Need to Know, Charlie Rose and a range of documentaries, children’s programs, and local news and cultural offerings available on air and online. Pioneers in educational programming, WNET has created such groundbreaking series as Get the Math, Oh Noah! and Cyberchase and provides tools for educators that bring compelling content to life in the classroom and at home. WNET highlights the tri-state’s unique culture and diverse communities through NYC-ARTS, Reel 13, NJ Today and MetroFocus, the multi-platform news magazine focusing on the New York region.

 

 

Photos
For editorial use in North America only in conjunction with the direct publicity or promotion of NATURE. No other rights are granted. All rights reserved. Downloading this image constitutes agreement to these terms.
Nature: What Plants Talk About

A beautiful, but deadly foreign invader, knapweed wreaks havoc with grazing land in Montana, choking out native grasses and plants. Photo credit: Plant Films Inc.

Nature: What Plants Talk About

Dr. James Cahill and graduate student, Pamela Belter, use a camera on a stick to photograph root growth in a nutrient experiment at the University of Alberta. Photo credit: Plant Films Inc.

Nature: What Plants Talk About

Dr. Suzanne Simard, University of British Columbia, and graduate student, Marcus Bingham, inject radioactive materials into plastic bag surrounding a branch of a Douglas fir as part of an experiment to determine if the ‘mother’ tree shares nutrients to seedlings via its root system. Photo Credit: Ian Kerr, CSC

Nature: What Plants Talk About

Dr. Suzanne Simard, University of British Columbia and graduate student, Marcus Bingham, use Geiger counter to determine if radioactive materials representing nutrients were shared though the root system from the Douglas fir ‘mother’ tree to other nearby vegetation. Photo Credit: Ian Kerr, CSC

Nature: What Plants Talk About

Dr. Suzanne Simard, University of British Columbia, looks up at a huge Douglas fir tree, some of which can be 120 metres tall, on the Sunshine Coast of British Columbia. Photo Credit: Ian Kerr, CSC

Nature: What Plants Talk About

Dr. Suzanne Simard, Univerisity of British Columbia walks along a stream bed on the forest floor of the Sunshine Coast of British Columbia. Photo Credit: Ian Kerr, CSC

Nature: What Plants Talk About

Sun and mist stream through a stand of Douglas fir on the Sunshine Coast of British Columbia. Photo Credit: Ian Kerr, CSC

Nature: What Plants Talk About

A multitude of plants from various species co-exist in harmony in a cultivated garden in Winnipeg, Manitoba Photo credit: Plant Films Inc.

Nature: What Plants Talk About

Dr. Ian Baldwin, Director of the Max Planck Research Institute, tags research specimens of the tobacco plant at the Lytle Ranch Preserve, in the Utah desert Photo credit: Plant Films Inc.